Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

歴史暦:古今東西 01/04 今日の出來事

イギリスの化學者 Isaac Newton 164227 が生まれ、
フランスの哲學者 Henri Bergson 185941 が亡くなった。


Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina.

The Battle of Ruspina was fought in the Roman province of Africa, between the Republican forces of the Optimates and forces loyal to Julius Caesar. The Republican army was commanded by Titus Labienus, Caesar's former supporter who had defected to the Republican side at the beginning of the civil war.

0871/0104:イングランドで「Battle of Reading」
 Æthelred of Wessex fights, and is defeated by, a Danish invasion army.

The first Battle of Reading was one of a series of battles that took place following an invasion of the then kingdom of Wessex by an army of Danes led by Bagsecg and Halfdan Ragnarsson in an attempt to conquer Wessex. Both battle and campaign are described in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and this account provides the earliest known written record of the existence of the town of Reading

0968/0104(乾徳05/1202):宋03皇帝 眞宗096822、誕生

他是宋太宗的第三個兒子,登基前曾被封為韓王、襄王和壽王,曾任開封府尹(即後來的宋真宗趙恆,淳化五年(994年)九月加檢校太傅行開封尹,至道三年(997年)四月登基後離任)。 997年以太子身份繼位,在位25年。
Emperor Zhenzong 真宗 of Song 宋, personal name Zhao Heng, was the third emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
He reigned from 997 to his death in 1022. His personal name was originally Zhao Dechang, but was changed to Zhao Yuanxiu in 983, Zhao Yuankan in 986, and finally Zhao Heng in 995. He was the third son of his predecessor, Emperor Taizong, and was succeeded by his sixth son, Emperor Renzong.

Alfonso III assume o título de Rei de Portugal.

Anne of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the King of France will be considered guilty of the crime of lèse-majesté.

La duchesse Anne de Bretagne publie que seront reconnus coupables du crime de lèse-majesté ceux de ses sujets qui rallieraient le camp du roi de France.
Anne of Brittany 147715https://is.gd/J5ceN0 announces that all those who would ally with the King of France will be considered guilty of the crime of lèse-majesté[不敬罪].


Parker volcano erupts in the Philippines.
The eruption cloud darkens the island of Mindanao for several weeks. The eruption reached the strength of five on the volcanic explosivity index.

King Charles I of England attempts to arrest Five Members of Parliament, commencing England's slide into civil war.

(メモ的に)王妃としたフランス王女ヘンリエッタカトリックで國内の反撥を招く 王權神授説の信奉者、反國王派の五人組を逮捕を試みるが失敗、内戰を招き、敗走、逮捕され、公開斬首刑。
Oliver Crownwell 159958 の NewModelArmy ピュウリタン革命へ

・FiveMembers:Charles suspected, probably correctly, that some members of the English Parliament had colluded with the invading Scots. On 01/03, Charles directed Parliament to give up five members of the Commons/02
Pym, John Hampden, Denzil Holles, William Strode and Sir Arthur Haselrig/02
and one peer/02

Lord Mandeville/02
on the grounds of high treason. When Parliament refused, it was possibly Henrietta Maria who persuaded Charles to arrest the five members by force, which Charles intended to carry out personally. However, news of the warrant reached Parliament ahead of him, and the wanted men slipped away by boat shortly before Charles entered the House of Commons with an armed guard on 4 January 1642. Having displaced the Speaker, William Lenthall, from his chair, the king asked him where the MPs had fled. Lenthall, on his knees, famously replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."Charles abjectly declared "all my birds have flown", and was forced to retire, empty-handed.

1649 English Civil War:
The Rump Parliament votes to put Charles I on trial.
・On 4 January 1649, the Commons passed an ordinance to set up a High Court of Justice to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England. The Lords rejected it, and as it did not receive Royal Assent, Charles asked at the start of his trial on 20 January in Westminster Hall "I would know by what power I am called hither. I would know by what authority, I mean lawful authority", knowing that there was no legal answer under the constitutional arrangements of the time. He was convicted with fifty-nine Commissioners (judges) signing the death warrant. The execution of Charles I was delayed to 30 January, ……

1643/0104:Isaac Newton 164227、誕生

an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian and physicist who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made pathbreaking contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 164616 for developing the infinitesimal calculus.


1649/0104:English Civil War:
 The Rump Parliament votes to put Charles I on trial.

Le Parlement croupion britannique fait voter la condamnation du roi Charles Ier et établit sa souveraineté en s'autoproclamant « pouvoir suprême de la nation ».

