Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 07/15 今日の出來事

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An Lushan Rebellion: Emperor Xuanzong 玄宗 of Tang is ordered by his Imperial Guards to execute chancellor Yang Guozhong 楊國忠 by forcing him to commit suicide or face a mutiny. General An Lushan 安祿山 has other members of the emperor's family killed.





Detail showing Yang Guifei mounting a horse, from 1250-1300.


0980/0715(天元03/0601):日本の天皇 066一条天皇09811、誕生



0998/0715:Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī 094098、死去

, Persian mathematician and astronomer

1099/0715:First Crusade:
Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final assault of a difficult siege.


{十字軍、聖地巡禮のTourism感覺=巡禮 peregrinus の意識のはうが強く、聖戦としての「十字軍」が使はれだすのは第一次十字軍より百年ほど後のことであった。
NearEast は十字軍國家の亂立で、一時、もう一つのヨウロパ諸國の樣相さへ漂はせた。つまり、大航海時代アメリカ大陸で演じられたことがこの聖地の周邊でも演じられたのであった。

The reconstructed Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated in Jerusalem.


King John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop Stephen Langton.


1240/0715:Swedish–Novgorodian Wars: in the Battle of the Neva a Novgorodian army led by Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes.


1274/0715:イタリアの神學者 Bonaventure 122174、死去

Bonaventura da Bagnoregio è stato un cardinale, filosofo e teologo italiano. Denominato Doctor Seraphicus, insegnò alla Sorbona di Parigi e fu amico di san Tommaso d'Aquino.
He is considered one of the most important biographers of St. Francis of Assisi. In fact, his biography - the Legenda Maior - inspired Giotto for the cycle of stories about the Saint in the Basilica of Assisi.




John Ball 133881(a leader in the Peasants' Revolt)is hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of King Richard II of England.

an English Lollard priest who took a prominent part in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.

When Adam delved and Eve span, Who was then the gentleman? From the beginning all men by nature were created alike, and our bondage or servitude came in by the unjust oppression of naughty men. For if God would have had any bondmen from the beginning, he would have appointed who should be bond, and who free. And therefore I exhort you to consider that now the time is come, appointed to us by God, in which ye may (if ye will) cast off the yoke of bondage, and recover liberty.


A barbarian ship carrying an elephant as a offering to Yoshimochi Ashikaga 138628 of the Muromachi Shogunate enters the Obama, Wakasa.

1410/0715:Polish/Lithuanian/Teutonic War「Battle of Grunwald」
The allied forces of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeat the army of the Teutonic Order.

Polish-Lithuania, who won the victory in this fight, will further expand its influence and will reach its peak as a powerful country with the largest European version.


Muhammad XII is crowned the 22 and last Nasrid king of Granada.


Le prévôt des marchands Pierre Violle pose la première pierre de l'hôtel de ville de Paris, palais de style Renaissance dessiné par l'architecte Boccador (de son vrai nom Domenico Bernabei da Cortona).

Ancien Hôtel de ville après l'incendie de 1871


1606/0715:Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn 160669、誕生

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn est généralement considéré comme l'un des plus grands peintres de l'histoire de la peinture, notamment de la peinture baroque, et l'un des plus importants peintres de l'École hollandaise du XVIIe siècle. Rembrandt a également réalisé des gravures et des dessins et est l'un des plus importants aquafortistes de l'histoire. Il a vécu pendant ce que les historiens appellent le siècle d'or néerlandais (approximativement le XVIIe siècle), durant lequel culture, sciences, commerce et influence politique des Pays-Bas ont atteint leur apogée.




1685/0715:England、Monmouth Rebellion:
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill, England after his defeat at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685.


1685/0715:James Scott 164985、斷首刑死

English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his mistress Lucy Walter. 
In 1685 he led the unsuccessful Monmouth Rebellion, an attempt to depose his uncle, King James II and VII. After one of his officers declared Monmouth the legitimate King in the town of Taunton in Somerset, Monmouth attempted to capitalise on his position as the son of Charles II, and his Protestantism, in opposition to James, who was a Roman Catholic. The rebellion failed, and Monmouth was beheaded for treason on 15 July 1685. 



1741/0715:Alaska expedition、
Aleksei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.


1789/0715:French Revolution、
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, is named by acclamation Colonel General of the new National Guard of Paris.


1799/0715:フランス軍、エジプトで「Rosetta Stone」發見
in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign.



1806/0715:USA、Pike expedition:
United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike begins an expedition from Fort Bellefontaine near St. Louis, Missouri, to explore the west.


