Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 12/22 今日の出來事


0069/1222:Aulus Vitellius Germanicus 001569、崩去(殺害)

Emperor Vitellius is captured and murdered at the Gemonian stairs in Rome.

Imperatore dell'Impero Romano (grado: 16 aprile - 22 dicembre 69). Il terzo imperatore nel "Quattro Imperatori" e il periodo di permanenza è di circa un anno.

He was the emperor who was carried as a convenient presence to the Germania corps.
He sent daily lavish days, liked watching at the Coliseum, and he was a big eater spent a huge government expenses on a luxurious meal.

0069、On the entrance of Vespasian's troops into Rome he was dragged out of a hiding-place (according to Tacitus a door-keeper's lodge), driven to the fatal Gemonian stairs, and there struck down. "Yet I was once your emperor," were his last words. His body was thrown into the Tiber according to Suetonius; Cassius Dio's account is that Vitellius was beheaded and his head paraded around Rome, and his wife attended to his burial. His brother and son were also killed.

Muhammad claims to receive his first revelation.

Revelation:Waḥy (Arabic: وحي, IPA: [waħj]; also spelled wahi) is the Arabic word for revelation. In Islamic belief, revelations are God's Word delivered by his chosen individuals – known as Messenger prophets – to mankind. In Islam, the Quran is considered a wahy given to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. The word awha (أوحى awḥá) occurs in a number of shades of meaning in the Quran, each of them indicating the main underlying idea of directing or guiding someone. The word "wahy" (revelation) is derived from awha.


0856/1222:ペルシアで「Damghan earthquake」
An earthquake near the Persian city of Damghan kills an estimated 200,000 people, the sixth deadliest earthquake in recorded history.




Luoyang 洛陽, eastern capital of the Tang dynasty, is captured by rebel leader Huang Chao 黄巣 during the reign of Emperor Xizong 僖宗.


Stephen of Blois becomes King of England


A contemporary depiction of Stephen's family tree, 
with his mother Adela, left to right, William, Theobald and Stephen



Pope Honorius III approves the Dominican Order through the papal bull of confirmation Religiosam vitam.


The Hospitallers of Rhodes surrender to the Ottoman besiegers under the condition of free withdrawal from the island



Kuroda Yoshitaka, also known as Kuroda Kanbei (黒田 官兵衛), was a Japanese daimyō of the late Sengoku 戰國 through early Edo 江戸 periods.
Renowned as a man of great ambition, he was a chief strategist and adviser to Toyotomi Hideyoshi 豊臣秀吉153798.
Kuroda became a Christian 切支丹 when he was 38, and received "Simeon Josui" as a baptismal name (rekishijin).
 His quick wit, bravery, and loyalty were respected by his warriors.

1572/1222:François Clouet 151072、誕生

「フランソワ クルエ」artiste-peintre de portraits, dessinateur.

Diane de Poitiers 149966 1571年


Ahmed I takes over after the death of his father Mehmed III for the first time a minor sultan took power in the Ottoman Empire.




1639/1222:Jean Racine 163999、誕生

un dramaturge et poète français. Consacré par la critique comme l'un des plus grands auteurs français de tragédies, il est l'un des trois grands dramaturges, avec Molière et Corneille, de la période classique en France.


The Canary Islands, especially Fuerteventura, are devastated by a hurricane.


Séance inaugurale de l'Académie des sciences française.

Jean-Baptiste Colbert réunit pour la première fois un petit groupe d'érudits dans la bibliothèque du roi de France Louis XIV, qui se réunit désormais pour des séances de travail de deux semaines. De ces rencontres informelles, l'Académie des sciences se développe.



「Itou SouKan」日本の江戸時代の將棋棋士
二世名人大橋宗古 (二代)の娘婿となり、その計らひで、新家元「伊藤」家を興す(寛永12年)。是時、宗看十八歳。


Karl VI wird in Frankfurt zum römisch-deutschen Kaiser gekrönt.



1755/1222:Georges Couthon、誕生

「ジョルジュ クトン」フランス革命ジャコバン派の鬪士で「もう一人のロビスピエル」と徒名された。
un avocat, homme politique et révolutionnaire français,
Connu comme le chef de l'école jacobine (faction montagnarde), il était appelé "la deuxième âme de Robespierre".

