Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 12/20 今日の出來事

Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor.

In 1968 Nero died after the throne and committed suicide, after that it enters the civil war period. With Garba, Otto, Whiterlius and the emperor in an uprising, Vespasian received the support of Mukianus, holding hands of the Syrian state corps. . And in 1919, he gained support of the army of the Egyptian province in Caissalia, followed by the support of the Jewish province.
Titus Flavius Vespasianus 000979:帝国の皇帝。ユリウス・クラウディウス朝断絶後の四皇帝内乱の時代(0068/06~0069/12)に終止符を打ち、自身の血統によるフラウィウス朝を創始。

Callixtus I is elected as the 16th pope, although Hippolytus of Rome is soon thereafter elected as a rival pope.


In 217, when Callixtus followed Zephyrinus as Bishop of Rome, he started to admit into the church converts from sects or schisms who had not done penance. He fought with success the heretics, and established the practice of absolution of all sins, including adultery and murder.
Hippolytus found Callixtus's policy of extending forgiveness of sins to cover sexual transgressions shockingly lax and denounced him for allowing believers to regularize liaisons with their own slaves by recognizing them as valid marriages. As a consequence also of doctrinal differences, Hippolytus was elected as a rival bishop of Rome, the first antipope.


1046/1220:ロウマ教會の腐敗「Simony 聖職賣買」、國王問題視
The Synod of Sutri convened by King Henry III begins. Pope Gregory VI is given the opportunity to defend himself against the reproach of simony.


Richard I of England is captured and imprisoned by Leopold V of Austria on his way home to England after the Third Crusade.


Ruins of Dürnstein Castle, where Richard was kept captive

An army of Mongols under their Khan Hülegü takes after several weeks of siege the mountain fortress Alamut. 

Their defenders are killed afterwards. With the loss of the headquarters of the Assassins, the rule of this Ismaili group in Persia ends.




Johann Snell prints the first book in Sweden, the fable collection Dialogus creaturarum.



1522/1220:Siege of Rhodes、降伏したロウドス戰士、マルタに移り、
Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights of Rhodes, who are allowed to evacuate. They eventually settle on Malta and become known as the Knights of Malta.



adoption du calendrier grégorien en France où l'on passe directement du 9 au 20 décembre.


1590/1220:Ambroise Paré 151090、死去

un chirurgien et anatomiste français.
Il, chirurgien du roi et des champs de bataille, est souvent considéré comme le père de la chirurgie moderne. Inventeur de nombreux instruments, il participe à l’amélioration et à la diffusion d’une technique de cautérisation d’un nouveau genre.

パレ云はく「Je le pansay, Dieu le guarist.  我繃帶し神癒したまふ。

The Virginia Company loads three ships with settlers and sets sail to establish Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.



Previously held in check by Wallenstein's troops, Gábor Bethlen, the Prince of Transylvania, agrees with Emperor Ferdinand II after his campaign during the Thirty Years' War in the Peace of Bratislava.


In the Great Northern War, the Swedes win over a Danish-Saxon army in the Battle of Gadebusch.


1722/1220(康煕61/1113):04清皇帝 康煕帝137825、崩去


The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history (although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world. However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang.
The Kangxi Emperor is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan and assorted Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing rule, and blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River, retaining Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China.



France hands over New Orleans to the US as part of the Louisiana Purchase.

The Louisiana Purchase is completed at a ceremony in New Orleans.

Peninsular War: The Siege of Zaragoza begins.


Die Brüder Grimm veröffentlichen die Erstausgabe ihrer Kinder und Hausmärchen.



In Nea Epidavros the first Greek National Assembly takes place in the course of the Greek Revolution against the Ottoman Empire.


In the London Protocol, the European powers acknowledge the independence of Belgium after the Belgian Revolution, but demand strict neutrality of the country.


In London, the Quintupel contract is signed, which aims at the suppression of slave trade. While Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia subsequently ratify the treaty, this does not happen in France.


1851/1220:Knut Wicksell 185126、誕生

a leading Swedish economist of the Stockholm school. His economic contributions would influence both the Keynesian and Austrian schools of economic thought.
Wicksell was enamored with the theory of Léon Walras (the Lausanne school), Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (the Austrian school), and David Ricardo, and sought a synthesis of the three theoretical visions of the economy.
The cumulative process was the leading theory of business cycle until John Maynard Keynes's "General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money" appeared. Wicksel's theory has had a strong influence on Keynes' ideas on economic growth and economic recession, as well as Josef Schumpeter's "creative destruction" theory on economic cycles.






「Gesshou」 幕末期の尊皇攘夷派の僧侶。名は宗久、忍介、忍鎧、久丸。

大君のためにはなにか惜しからむ 薩摩の瀬戸に身は沈むとも

South Carolina becomes the first state to attempt to secede from the United States.




Takeuchi Seihō est le nom d'artiste d'un peintre japonais du genre nihonga 日本畫, actif de l'ère Meiji 明治 à l'ère Shōwa 昭和. Un des fondateurs du ni-honga, son œuvre couvre un demi siècle et il est considéré comme un des maîtres du cercle de peintres de Kyoto d'avant-guerre.

