Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 11/16 今日の出來事


-042/1116:Tiberius Julius Caesar -04237、誕生

第二代ロウマ皇帝。初代皇帝 アウグストスの養子。
養子となる前の名前は実父と同じ「Tibelius Claudius Nero」


The East Roman Emperor Justinian I publishes the revised version of the Codex Justinian.



Emperor Li Jing sends a Southern Tang expeditionary force of 10,000 men under Bian Hao to conquer Chu. Li Jing removes the ruling family to his own capital in Nanjing. Ending the Chu Kingdom.



The famous battles in the Song and Jin dynasties in ancient China took place near the island of Tonkin (also known as Chenjiazhai) near the Huanghai Sea in Huangdao District of Qingdao City. The Jinzong Navy wanted to attack the Lin'an Prefecture (now Hangzhou) The fall of the Song Dynasty, but the Jinshu division annihilated, but to the victory of Song and ended.


While travelling during the Ninth Crusade, Prince Edward becomes King of England upon Henry III of England's death, but he will not return to England for nearly two years to assume the throne.


An auto-da-fé, held in the Brasero de la Dehesa outside of Ávila, concludes the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia with the public execution of several Jewish and converso suspects.



Arrestation de l'Inca Atahualpa lors de la bataille de Cajamarca.

Francisco Pizarro and his men capture Inca Emperor Atahualpa at the Battle of Cajamarca.


An expedition of the Spanish Navy under Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reaches the Monterey Bay in the Pacific.


1632/1116:Thirty Years' War「Battle of Lützen」
 is fought, the Swedes are victorious but King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden dies in the battle.

In der Schlacht bei Lützen im Dreißigjährigen Krieg besiegen die Schweden unter Gustav II. Adolf die kaiserlichen Truppen Wallensteins, wobei jedoch der schwedische König fällt.

1717/1116:Jean le Rond D'Alembert 171783、誕生

philosophe, mathématicien et encyclopédiste français
Il est célèbre pour avoir dirigé l’Encyclopédie avec Denis Diderot jusqu’en 1757 et pour ses recherches en mathématiques sur les équations différentielles et les dérivées partielles.


1724/1116:Jack Sheppard 170224、公開處刑

a notorious English thief and gaol-breaker of early 18th-century London.
He was arrested and imprisoned five times in 1724 but escaped four times from prison, making him a notorious public figure, and wildly popular with the poorer classes. Ultimately, he was caught, convicted, and hanged at Tyburn, ending his brief criminal career after less than two years.



Sheppard was as renowned for his attempts to escape from prison as he was for his crimes. An autobiographical "Narrative", thought to have been ghostwritten by Daniel Defoe, was sold at his execution, quickly followed by popular plays. The character of Macheath in John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728) was based on Sheppard, keeping him in the limelight for over 100 years.


Mariage du futur Charles X de France avec Marie-Thérèse de Savoie.


1776/1116:American Revolutionary War:
 British and Hessian units capture Fort Washington from the Patriots.


1776/1116:American Revolution:
The United Provinces (Low Countries) recognize the independence of the United States.


1793/1116:French Revolution:
90 dissident Roman Catholic priests are executed by drowning at Nantes.


The Prussian heir apparent, Frederick William, becomes King of Prussia as Frederick William III.


Der deutsche Dichter Friedrich Schiller erhält sein Adelsdiplom.


1805/1116:Napoleonic Wars「Battle of Schöngrabern」
Russian forces under Pyotr Bagration delay the pursuit by French troops under Joachim Murat.


L'Empereur Napoléon Bonaparte adopte le Code d'instruction criminelle, le code de procédure pénale français. Le modèle de cette réglementation conduit ensuite dans les Etats allemands à la fin de la procédure d'inquisition.


Missouri trader William Becknell arrives in Santa Fe, New Mexico, over a route that became known as the Santa Fe Trail.



Greek War of Independence: The London Protocol entails the creation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty, encompassing the Morea and the Cyclades.




A Russian court sentences writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group; his sentence is later commuted to hard labor.



David Livingstone becomes the first European to see the Victoria Falls in what is now Zambia-Zimbabwe.



1863/1116:American Civil War
Battle of Campbell's Station near Knoxville, Tennessee: Confederate troops unsuccessfully attack Union forces.


The shipping traffic in the Suez Canal is released, the official opening follows a day later.


1885/1116:Louis Riel 184485、刑死

Canadian rebel leader of the Métis and "Father of Manitoba" Louis Riel is executed for treason.

a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political leader of the Métis people of the Canadian Prairies.




1894/1116:Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi 189472、誕生

ein japanisch-österreichischer Schriftsteller, Philosoph Politiker und Gründer der Paneuropa-Union.

1895/1116:Paul Hindemith 189563、誕生

ein deutscher Komponist der Moderne (Neue Musik).



