Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 11/21 今日の出來事

『葉隱』の 山本常朝165919 と『松下村塾』の 吉田松陰183059 の命日です。日本でも極度の純粹精神主義者です。


Judas Maccabeus restores the Temple in Jerusalem.
This event is commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah.

Judas Maccabeus was a Jewish priest (kohen) and a son of the priest Mattathias. He led the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire (-167~60).


Lý Công Uẩn is enthroned as emperor of Đại Cồ Việt, founding the Lý dynasty.

李朝ベトナム語: Nhà Lý / 家李)は、ベトナム北部に成立した王朝(1009~1225)。首都は昇龍(ハノイ)。



Timur of Samarkand captures and sacks the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, taking King Bagrat V of Georgia captive.

Timur:was a Turco-Mongol conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur's background was Iranized and not steppe nomadic.

1579/1121:Thomas Gresham 151979、死去

an English merchant and financier

Gresham's Law (stated simply as: "Bad money drives out good"「惡貨は良貨を驅逐する」) takes its name from him (although others, including the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, had recognised the concept for years) because he urged Queen Elizabeth to restore the debased currency of England. However, Sir Thomas never formulated anything like Gresham's Law, which was the 1857 conception of Henry Dunning Macleod, an economist with a knack for reading into a text that which was not written

Mariage du roi Louis XIII de France avec Anne d'Autriche.





The Pilgrim Fathers who arrived in the English colonies in America with the Mayflower sign the Mayflower Treaty, the constitution of the Colony of Plymouth, near Cape Cod.


1643/1121:René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle 164387、誕生

Explorateur-voyageur, il a parcouru la région des Grands Lacs des États-Unis et du Canada actuels, puis le fleuve Mississippi, et a ainsi découvert les territoires situés entre la vallée du Saint-Laurent et le delta du Mississippi.

The Danish astronomer Ole Rømer presents the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.



1694/1121:Voltaire 169478、誕生

本名「François-Marie Arouet フランソワマリ アルエ」
un écrivain et philosophe français qui a marqué le XVIIIe siècle.
Représentant le plus connu de la philosophie des Lumières, anglomane, il est à son époque le chef de file du parti philosophique, et sera avant la Révolution française et pendant le début du XIXe siècle le philosophe préféré de la bourgeoisie libérale.

1695/1121:Henry Purcell 165995、死去

an English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music.

Purcell's manuscript

William Byrd 154323







1768/1121:Friedrich Schleiermacher 176834、誕生

ein deutscher evangelischer Theologe, Altphilologe, Philosoph, Publizist, Staatstheoretiker, Kirchenpolitiker und Pädagoge




Premier vol habité « officiel » en Montgolfière, avec Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier et le marquis d'Arlandes.

In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight.


Fondation de la société du Sacré-Cœur de Jésus par Sainte Madeleine-Sophie Barat.




Promulgation par Napoléon Ier du décret de Berlin qui instaure officiellement le blocus continental contre le Royaume-Uni.


1811/1121:Heinrich von Kleist 177711、夭逝(自殺)

ein deutscher Dramatiker, Erzähler, Lyriker und Publizist.



≫ 真理と呼ばれてゐるものが本当に真理であるのか、それともそう思はれてゐるだけなのかを区別することはできません。…僕の唯一最高の目的は沈んでしまい、僕には最早なにもありません。1801年3月22日、姉ヴィルヘルミーネ宛の手紙




1818/1121:Lewis Henry Morgan 181881、誕生

a pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist who worked as a railroad lawyer. He is best known for his work on kinship and social structure, his theories of social evolution, and his ethnography of the Iroquois. Interested in what holds societies together, he proposed the concept that the earliest human domestic institution was the matrilineal clan, not the patriarchal family.


1831/1121:フランス、リヨンで「絹紡ぎの反亂=Révolte des Canuts」
Dans les années 1830, Lyon fait figure de ville pionnière pour les révoltes ouvrières. Le quartier de la Croix-Rousse était un quartier peuplé d'ouvriers et d'artisans, fabriquant notamment de la soie, surnommés les canuts.