何度でも紹介したい。猫好きな者から猫好きな方へ ――



At the westernmost point of the US state of Oregon, the lighthouse Cape Blanco Lighthouse is put into operation on the Pacific coast.




Asakawa Kan'ichi was a Japanese academic, author, historian, librarian, curator and peace advocate. Asakawa was Japanese by birth and citizenship, but he lived the major portion of his life in the United States.

第三に Curator としての業績






At the end of the Central American Peace Conference in Washington D.C. is the understanding of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala to establish the Central American Court of Justice, the first international court of legal history.
The contractual withdrawal of Nicaragua ended later the existence of the court in 1918.


Ernest Rutherford can provide experimental evidence of atomic nuclei as helium atoms change their trajectory as they pass through thin metal foils.




The last Australian troops are evacuated from Gallipoli.


The battle of Verdun results in a French victory after more than 9 months of intense fighting.


1917/1220:David Bohm 191792、誕生

an American scientist who has been described as one of the most significant theoretical physicists of the 20th century and who contributed unorthodox ideas to quantum theory, neuropsychology and the philosophy of mind.

Implicate order and Explicate order
 are ontological concepts for quantum theory coined by theoretical physicist David Bohm during the early 1980s. 

Cheka, the first Soviet secret police force, is founded.

Создание ЧК, предка КГБ.

On behalf of Lenin, Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky founds the Extraordinary All-Russian Commission for Combating Counterrevolution, Speculation and Sabotage (Cheka), the first Bolshevik secret police in Russia.

1921/1220:George Roy Hill 192102、誕生

an American film director.
He is most noted for directing such films as Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) and The Sting (1973), which both starred the acting duo Paul Newman and Robert Redford.
Other notable Hill films include: Slaughterhouse-Five, The World According to Garp, The World of Henry Orient, Hawaii, Thoroughly Modern Millie, The Great Waldo Pepper, Slap Shot, Funny Farm, A Little Romance with Laurence Olivier, and The Little Drummer Girl.

Adolf Hitler wird nach seinem Putschversuch vorzeitig aus der Haft in Landsberg entlassen.

Adolf Hitler is released from Landsberg Prison

1925/1220:Edward Sylvester Morse 183825、死去

an American zoologist and orientalist.
He came to Japan to collect specimens, served two years as a hired professor at the University of Tokyo, and was committed to establishing social and international attitudes of the university.
He excavated Omori shell mounds and made the foundation of Japanese anthropology and archeology. In addition, he introduced Darwin's theory of evolution systematically for the first time in Japan.


Great Britain recognizes the government of Nanjing (Kuomintang).



Kishida Ryūsei est un peintre japonais de l'ère Taishō et Showa,


1937/1220:Erich Ludendorff 186537、死去

ein deutscher General und Politiker. Im Ersten Weltkrieg hatte er als Erster Generalquartiermeister und Stellvertreter Paul von Hindenburgs, des Chefs der dritten Obersten Heeresleitung (OHL), bestimmenden Einfluss auf die deutsche Kriegführung und Politik.
Er verantwortete die gescheiterte Deutsche Frühjahrsoffensive 1918 und war einer der Väter der Dolchstoßlegende. Zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik betätigte er sich in der völkischen Bewegung, nahm 1920 am Kapp-Putsch und 1923 am Hitlerputsch teil, war Reichstagsabgeordneter der Deutschvölkischen Freiheitspartei und Mitbegründer des Tannenbergbunds.

第一次世界大戦初期のタンネンベルク戦では第八軍司令官 Paul von Hindenburg 184734を補佐してドイツ軍を勝利に導いた。




First battle of the American Volunteer Group, better known as the "Flying Tigers" in Kunming, China.


1942/1220:WWⅡ 日本空軍、インドのカルカッタ空爆
Japanese air forces bomb Calcutta, India.


The Japanese are defeated by the Chinese at the Battle of Changde.



Der kommissarisch eingesetzte Frankfurter Oberbürgermeister Kurt Blaum verfügt die Trümmerbeschlagnahme-Anordnung zur Beschlagnahme sämtlicher angefallener Gebäudetrümmer auf dem Frankfurter Stadtgebiet. Damit kann die von der Stadt Frankfurt am Main, den Baufirmen Philipp Holzmann, Wayss & Freytag, der Metallgesellschaft und ihrer Tochtergesellschaft Lurgi gegründete Trümmerverwertungsgesellschaft ihre Arbeit aufnehmen.



1946/1220:Uri Geller 1946--、誕生

an Israeli illusionist, magician, television personality, and self-proclaimed psychic. He is known for his trademark television performances of spoon bending and other illusions


1946/1220:USA、クリスマス映画「Wonderful Life」封切
The popular Christmas film It's a Wonderful Life is first released in New York City.


The prime minister's official residence was attacked by Koreans in Japan, and police officers got injured and robbed the handgun.



Defendant Sadami Hirasawa turned his confession and denied all charges.