Most of the Palace of Whitehall, the main residence of the British monarchs, is completely destroyed by fire, except for the Banqueting House.
The building will not be rebuilt due to lack of funds and the premises will subsequently be leased and released for the construction of townhouses.


1710/0104:Giovanni Battista Pergolesi 171063、誕生

Giovanni Battista Draghi detto Pergolesi è stato un compositore, organista e violinista italiano di opere e musica sacra dell'epoca barocca.

Despite being a short lifetime, he retains his name in music history as the earliest person showing the style of classical music.

In the first half of the 20th century, Igor Stravinsky selected several songs from Pergolage's work and changed the chords and the like to make ballet music "Pulitinella".

{二十六歳で夭折、その遺作となった『Stabat Mater(悲しみの聖母)』、聽きたくなりました。


The Netherlands, Great Britain, and France sign the Triple Alliance.

Signature de la Triple Alliance signée à la Haye, conclue entre les états généraux des Provinces-Unies, Georges Ier, roi de Grande-Bretagne, et le régent Philippe d'Orléans.

# La Triple-Alliance est le nom donnée à l'alliance signée à la Haye le 4 janvier 1717, conclue entre les États généraux des Provinces-Unies, Georges Ier roi de Grande-Bretagne, et le régent Philippe d'Orléans.

1752/0104:Gabriel Cramer 170452、死去

un mathématicien suisse, professeur de mathématiques et de philosophie à l'académie de Genève.
Lui et son collègue Jean-Louis Calandrini sont souvent considérés comme les artisans du renouveau scientifique à Genève au début du XVIIIe siècle, par l'introduction de la philosophie naturelle newtonienne.

Great Britain enters the Seven Years' War against Spain and Naples.

la Grande-Bretagne déclare la guerre à l'Espagne et au royaume de Naples dans le cadre de la guerre de Sept Ans.

In einem Bericht über die Hinrichtung der wegen Hexerei angeklagten Anna Göldi wird erstmals der Begriff Justizmord geprägt.

In a report on the execution of the accused of witchcraft Anna Göldi first time the term judicial murder is coined.
She was one of the last women in Europe to be accused of witchcraft and executed. It was the last legal witch execution and caused outrage across Europe.

1785/0104:Jacob Grimm 178563、誕生

Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm (auch, Carl) war ein deutscher Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaftler sowie Jurist und gilt als Begründer der deutschen Philologie und Altertumswissenschaft.
Sein Lebenslauf und Werk ist eng mit dem seines ein Jahr jüngeren Bruders Wilhelm Grimm verbunden, worauf die oft gebrauchte Bezeichnung Brüder Grimm hinweist.

ヤコブ兄弟の兄貴の方。 有名な童話集のみならず近代ドイツ語を整備した人。

1786/0104:Moses Mendelssohn 172986、死去

ein deutscher Philosoph der Aufklärung und gilt als Wegbereiter der Haskala.


1798 /0104:ミュルウズ共和國の再興
Réunion de la république de Mulhouse à la France.

The Republic of Mulhouse, which until then belonged to the Swiss Confederation, agrees to join the French Republic.

Constantine Hangerli arrives in Bucharest, Wallachia, as its new Prince, invested by the Ottoman Empire.


Sakai Hōitsu was a Japanese painter of the Rinpa 琳派 school. He is known for having revived the style and popularity of Ogata Kōrin 尾形光琳165816, and for having created a number of reproductions of Kōrin's work.
His father was the lord (daimyo) of Himeji Castle in Harima Province.
本名は忠因 Tadanaho、幼名は善次、通称は栄八、字は暉真 Kishin、他。



Samuel Colt sells his first revolver pistol to the United States government.

{日本の刀と同じくらゐに美しい。機能が美となってゐる。昨日の晉作が上海で手に入れて龍馬に贈った「Smith & Wesson Army No 2」も。

1850/0104:天文、發見「galaxy NGC 4125」
The galaxy NGC 4125 is discovered by the British astronomer John Russell Hind.

1852/0103:Louis Braille 180952、死去

l’inventeur français du système d’écriture tactile à points saillants, à l’usage des personnes aveugles ou fortement malvoyantes : le braille.



Katsura Tarō was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, politician and the longest serving Prime Minister of Japan, having served three terms.

An uncontrollable fire breaks out on the British paddle steamer RMS Amazon during its maiden voyage. The ship explodes and sinks, 104 people are killed.


After having been kidnapped and sold into slavery in the American South, Solomon Northup regains his freedom; his memoir `Twelve Years a Slave` later becomes a national bestseller.

The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.