Le 11 décembre 1786, il se joint au Saint Morris Lodge de Clermont et devient membre de la franc-maçonnerie.
Au début de la Révolution française, il annonça "L'Aristocrate converti" en tant que membre du gouvernement local de Clermont. Parmi eux, il s'est fait un libéraliste et une figure de premier plan dans la monarchie constitutionnelle.
Il devint le président du tribunal de Clermont en 1791 et fut élu représentant du parlement législatif en septembre de la même année. Comme de nombreux législateurs républicains, après la fuite de la famille King, son argumentation devint extrême et l'hostilité à l'égard de la famille Bourbon fut révélée.


「Takahashi Yoshitoki」was the Astronomer in the late Edo period.
He was appointed to the astronomy and played a central role with Hazama Shigetomi 間重富175616 during the revised calendar Kansei 寛政暦.
Also known as a teacher of Inou Tada高 伊能忠敬174518 .


Sino-Burmese War: The war ends with an uneasy truce.



Nguyễn Huệ proclaims himself Emperor Quang Trung, in effect abolishing on his own the Lê dynasty.

黎朝(ベトナム語: Nhà Lê / 家黎、1428~1527、1532~1789)は、黎利(レ ロイ、Lê Lợi)が建國したベトナムの王朝




décret de la division de la France en départements.


General Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov conquers with his Russian troops in the Russian-Turkish War, the strong fortress of Ismail the Ottoman Empire in later Bessarabia.



Le capitaine d'artillerie Napoléon Bonaparte, impliqué dans la reconquête de la ville de Toulon occupée par les Anglais, est promu brigadier général.


1807/1222:USA、ジェファソン大統領「Embargo Act」
, forbidding trade with all foreign countries, is passed by the U.S. Congress, at the urging of President Thomas Jefferson.

The US prohibits trade with all foreign countries in the Embargo Act and closes the ports. Background is the continental barrier in Europe, which is connected with the risk of confiscation of shipments by Britain or France.

Embargo Act of 1807(通稱禁止法)は、1807年にアメリカ合衆国で成立した法律であり、ナポレオン戦争を戦っているイギリスとフランスに対抗してアメリカ合衆国の貿易を禁止したものだった。


Im Rahmen eines vierstündigen Konzerts am Theater an der Wien bei Wien erfolgt unter anderem die Uraufführung der 5. Sinfonie und 6. Sinfonie (Pastorale) sowie der Fantasie für Klavier, Chor und Orchester und des 4. Klavierkonzerts von Ludwig van Beethoven.
Die Aufführung, bei der der Komponist am Klavier sitzt, verläuft unerfreulich, da die Musiker des Orchesters nicht ausreichend geprobt haben und das Theater unbeheizt ist.

Ludwig van Beethoven conducts and performs in concert at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, with the premiere of his Fifth Symphony, Sixth Symphony, Fourth Piano Concerto (performed by Beethoven himself) and Choral Fantasy (with Beethoven at the piano).

1809/1222:USA、Embargo Act、つづき
The US Congress loosens the Embargo Act because of undesirable effects and limits the trade ban only to Great Britain and France.


1828/1222:William Hyde Wollaston 176628、死去

「ヲラストン」an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering the chemical elements palladium and rhodium. He also developed a way to process platinum ore into malleable ingots.

He discovered "rhodium" "palladium" in 1803. In 1802, I discovered that there is a dark line (Fraunhofer Line) which can be absorbed by elements of the sun in the spectrum of sunlight. He also developed a purification method for platinum.

1829/1222(文政12/1127):四代目 鶴屋南北175529、死去

Tsuruya Namboku IV est un dramaturge japonais du théâtre kabuki.

His drama style, which added poisonous laughter among the abandonment and horrors, reflected the urbanized city culture of the era of culture and civilization.

1831/1222:François Huber 175031、死去

「フランソワ ユベル」Il est, avec Swammerdam, Réaumur et John Hunter, l'un des premiers observateurs scientifiques des abeilles.

Although he was blind, he carried out detailed research on bees with the help of the assistant. His achievements are later translated into English and still retain value as bee ecological records.
{かういふ人を推理小説の名探偵(Armchair Detective)にしたらいいと思ふ。

During the First Sikh War, the Battle of Ferozeshah ends with a victory for the British.


Un pardon par le tsar Nicolas Ier sauve l'écrivain russe Fiodor Dostoïevski avant l'apparition du peloton de tir.