1903/1116:Camillo Sitte 184303、死去

ein österreichischer Architekt, Stadtplaner, Städtebau- und Kulturtheoretiker sowie Maler.


English engineer John Ambrose Fleming receives a patent for the thermionic valve (vacuum tube).



The philosophers Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein meet each other for the first time.
Russell notes in his journal: "After the lecture, a hot German came to argue with me [...] Actually, it's a waste of time to talk to him."




The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens.

Banks in the US Federal Reserve System, including the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, begin operations.

1914/1116:ベルリンに「Pacifist New Fatherland」創立
The association, which has set itself the task of working towards the fastest possible end of the First World War, include Albert Einstein, Stefan Zweig and Clara Zetkin.


The signature Coca-Cola bottle is granted a US patent.


Admiral Miklós Horthy moves with his troops to Budapest, which has left the Council of Soviets as a result of the Hungarian-Romanian war since August. Horthy, as conservative, enjoys the consent of the occupying power of Romania.


Hubert Wilkins & Carl Ben Eielson perform the first powered flight in the Antarctic.






1934/1116:Carl von Linde 184234、死去

ein deutscher Ingenieur, Erfinder und Gründer eines heute internationalen Konzerns, der Linde AG.




1938/1116:Robert Nozick 193802、誕生

an American philosopher. He held the Joseph Pellegrino University Professorship at Harvard University, and was president of the American Philosophical Association. He is best known for his books Philosophical Explanations (1981), which included his counterfactual theory of knowledge, and Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), a libertarian answer to John Rawls' A Theory of Justice (1971), in which Nozick also presented his own theory of utopia as one in which people can freely choose the rules of the society they enter into

As part of his research on ergot, the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann produces lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for the first time.


Al Capone released from Alcatraz prison.


Response to the leveling of Coventry by the German Luftwaffe two days before, the Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg.


In occupied Poland, the Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.

Das Warschauer Ghetto ist von der Außenwelt vollständig abgeriegelt. Rund 350.000 Juden sind eingeschlossen.

1940/1116:USA「New York City's "Mad Bomber"
George Metesky places his first bomb at a Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.


1943/1116:WWⅡ American
bombers strike a hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in German-controlled Vemork, Norway.


1944/1116:WWⅡ「Operation Queen
the costly Allied thrust to the Rur, is launched.


Düren, Germany, is destroyed by Allied bombers.

On the Western Front of World War II, the Allies begin the ultimately unsuccessful Operation Queen. The cities of Jülich and Düren are completely destroyed in the context of the offensive by bombing, Heinsberg heavily devastated.

1945/1116:UNESCO is founded.




1952/1116:Charles Maurras 186852、死去

un journaliste, essayiste, homme politique et poète français, académicien, théoricien du nationalisme intégral.


A continuous killing murder case by Ed Gain was discovered.


1959/1116:USA、ミュウジカル「Sound of Music」初演
The musical The Sound of Music by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein has its Broadway premiere at the Lunt-Fontanne Theater.


1960/1116:Clark Gable 190160、死去

an American film actor and military officer, often referred to as "The King of Hollywood" or just simply as "The King".

Gable's final film, The Misfits (1961), united him with Marilyn Monroe (also in her last completed screen appearance).

1965/1116:USSR「Venera program」
The Soviet Union launches the Venera 3 space probe toward Venus, which will be the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet.


The World Heritage Convention adopted at the UNESCO General Assembly.


1973/1116:USA「Skylab program」
NASA launches Skylab 4 with a crew of three astronauts from Cape Canaveral, Florida for an 84-day mission.


The Arecibo message to potential extraterrestrials is sent to space in the form of a radio wave signal from the Arecibo observatory.

The Arecibo message is broadcast from the Arecibo Radio Telescope in Puerto Rico. It was aimed at the current location of the globular star cluster Messier 13 some 25,000 light years away. The message will reach empty space by the time it finally arrives since the cluster will have changed position.



The first line of Bucharest Metro (Line M1) is opened from Timpuri Noi to Semănătoarea in Bucharest, Romania.


The Supreme Soviet of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic declares that Estonia is "sovereign" but stops short of declaring independence.


In the first open election in more than a decade, voters in Pakistan elect populist candidate Benazir Bhutto to be Prime Minister of Pakistan.


El Salvadoran army troops kills six Jesuit priests and two others at Jose Simeon Canas University.


1993/1116:Lucia Popp 193993、死去

a Slovak operatic soprano. She began her career as a soubrette soprano, and later moved into the light-lyric and lyric coloratura soprano repertoire


After nearly 18 years of incarceration, the People's Republic of China releases Wei Jingsheng, a pro-democracy dissident, from jail for medical reasons.


Microsoft's OS software「Windows XP」released.


The Escher Museum opens in The Hague, dedicated to the oeuvre of the Dutch artist and graphic artist M. C. Escher.


2006/1116:Milton Friedman 191206、死去

an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy


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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World