The rebellion of the silk weavers begins in Lyon. They are protesting against the non-application of minimum wages between employers agreed between the social partners only in October. Shots of the security forces into the demonstration lead to an open uproar.





début du siège de Constantine.


1844/1121:Ivan Krylov 176944、死去

Иван Андреевич Крылов イヴァン アンドレエヴィチ クリロフ
Russia's best known fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors.


1857/1121:Manuel José Estrada Cabrera 185723、誕生

president of Guatemala from February 8, 1898 to April 15, 1920. Lawyer and Guatemalan politician, was in charge of the Ministry of Interior and Justice during the mandate of José María Reina Barrios.

ミゲル アンヘル アストゥリアスの『大統領閣下』で






1861/1121:American Civil War:
Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin Secretary of War.


Otto von Bismarck lässt sich aus Gesundheitsgründen bis auf Weiteres vom Amt des preußischen Ministerpräsidenten entbinden. Sein Wunsch auf Entlassung wird abgelehnt.

Otto von Bismarck can be released from the office of the Prussian Prime Minister for health reasons until further notice. His request for release is rejected.

Mit der Götterdämmerung beendet Richard Wagner in Bayreuth den letzten Teil des Rings des Nibelungen.

Götterdämmerung (WWV: 86D) ist der Titel des vierten Teils von Richard Wagners Tetralogie Der Ring des Nibelungen, die er als „Bühnenfestspiel für drei Tage und einen Vorabend“ bezeichnete. Den „Vorabend“ bildet das pausenlose Werk Das Rheingold, die anderen beiden „Tage“ sind Die Walküre und Siegfried. Die Uraufführung fand am 17. August 1876 im Rahmen der Richard-Wagner-Festspiele im Bayreuther Festspielhaus statt. Titel und Teile der Handlung greifen die nordische Sage Ragnarök auf.

Inventor Thomas Alva Edison announces the phonograph, a sound recording and playback device that he presents eight days later.


Edison with his second phonograph,

1894/1121:China[清]「日清戦争: 旅順虐殺事件」

Début du massacre de Port-Arthur (Chine).
Port Arthur, China falls to the Japanese, a decisive victory of the First Sino-Japanese War; Japanese troops are accused of massacring the remaining inhabitants.

1898/1121:René Magritte 189867、誕生

un peintre surréaliste belge,
« Une caisse auprès de son berceau, la récupération d’un ballon de navigation échoué sur le toit de la maison familiale, la vision d’un artiste peintre peignant dans le cimetière où il jouait avec une petite fille… trois souvenirs d'enfance que l'artiste gardera toute sa vie », résume une biographie de Magritte.
"A crate near his cradle, the recovery of a navigation balloon stranded on the roof of the family home, the vision of a painter painting in the cemetery where he played with a little girl ... three childhood memories that the artist will keep all his life, "summarizes a biography of Magritte.

1898/1121::Lev Konstantinovich Knipper 189874、誕生

Лев Константинович Книппер
a Soviet composer of partially German descent and an active OGPU - NKVD (Soviet secret police) agent. 作曲家でスパイ活動も

According to secret documents revealed in 2008, during the Second World War existed in the USSR a secret plan designed by the Kremlin in case that Moscow would fall into Nazi hands. Under the elaborate plan, ballerinas and circus acrobats were armed with grenades and pistols and ordered to assassinate German generals if they attempted to organise concerts and other celebrations upon taking the city. Lev Knipper was charged with the responsibility of killing Hitler if he got the opportunity



1904/1121:Coleman Hawkins 190469、誕生


Albert Einstein's paper that leads to the mass–energy equivalence formula(E = mc²)is published in the journal Annalen der Physik.


Lecturer John Ambrose Fleming receives a patent in Britain for the tube period he calls Kenotron.

当初は「発振管 (oscillation valve)」と呼んでいた。また「熱イオン管」「真空二極管」「ケノトロン (kenotron)」「フレミング管」などとも呼ばれた。

1907/1121:Paula Modersohn-Becker 187607、死去

eine deutsche Malerin und eine der bedeutendsten Vertreterinnen des frühen Expressionismus.