Помилование царя Николая I спасает русского писателя Федора Достоевского до начала съемок пелотона.
Fyodor Dostoyevsky 182181、死刑執行直前に皇帝の特赦(やらせ)が与へられ、シベリア流刑に減刑になる。


Ōtsuki Fumihiko est un lexicographe, linguiste et historien japonais.
Il est surtout connu pour deux dictionnaires en japonais qu'il a édités, Genkai (言海, littéralement « mer de mots, » 1891) et sa suite Daigenkai (言海, littéralement « grande mer de mots, » 1932 - 1937), et pour ses études de la grammaire japonaise.

India's first freight train is operated in Roorkee, India.



Takamine Jōkichi was a Japanese chemist.
graduated from the Tokyo Imperial University in 1879, he did postgraduate work at University of Glasgow and Anderson College in Scotland. He returned to Japan in 1883 and joined the division of chemistry at the newly established Department of Agriculture and Commerce.
He was dispatched as a clerk to the Universal Industry Expo in New Orleans, USA in 1884, and engaged with Caroline Hitch, where he met. I also met Lafcadio Hearn who came in the interview of the exposition.
He learned English as a child from a Dutch family in Nagasaki and so always spoke English with a Dutch accent
He invented "Taka Giastase" "Adrenalie" and built a huge wealth in the United States

The world's first mountaineering association is founded in London with the Alpine Club.
It was not until 1974 that the association also included alpinists in its ranks.


1858/1222:Gicomo Puccini 185824、誕生

Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini è stato un compositore italiano, considerato uno dei massimi operisti della storia.

1858/1222:初代 快楽亭ブラック 185823、誕生

Henry James Black was a kabuki actor and Japan's first foreign-born rakugoka 落語家, or public storyteller, performing under the name Kairakutei Black I (初代 快楽亭 ブラック Shodai Kairakutei Burakku). He was also known by the name Black Ishii (石井 貎刺屈 Ishii Buratsuku).

Black worked as an English teacher for about ten years, even publishing a textbook during that time. He had picked up Japanese in part by hanging round his father’s publishing company, and began appearing on stage telling entertaining stories about famous European historical figures. His audience was astounded to see a foreigner not only fluent in Japanese but also fluent enough to make them laugh.

1876/1222:Filippo Marinetti187644、誕生

, écrivain italien. イタリア未來主義


「주시경」Ju Si-gyeong was one of the founders of modern Korean linguistics. He was born in Bongsan County (Hangul: 봉산군鳳山郡), Hwanghae Province. He and his students helped standardize the Korean language, based spelling and grammar of the vernacular.

1880/1222:George Eliot 181980、死去

Mary Anne Evans , known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
She is the author of seven novels, including Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Middlemarch (1871–72), and Daniel Deronda (1876), most of which are set in provincial England and known for their realism and psychological insight.

1883/1222:Edgard Varese 188365、誕生

un compositeur français naturalisé américain,
Formé, dans un premier temps, à la Schola Cantorum et au Conservatoire, Varèse trouve auprès d'artistes plus indépendants, comme Debussy et Busoni, les encouragements nécessaires pour son expression personnelle.
Il a créé un nouvel espace acoustique clairement différent de la musique précédente, comme l'utilisation de nombreux instruments de percussion et l'utilisation d'instruments électroniques, qui ont grandement influencé les compositeurs contemporains.


Itō Hirobumi abolishes the Dajokan 太政官 as a determining organ of the Japanese state and established instead(influenced by ideas that he met while studying in Berlin and Vienna)a Cabinet of Ministers, whose first Prime Minister he will.

1887/1222:Srinivasa Ramanujan 188720、誕生

an Indian mathematician who lived during the British Rule in India.
Though he had almost no formal training in pure mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions, including solutions to mathematical problems considered to be unsolvable. Ramanujan initially developed his own mathematical research in isolation; it was quickly recognized by Indian mathematicians.
Seeking mathematicians who could better understand his work, in 1913 he began a postal partnership with the English mathematician G. H. Hardy at the University of Cambridge, England.

1890/1222:カナダ「Cornwallis Valley Railway」
 begins operation between Kentville and Kingsport, Nova Scotia.


1891/1222:天文「Asteroid 323 Brucia」写真撮影により発見
 becomes the first asteroid discovered using photography.

Max Wolf, ein Begründer der Astrofotografie, findet als erster Astronom einen Kleinplaneten mit fotografischen Methoden.




Un tribunal militaire français condamne le capitaine d'artillerie juif Alfred Dreyfus pour espionnage sur l'île du Diable. Le verdict antisémite déclenche l'affaire Dreyfus des années plus tard.