The New Apostolic Church is established in Hamburg, Germany.

a patent is granted to James Plimpton of New York for roller skates.

The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters near Wall Street in New York City.



el ex presidente argentino Bartolomé Mitre funda el diario La Nación en Buenos Aires con varios otros.

1877/0104:アメリカの大富豪 Cornelius Vanderbilt 179477、死去

also known informally as "Commodore Vanderbilt", was an American business magnate and philanthropist who built his wealth in railroads and shipping.
As one of the richest Americans in history and wealthiest figures overall, Vanderbilt was the patriarch of a wealthy, influential family. He provided the initial gift to found Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.


1878/0104:Russo-Turkish War (1877~8):
 Sofia is liberated from Ottoman rule and becomes capital of Liberated Bulgaria in 1879.



{參議兼嗣法卿であった江藤新平183474は、維新政府に憤懣して下野し、佐賀の亂を首謀したが、彼をライヴァル視、敵視してゐた大久保利通183078が取り締まり、逮捕しろくな裁判もさせずに死刑、梟首にした例が私には想起された。大久保が撮影させた江藤の、その梟首の寫眞が殘ってゐる(Wikipedia にあり)。ついでながら、江藤新平の辭世をあげておく

1880/0104:Anselm Feuerbach 182980、死去

ein deutscher Maler. Er gehört zu den bedeutendsten deutschen Malern der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. ドイツの画家

The Chimborazo, at 6,310 meters one of the highest peaks in the Andes, is first climbed by British mountaineer Edward Whymper.


Umezu Yoshijirō was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.
He was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to life imprisonment.



The Fabian Society is founded in London, England, United Kingdom.


Yumeno Kyūsaku était un romancier et écrivain japonais, actif à l'époque de Shōwa. Son pseudonyme "Kyūsaku Yumeno" se traduit littéralement par une personne qui rêve toujours; Sugiyama était une personne connue pour ses narrations avant-gardistes et surréalistes, follement imaginatives et fantastiques, même à la limite du bizarre.

1896/0104:André Masson 189689、誕生

un peintre, graveur, illustrateur et décorateur de théâtre français qui participa au mouvement surréaliste durant les années 1920 et qui en conserva l'esprit jusque 1945. De façon plus marginale, il a également pratiqué la sculpture

Die Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung bringt ihre Erstausgabe auf den Markt.

Between Russia and France the two-band enters into force.
 Through the defensive alliance, France can end its nearly two decades of isolation, while Germany gets into a two-front position that was already dreaded by Otto von Bismarck.

1900/0104:James Bond 190089、誕生

{007の James Bond ではありませんが、関係はあります。
a leading American ornithologist 鳥類學者, an expert on the birds of the Caribbean. His name was appropriated by writer Ian Fleming(007の原作者)for his fictional British spy of the same name.

an Fleming, who was a keen bird watcher living in Jamaica, was familiar with Bond's book, and chose the name of its author for the hero of Casino Royale in 1953, apparently because he wanted a name that sounded "as ordinary as possible". ……


1901/0104:Cyril Lionel Robert James 190189、誕生

an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist and socialist.
His works are influential in various theoretical, social, and historiographical contexts.
His work is a staple of subaltern studies, and he figures as a pioneering and influential voice in postcolonial literature.

1903/0104:ヒトラ暗殺未遂者となる Georg Elser 190345、誕生

ein deutscher Kunstschreiner und Widerstandskämpfer gegen den Nationalsozialismus. Am 8. November 1939 führte er im Münchner Bürgerbräukeller ein Bomben-Attentat auf Adolf Hitler und nahezu die gesamte NS-Führungsspitze aus, das nur knapp scheiterte. Er wird bis heute verkürzt als "Hitler-Attentäter" bezeichnet und geehrt, obwohl er sich im Verhör eindeutig anders äußerte. Er sagt er wollte die Führung treffen, darunter verstand er die ‚Obersten‘: Hitler, Göring und Goebbels.
a German worker who planned and carried out an elaborate assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders on 8 November 1939 at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich. A time bomb that Elser constructed and placed near the speaking platform failed to kill Hitler, who left earlier than expected, but killed eight people and injured over 62 others. Elser was held as a prisoner for over five years until he was executed at the Dachau concentration camp less than a month before the surrender of Germany

Topsy, an elephant, is electrocuted by the owners of Luna Park, Coney Island. The Edison film company shoots the film Electrocuting an Elephant of Topsy's death.




Fukuchi Gen'ichirō was a Japanese critic and author, also known under the pseudonym Fukuchi Ōchi (福地 桜痴).