Sailors on board Brazil's warships including the Minas Geraes, São Paulo, and Bahia, violently rebel in what is now known as the Revolta da Chibata (Revolt of the Lash).


1916/1121:Franz Joseph I. 183016、崩去

Nach dem Tod von Franz Joseph I. folgt ihm sein Großneffe Karl auf den Thron des Österreichisch-Ungarischen Reiches nach. Seine Herrschaft wird weniger als zwei Jahre dauern.

un empereur d’Autriche et roi apostolique de Hongrie. Membre de la Maison de Habsbourg-Lorraine, il règne sur l'Autriche et la Hongrie du 2 décembre 1848 au 21 novembre 1916. Du 1er mai 1850 au 24 août 1866 il occupe également la fonction de président de la Confédération germanique.


Mines from SM U-73 sink the HMHS Britannic, the largest ship lost in the First World War.


1918/1121:Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers 185418、死去

a British occultist. He is primarily known as one of the founders of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a ceremonial magic order of which offshoots still exist today.

1890年 - フランスの哲学者 Henri Bergson 185941の実妹ミナと結婚し、 パリに移住。
1900年 - 黄金の夜明け団分裂。首領を解任され、団を追放される。その後、新たな魔術結社『A∴O∴』を設立。

Mathers died on 5 or 20 November 1918 in Paris.
The manner of his death is unknown; his death certificate lists no cause of death. Violet Firth claimed his death was the result of the Spanish influenza of 1918. While this seems likely, few facts are known about Mathers's private life and thus verification of such claims is difficult.

The Flag of Estonia, previously used by pro-independence activists, is formally adopted as the national flag of the Republic of Estonia.




1918/1121:Pogrom takes place in Lwów (now Lviv)
Over three days, at least 50 Jews and 270 Ukrainian Christians are killed by Poles.


1920/1121:Stan Musial 192013、誕生

nicknamed Stan the Man, was an American baseball outfielder and first baseman. He spent 22 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) playing for the St. Louis Cardinals, from 1941 to 1944 and 1946 to 1963. Widely considered to be one of the greatest and most consistent hitters in baseball history,

1920/1121:Irish War of Independence:
In Dublin, 31 people are killed in what became known as "Bloody Sunday".


1922/1121:Maria Casarès192296、誕生

une actrice française de cinéma et de théâtre.
Elle compte parmi les grandes tragédiennes françaises ; elle est apparue dans de nombreux classiques du cinéma — dont Les Enfants du paradis —, notamment dans les années 1940 et 1950.

Rebecca Latimer Felton of Georgia takes the oath of office, becoming the first female United States Senator.



1925/1121:USA、鐵道「NYC ⇔ Frorida」
The luxury train Orange Blossom Special, which commutes between New York City and Florida's east coast, operates for the first time according to the timetable.



1927/1121:USA、Colorado「Columbine Mine massacre」
Striking coal miners are allegedly attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes.


The film Frankenstein, with Boris Karloff in the role of the monster directed by James Whale, is premiered.




The Alvin Theater in New York City premieres Cole Porter's Musical Comedy Anything Goes.



In the USA, interpreter Bing Crosby enters first place on the charts with Irving Berlin's song White Christmas and stays there for ten weeks.

1942/1121:USA「Alaska Highway (also known as the Alcan Highway) is completed and celebrated (however, the highway is not usable by general vehicles until 1943).


1943/1121:WWⅡ「タラワの戦闘」始まる ~1123




The United Auto Workers strike 92 General Motors plants in 50 cities to back up worker demands for a 30-percent raise.



publication du premier numéro du magazine Elle fondé par Hélène Lazareff et Marcelle Auclair.





1946/1121:フランス文藝、ボリス ヴィアン
Parution du roman J'irai cracher sur vos tombes de Boris Vian.


Two Canadian National Railway trains collide in northeastern British Columbia in the Canoe River train crash; the death toll is 21, with 17 of them Canadian troops bound for Korea.


The Natural History Museum, London announces that the "Piltdown Man" skull, initially believed to be one of the most important fossilized hominid skulls ever found, is a hoax.