The Dreyfus affair begins in France, when Alfred Dreyfus is wrongly convicted of treason.

Avec l'œuvre orchestrale Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune de Claude Debussy, la première œuvre importante de l'impressionnisme musical est créée à Paris.


The United States Golf Association is launched.


1902/1222:Richard von Krafft-Ebing 184002、死去

ein deutsch-österreichischer Psychiater und Neurologe sowie Rechtsmediziner.

He published the famous "Psychopathia Sexualis" as a research book on sexual perversion in 1886. He also coined "sadism".
From the name of the contemporary writer, Leopold von Sacher-Mazocho, he coined the term "masochism".



1905/1222:Japan & China


1908/1222:Giacomo Manzù 190891、誕生

uno scultore italiano.



A judoist in the Meiji era. Kodokan One of the four heavenly kings. A model of Tomita Tsuneo 's novel 「Sugata Sanshirou 姿三四郎


In Khabarovsk the armistice in the Soviet-Chinese border war is agreed upon by the German government.


1936/1222:Nikolái Ostrovski 190436、死去

(Russian: Николай Алексеевич Островский; Ukrainian: Микола Олексійович Островський;
a Soviet socialist realist writer, of Ukrainian origin. He is best known for his novel How the Steel Was Tempered.


1937/1222:USA「Lincoln Tunnel」
The Lincoln Tunnel between Manhattan and New Jersey will be opened to traffic.



It is confirmed that the coelacanth that was thought to have been extinct lives in the offing of the Kalmna River in South Africa

Ornithologist Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer discovers the first living coelacanth, a fish that scientists thought had been extinct for millions of years.






Indian Muslims observe a "Day of Deliverance" to celebrate the resignations of members of the Indian National Congress over their not having been consulted over the decision to enter World War II with the United Kingdom.


The Soviet test pilot Pyotr Mikhailovich Stefanovsky tests the bomber Petlyakov Pe-2 on his first flight.




1942/1222:Franz Boas 185842、死去

a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".
His work is associated with the movement of anthropological historicism.





1942/1222:WWⅡ ドイツナチ
Adolf Hitler signs the order to develop the V-2 rocket as a weapon.



Harro Schulze-Boysen, Hans Coppi, Arvid Harnack, Libertas Schulze-Boysen, Kurt Schumacher und andere Mitglieder der Widerstandsgruppe Rote Kapelle werden in Berlin-Plötzensee hingerichtet.

Harro Schulze-Boysen, Hans Coppi, Arvid Harnack, Libertas Schulze-Boysen, Kurt Schumacher and other members of the resistance group Rote Kapelle are executed in Berlin-Plötzensee.

The Red Orchestra (German: Die Rote Kapelle) was the name given by the Gestapo to an anti-Nazi resistance movement in Berlin, as well as to Soviet espionage rings operating in German-occupied Europe and Switzerland during World War II.


1943/1222:Helen Beatrix Potter 186643、死去

an English writer, illustrator, natural scientist, and conservationist best known for her children's books featuring animals, such as those in The Tale of Peter Rabbit.



1944/1222:WWⅡ「Battle of the Bulge
 German troops demand the surrender of United States troops at Bastogne, Belgium, prompting the famous one word reply by General Anthony McAuliffe: "Nuts!"


1944/1222:WWⅡ ベトナム
The Vietnam People's Army is formed to resist Japanese occupation of Indochina, now Vietnam.


1945/1222:Otto Neurath 188245、死去

an Austrian philosopher, philosopher of science, sociologist, and political economist.
Before he fled his native country in 1934, Neurath was one of the leading figures of the Vienna Circle.

≫ 我々は、乗船中の船を大海原で修繕しなければならない船員のやうなものだ。一から組み直すことなどできるはずものなく、梁の交換は間髪入れずおこなはなければならない。そのためには船体の残りの部分を利用するしかない。そういう具合に、古い梁や流木を使って船体すべてを新しく作り上げることはできるものの、その作業は徐々にしかおこなへない。

The Beechcraft Bonanza, produced as a business jet, completes the first flight.





Sjafruddin Prawiranegara established the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Pemerintah Darurat Republik Indonesia, PDRI) in West Sumatra.


The Selangor Labour Party is founded in Selangor, Malaya.