The EBR-1 in Arco, Idaho becomes the first nuclear power plant to generate electricity. The electricity powered four light bulbs.

Commissioning of the world's first nuclear power plant (the Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I)), built at Idaho's national laboratory in the United States.

A United States Air Force C-124 crashes and burns in Moses Lake, Washington killing 87.


1954/1220:James Hilton 190054、死去

an English novelist best remembered for several best-sellers, including Lost Horizon and Goodbye, Mr. Chips. He also wrote Hollywood screenplays.



Noda Hideki est un dramaturge, auteur et metteur en scène japonais de plus de quarante pièces, qui a contribué à faire connaître le théâtre japonais moderne à un public international.

Cardiff is proclaimed the capital city of Wales, United Kingdom.





1962/1220:Japan、Tokyo RoadMap
首都高速初の開通区間である首都高速都心環状線「京橋 - 浜崎橋」間と首都高速1号線「浜崎橋 - 芝浦」間が開通。


In Frankfurt am Main, the first Auschwitz trial is opened against 22 defendants.


1968/1220:John Steinbeck 190268、死去

an American author.
He won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception". He has been called "a giant of American letters", and many of his works are considered classics of Western literature.

1968/1220:Max Brod 188468、死去

(מקס ברוד), écrivain israélien
ein deutschsprachiger Schriftsteller, Theater- und Musikkritiker. Sein einst erfolgreiches literarisches Werk ist heute weitgehend unbeachtet. Bedeutungsvoll sind seine Verdienste um den Erhalt der Werke des Schriftstellers Franz Kafka als deren Herausgeber, Bearbeiter und Interpret.
Darüber hinaus war Brod Förderer der Komponisten Leoš Janáček und Jaromír Weinberger. Er gilt auch als Entdecker des Dichters Franz Werfel.

The Zodiac Killer kills Betty Lou Jenson and David Faraday in Vallejo, California.

A serial killer later known as the Zodiac killer kills his first two victims with Betty Lou Jensen and her boyfriend David Faraday in Vallejo, California.

Fondation de Médecins sans frontières.

The international aid organization Doctors Without Borders is founded by Bernard Kouchner and a group of journalists in Paris, France.
The two humanitarian organizations of young French physicians, Groupe d'Intervention Médicale et Chirurgicale en Urgence and Secours Médical Français, join Médecins Sans Frontières. The organization provides emergency medical aid in crisis and war zones.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto becomes Pakistani President and initiates a cautious democratization of the country.


El almirante Luis Carrero Blanco, presidente del Gobierno español, es asesinado por ETA, una organización independentista vasca.

The Prime Minister of Spain, Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, is assassinated by a car bomb attack in Madrid.

1977/1220:Djibouti and Vietnam join the United Nations.


1982/1220:Arthur Rubinstein 188782、死去

a Polish American classical pianist. He received international acclaim for his performances of the music written by a variety of composers and many regard him as the greatest Chopin interpreter of his time.



The Summit Tunnel fire is the largest underground fire in history, as a freight train carrying over 1 million liters of gasoline derails near the town of Todmorden, England, in the Pennines.



In the worst peacetime sea disaster, the passenger ferry Doña Paz sinks after colliding with the oil tanker Vector in the Tablas Strait in the Philippines, killing an estimated 4,000 people (1,749 official).


The United States invasion of Panama deposes Manuel Noriega.

Operation Just Cause: US invading forces march in Panama with the sole purpose of arresting drug trafficked leader Manuel Noriega. He can escape immediate access and immerse himself in the Vatican Embassy.

NATO begins peacekeeping in Bosnia.


American Airlines Flight 965, a Boeing 757, crashes into a mountain 50 km north of Cali, Colombia killing 159.

A Coming from Miami Boeing 757 American Airlines crashes during the landing approach to Cali, Colombia, because of the setting of a false NDB against a mountain. 160 people die, only four people are saved.

1996/1220:Carl Sagan 193496、死去

an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.


Itami Jūzō. Après avoir été connu au Japon comme acteur, il réalise des comédies satiriques sur la société japonaise.

Nelson Mandela bids farewell to the ANC. His dolphin, Thabo Mbeki, succeeds him to the presidency.


Macau is handed over to China by Portugal.

Portugal returns to the People's Republic of China, which has been colonized by the Portuguese for more than 450 years and occupied for 150 years.

NASA launches the ACRIMSat satellite as part of the Earth Observing System and places it in a sun-synchronous Earth orbit to study the sun's energy emissions.



A gang of thieves steal £26.5 million worth of currency from the Donegall Square West headquarters of Northern Bank in Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, one of the largest bank robberies in British history.



Aoshima Yukio est un homme politique, romancier, réalisateur et acteur de télévision japonais.

The Portrait of Suzanne Bloch (1904), by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, and O Lavrador de Café by Brazilian modernist painter Cândido Portinari, are stolen from the São Paulo Museum of Art.


Former Russian oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky is released following the presidential pardon of Vladimir Putin, after ten years in prison.


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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World