 ピルトダウン人(Piltdown Man)は、近代科学史上で最大の捏造として著名。
捏造された化石人類。イギリスの East Sassex 州 Uckfield 近郊のピルトダウンで「発見」されたとされ、二十世紀の前半の古人類学研究に多大な悪影響を及ぼし、迷走させた。当時の学名は Eoanthropus dawsoni 。



かすがの に おし てる つき の ほがらか に あき の ゆふべ と なり に ける かも
春日野に おし照る月の ほがらかに 秋の夕べと なりにけるかも「南京新唱」春日野にて

1959/1121:USA Pops「Rock and Roll」命名
American disc jockey Alan Freed, who had popularized the term "rock and roll" and music of that style, is fired from WABC-AM radio over allegations he had participated in the payola scandal.


1963/1121:Robert Stroud 189063、死去

known as the "Birdman of Alcatraz", was an American federal prisoner and author who has been cited as one of the United States' most notorious criminals.



The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge opens to traffic. At the time it is the world's longest bridge span.


1965/1121:Björk 1965--、誕生

, chanteuse et comédienne islandaise.
an Icelandic singer, songwriter, actress, record producer, and DJ. Over her four-decade career, she has developed an eclectic musical style that draws on a wide range of influences and genres spanning electronic, pop, experimental, classical, trip hop, IDM, and avant-garde styles

1967/1121:Vietnam War
: American General William Westmoreland tells news reporters: "I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing."


U.S. President Richard Nixon and Japanese Premier Eisaku Satō agree on the return of Okinawa to Japanese control in 1972. The U.S. retains rights to bases on the island, but these are to be nuclear-free.





The first permanent ARPANET link is established between UCLA and SRI.




1970/1121:Vietnam War「Operation Ivory Coast」
A joint United States Air Force and Army team raids the Sơn Tây prisoner-of-war camp in an attempt to free American prisoners of war thought to be held there.


Indian troops, partly aided by Mukti Bahini (Bengali guerrillas), defeat the Pakistan army in the Battle of Garibpur.


Voters in South Korea overwhelmingly approve a new constitution, giving legitimacy to Park Chung-hee and the Fourth Republic.


The Birmingham pub bombings kill 21 people. The Birmingham Six are sentenced to life in prison for the crime but subsequently acquitted.




The United States Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, is attacked by a mob and set on fire, killing four.


A deadly fire breaks out at the MGM Grand Hotel in Paradise, Nevada (now Bally's Las Vegas). Eighty-seven people are killed and more than 650 are injured in the worst disaster in Nevada history.


United States Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Pollard is arrested for spying after being caught giving Israel classified information on Arab nations. He is subsequently sentenced to life in prison.


National Security Council member Oliver North and his secretary start to shred documents allegedly implicating them in the Iran–Contra affair.






démission de Margaret Thatcher, premier ministre du Royaume-Uni.



Commercialisation de la Super Nintendo.

A major tornado strikes the Houston, Texas area during the afternoon. Over the next two days the largest tornado outbreak ever to occur in the US during November spawns over 100 tornadoes.


1996/1121:Abdus Salam 192696、死去

Mohammad Abdus Salam(Punjabi, Urdu: محمد عبد السلام; pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlɑm];
a Pakistani theoretical physicist. A major figure in 20th century theoretical physics, he shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory


NATO invites Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to become members.



Dominica is hit by the most destructive earthquake in its history. The northern half of the island sustains the most damage, especially the town of Portsmouth. In neighboring Guadeloupe, one person is killed.


After the Jilin Chemical Accident of November 13, the water supply in the downstream located on the Songhua Jiang Chinese metropolis Harbin is turned off.


Anti-Syrian Lebanese politician and government minister Pierre Gemayel is assassinated in suburban Beirut.



At least 28 are wounded after a bomb is thrown onto a bus in Tel Aviv.


The first of to become massive protests start in Ukraine after President Viktor Yanukovych suspended signing the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement.


A stampede in Kwekwe, Zimbabwe caused by the police firing tear gas kills at least eleven people and injures 40 others.


The government of Belgium imposed a security lockdown on Brussels, including the closure of shops, schools, public transportation, due to potential terrorist attacks.


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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World