Un dramaturge au Japon.
Il était également connu pour la traduction de Camus et Musse, l'étude de Girodo et la critique de théâtre. Avec Akutagawa Hiroshi , Mishima Yukio, Yashiro et d'autres, il a également travaillé en tant que coterie du mouvement littéraire tridimensionnel "Kuni no Kai" commencé par Kishida Koshi , mais s'est suicidé à la maison





The cruise ship Lakonia burns 180 miles (290 km) north of Madeira, Portugal with the loss of 128 lives.


The first test flight of the SR-71 (Blackbird) took place at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, California.




The film Doctor Zhivago by David Lean and Carlo Ponti premieres in New York City.


Cultural Revolution: People's Daily posted the instructions of Mao Zedong that "The intellectual youth must go to the country, and will be educated from living in rural poverty."


1969/1222:Josef von Sternberg 189469、死去

an Austrian-American film director.
Hollywood to Berlin in 1930 to make Germany's first feature-length full-talkie, Der blaue Engel (The Blue Angel), a coproduction between Paramount in the US and UFA in Germany, with Jannings and an unknown revue-artist, Marlene Dietrich. His encouragement of the latter's performances helped to create the Dietrich legend in the six additional films they made together in Hollywood. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for two of these, Morocco (1930) and Shanghai Express (1932).






The house of former British Prime Minister Edward Heath is attacked by members of the Provisional IRA.


The pivotal Third Plenum of the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is held in Beijing, with Deng Xiaoping reversing Mao-era policies to pursue a program for Chinese economic reform.


1980/1222:Karl Dönitz 189180、死去

ein deutscher Marineoffizier (ab Januar 1943 Großadmiral), Nationalsozialist, NSDAP-Mitglied, enger Gefolgsmann Adolf Hitlers und nach dessen Willen unter dem Titel des Reichspräsidenten letztes Staatsoberhaupt des Deutschen Reichs.





1985/1222:Ignace Jay Gelb 190785、死去

a Polish-American ancient historian and Assyriologist who pioneered the scientific study of writing systems.
Prior to Gelb research on literature by linguists has been accumulated for centuries, but Gerb is believed to be the first to scientifically study the character. He was the first to call on character research with the term grammatology.

In Zimbabwe, the political parties ZANU and ZAPU reach an agreement that ends the violence in the Matabeleland region known as the Gukurahundi.


O fundador da união brasileira de borracha, Chico Mendes, é morto a tiros em sua casa pelo filho de um senhorio.

The founder of the Brazilian rubberworkers' union, Chico Mendes, is shot dead in his house by the son of a landlord.

1989/1222:Samuel Beckett 190689、死去

an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French.


The Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu is overthrown during the Romanian revolution and arrested by the army, together with his wife Elena, while trying to leave the country.


Das Brandenburger Tor in Berlin wird 28 Jahre nach dem Bau der Mauer wieder geöffnet.

Berlin's Brandenburg Gate re-opens after nearly 30 years, effectively ending the division of East and West Germany.


Lech Wałęsa is elected President of Poland.





When approaching Tripoli, a Libyan Arab Airlines Boeing 727 collides with a MiG-23, killing 157 people.





1997/1222:「Acteal massacre」
Attendees at a prayer meeting of Roman Catholic activists for indigenous causes in the small village of Acteal in the Mexican state of Chiapas are massacred by paramilitary forces.


Hussein Farrah Aidid relinquishes the disputed title of President of Somalia by signing the Cairo Declaration, in Cairo, Egypt. It is the first major step towards reconciliation in Somalia since 1991.


In an article published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, CDU General Secretary Angela Merkel expects the attitude of former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to a donation affair.


2001/1222:Jacques Mayol 192701、死去(自殺)

un plongeur apnéiste français.

晩年はうつ病を患っていた。この日、彼はエルバ島の自宅の部屋で縊首自殺体で発見された。遺体のそばのテイブルには彼の『グランブルウ』のビデオと、直前に出演したテレビ朝日の『グレートマザー物語 ジャック・マイヨールの母』のビデオが置いてあった。

The cloned cat CC is born in the USA.


CC, for "CopyCat" or "Carbon Copy" (born December 22, 2001), is a brown tabby and white domestic shorthair and the first cloned pet. CC's surrogate mother was a tabby, but her genetic donor, Rainbow, was a calico domestic shorthair. The difference in hair coloration between CC and Rainbow is due to epigenetic re-programming, which normally occurs in a fertilised embryo before implantation

Burhanuddin Rabbani, political leader of the Northern Alliance, hands over power in Afghanistan to the interim government headed by President Hamid Karzai.






Syrian government forces retake control of the besieged areas of Aleppo.






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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World