Moulay Abd al-Hafid est proclamé sultan du Maroc.

The aviation pioneer Alberto Santos Dumont ends his last flight with an accident of his sport engine plane Demoiselle.

1913/0104:ドイツ軍人 Alfred Graf von Schlieffen 183313、死去

war ein preußischer Generalfeldmarschall, Chef des Generalstabes und Autor des Schlieffen-Planes.

He is a military strategist and inventor of "Sriffen Plan" against the invasion of France, which has been used until the end of the Second World War.


1914/0104:Jean-Pierre Vernant 191407、誕生

un historien et anthropologue français, spécialiste de la Grèce antique, plus particulièrement de ses mythes, qui a été directeur d'études à l'École pratique des hautes études puis professeur au Collège de France


Kuwano Michiko est une actrice japonaise


The Finnish Declaration of Independence is recognized by Russia, Sweden, Germany and France.

Explorer Reinhard Maack discovers in the Brandberg massif the at least two thousand years old petroglyph White Lady.

Felsmalereien mit Weißer Dame

l'Armée rouge occupe la ville de Riga en Lettonie.

The people of Wuhan occupy the Han mouth English Concession

1932/0104:スペイン映画監督 Carlos Saura 1932--、誕生

un cineasta, fotógrafo y escritor español, de amplio prestigio internacional.

the party of the Indian Congress is declared illegal; arrest of Mahatma Gandhi3.


Franz von Papen se réunit dans la maison de Cologne du banquier Kurt Freiherr von Schröder avec Adolf Hitler pour des négociations secrètes, dans lesquelles ils conviennent d'une prise de contrôle conjointe du gouvernement et de la Chancellerie du Reich d'Hitler.

First musical hit-parade in the American magazine Billboard.

1941/0104:Henri Bergson 185941、死去

un philosophe français.
Il a publié quatre principaux ouvrages : d’abord en 1889, l’Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience, ensuite Matière et mémoire en 1896, puis L'Évolution créatrice en 1907, et enfin Les Deux Sources de la morale et de la religion en 1932. Il a obtenu le prix Nobel de littérature en 1927.
Son œuvre est entrée dans le domaine public au 1er janvier 2012. Il est l'auteur du Rire, un essai sur la signification du comique (1900).

{彼の写真を見てゐるうち、Charlie Chaplin 188977 がベルグソンを演じたらとふと思ってしまった。


Chinese Nationalist Army attacked the Chinese Communist Party's 4th Army.

1944/0104:WWⅡ「Battle of Monte Cassino」begin



1944/0104:WWⅡ「Operation Carpetbagger」
, involving the dropping of arms and supplies to resistance fighters in Europe, begins.

1946/0104:Japan[敗戰處理] GHQ公職追放」指示。

Die erste Ausgabe des politischen Magazins Der Spiegel erscheint im Anzeiger-Hochhaus in Hannover als Nachfolger der Zeitschrift Diese Woche.

Burma gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

1948/0104:USA & 日本「国際電話」開通
An international call is opened between Japan and the United States.

1951/0104:Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.

North Korean troops conquer Seoul for the second time in the Korean War with Chinese support.

Second Middle East War: British forces closed the Suez Canal.



Yasuhito, Prince Chichibu (秩父宮雍仁親王 Chichibu-no-miya Yasuhito Shinnō, 25 June 1902 – 4 January 1953), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of Emperor Taishō, a younger brother of the Emperor Hirohito and a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.


Mount Everest slayer Sir Edmund Hillary reaches the South Pole with a New Zealand Antarctic expedition.
It is the world's third expedition to reach this point.

Luna 1 becomes the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon.


1960/0104:Albert Camus 191360、死去(自動車事故)

Décès d'Albert Camus dans un accident de voiture.

un écrivain, philosophe, romancier, dramaturge, journaliste, essayiste et nouvelliste français. Il est aussi journaliste militant engagé dans la Résistance française et, proche des courants libertaires, dans les combats moraux de l'après-guerre.

Birth of the European Free Trade Association.

Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Austria, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland sign the Stockholm Convention establishing the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The Convention will enter into force on 3 May.

1961/0104:Erwin Schrödinger 188761、死去

ein österreichischer Physiker und Wissenschaftstheoretiker.
Schrödinger gilt als einer der Begründer der Quantenmechanik und erhielt für die Entdeckung neuer produktiver Formen der Atomtheorie gemeinsam mit Paul Dirac 1933 den Nobelpreis für Physik.



The New York City Subway is the first time that the Times Square Grand Central Shuttle, an automated subway without a driver, operates.

1965/0104:Thomas Stearns Eliot 188865、死去

an English-speaking lyricist, playwright and critic who is considered one of the most important exponents of literary modernism.

{私はいまだにその最初の一行「April is the cruellest month, breeding」を今でも忘れられないで覺えてゐるが、それは最初の一行に蹴躓くやうにこの意味に合點がいかなかったからだ。「四月が最も殘酷な月」とは、たとへ日本の四月の櫻吹雪の散華の有樣を想ひ重ねやうとも、斷じて思はれなかったからだ。詩は意味ではなく語調、その響きだと私は確信してゐるが、その響きも感ぜず、むしろ、その意味だけがこの詩を私に覺えさせてしまったのであった。やっぱり、風土の差でさういふことになるのかな、と無理矢理理解して、後は讀み飛ばしていった。だから、令名高い詩集ではあるが、`The Waste Land`は、車窗に通りすぎた異國の風景でしかなかった。今、讀み返したらどうだらう。讀み返したいとも思はないが。

A military coup takes place in Upper Volta (later Burkina Faso), dissolving the National Parliament and leading to a new national constitution.


1969/0104:Paul Chambers 193569 、死去

a jazz double bassist. A fixture of rhythm sections during the 1950s and 1960s, his importance in the development of jazz bass can be measured not only by the length and breadth of his work in this short period, but also by his impeccable time and intonation, and virtuosic improvisations.

云はずと知れた(と云ってもモダンジャズの愛好者など知れたものか)、絶好調最高潮の頃の Miles Davis 192691 のリズムセクションを擔當してゐたベイシスト。よく聽いたなあ。やっぱりなんと云ってもKind of Blue、一番多く針を降ろした一枚だったらう。そのなかでも『Blue in green』は深まりゆく秋の「季語」のやうなものになってゐる。これをマイルスとともに作ったとされる Bill Evans はライナノウトに「日本の水墨畫をイメヂした」といったやうなことを書いてゐたが、日本人としては實感、納得。

1974/0104:USA「Watergate Scandal
United States President Richard Nixon refuses to hand over materials subpoenaed by the Senate Watergate Committee.

1976/0104:アイルランド「The Troubles」
 The Ulster Volunteer Force shoots dead six Irish Catholic civilians in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. The next day, gunmen shoot dead ten Protestant civilians nearby in retaliation.

At the invitation of French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, a conference begins on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe to discuss the crisis in Iran. Participants include US President Jimmy Carter, British Prime Minister James Callaghan and German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt


At the Securities and Exchange Commission of the United States, Gramman declared that he handed off unlawful funds to senior Japanese officials for selling their early warning aircraft.

Because of the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, US President Jimmy Carter imposes an embargo on grain and other goods against the USSR, which will not be lifted until April 24, 1981 by his successor Ronald Reagan.

1987/0104:USA、鐵道事故「Maryland train collision」
 An Amtrak train en route to Boston from Washington, D.C., collides with Conrail engines in Chase, Maryland, killing 16 people.

1988/0104:ハアプ奏者 Lily Laskine 189388、死去

the most prominent harpists of the twentieth century.
Born Lily Aimée Laskine to Jewish parents in Paris, she studied at the Conservatoire de Paris with Alphonse Hasselmans and became a frequent performing partner of several distinguished French flautists, including Marcel Moyse and Jean-Pierre Rampal.

Maurice Ravel and Lily Laskine, 1935

1989/0104:アメリカvsリビア「Sidra incident」
 A pair of Libyan MiG-23 "Floggers" are shot down by a pair of US Navy F-14 Tomcats during an air-to-air confrontation.


In Pakistan's deadliest train accident an overloaded passenger train collides with an empty freight train, resulting in 307 deaths and 700 injuries.



1998/0104:アルジェリアで「Wilaya of Relizane massacres」
 in Algeria: Over 170 are killed in three remote villages.

A massive ice storm hits eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, continuing through January 10 and causing widespread destruction.

2004/0104:NASA Mars rover, Spirit lands successfully on Mars at 04:35 UTC.

After a travel time of almost seven months, the landing unit of the US space probe Spirit lands in the Gusev crater on Mars.

2007/0104:USA議會、Nancy Pelosi を議長に
The 110th United States Congress convenes, electing Nancy Pelosi as the first female Speaker of the House in U.S. history.

The Burj Khalifa, the current tallest building in the world, officially opens in Dubai

A gunman kills eight people in a house-to-house rampage in Kawit, Cavite, Philippines.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

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