1815/0715:Napoleonic Wars:
Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders aboard HMS Bellerophon.


A fire destroys the ancient Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome, Italy.




1828/0715:フランスの彫刻家 Jean-Antoine Houdon 174128、死去

un sculpteur français. Il est l'un des plus importants sculpteurs du XVIIIe siècle. Réputé pour le rendu réaliste de ses œuvres, habile non seulement dans le travail en marbre,

↑Voltaire 169478↓


The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years.


1838/0715:USA、Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers
the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage.


1840/0715:France、Jean-Baptiste André Godin obtient un brevet de fabrication d'un poêle à charbon en fonte de fer.


1848/0715:パレトの法則 Vilfredo Pareto 184823、誕生

un ingegnere, economista e sociologo italiano.




Im Münchner Glaspalast wird die Erste Allgemeine Deutsche Industrieausstellung eröffnet. 6.588 Aussteller präsentieren sich und ihre Produkte.


Benito Juarez declared a return to the Republic of Mexico.

 Benito Pablo Juárez García 180672 は先住民族出身で初めてメキシコ大統領になった。



Le chimiste français Mège-Hippolyte Mouriés reçoit un brevet pour substitut du beurre: la margarine.


Rupert's Land & the North-Western Territory are transferred to Canada from the Hudson's Bay Company, and the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories are established from these vast territories.


The stratovolcano Mount Bandai erupts killing approximately 500 people, in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.


1892/0715:「歴史の天使」Walter Benjamin 189240、誕生

ein Literaturkritiker von Deutschland, Philosophen, Denker, Übersetzer, Sozialkritiker. Deutsch Idealismus, Romantik, den historischen Materialismus, und die Einbeziehung der verschiedenen Elemente, wie zum Beispiel der jüdischen Mystik, war in erster Linie einen starken Einfluss auf die Ästhetik und westlichen Marxismus.

今日、0715は Walter Benjamin 189240 がドイツのどこかで誕生した日だ。
そのベンヤミンが自殺することになるその年に`Über den Begriff der Geschichte`と題した二十の斷章からなるエッセイを書いた。そのなかの九番目の章に、彼が Paul Klee 187940 の描いた`Angelus Novus`に啓示されて彼の「歴史の天使」を素描したものがある。私はこれに觸發されて、自分の「歴史の天使」を構想し造形していったのであった。

≫ IX(原文)„Es gibt ein Bild von Klee, das Angelus Novus heißt. Ein Engel ist darauf dargestellt, der aussieht, als wäre er im Begriff, sich von etwas zu entfernen, worauf er starrt. Seine Augen sind aufgerissen, sein Mund steht offen und seine Flügel sind ausgespannt. Der Engel der Geschichte muß so aussehen. Er hat das Antlitz der Vergangenheit zugewendet. Wo eine Kette von Begebenheiten vor uns erscheint, da sieht er eine einzige Katastrophe, die unablässig Trümmer auf Trümmer häuft und sie ihm vor die Füße schleudert. Er möchte wohl verweilen, die Toten wecken und das Zerschlagene zusammenfügen. Aber ein Sturm weht vom Paradiese her, der sich in seinen Flügeln verfangen hat und so stark ist, daß der Engel sie nicht mehr schließen kann. Dieser Sturm treibt ihn unaufhaltsam in die Zukunft, der er den Rücken kehrt, während der Trümmerhaufen vor ihm zum Himmel wächst. Das, was wir den Fortschritt nennen, ist dieser Sturm.“ – Walter Benjamin: Über den Begriff der Geschichte (1940), These IX

≫ (WP.enにあった英譯)A Klee painting named Angelus Novus shows an angel looking as though he is about to move away from something he is fixedly contemplating. His eyes are staring, his mouth is open, his wings are spread. This is how one pictures the angel of history. His face is turned toward the past. Where we perceive a chain of events, he sees one single catastrophe which keeps piling wreckage upon wreckage and hurls it in front of his feet. The angel would like to stay, awaken the dead, and make whole what has been smashed. But a storm is blowing from Paradise; it has got caught in his wings with such violence that the angel can no longer close them. The storm irresistibly propels him into the future to which his back is turned, while the pile of debris before him grows skyward. This storm is what we call progress.

≫ (野村修譯による日本語)『新しい天使』と題されているクレーの絵がある。それにはひとりの天使が描かれており、天使は、かれが凝視している何ものかから、いまにも遠ざかろうとしているところのように見える。かれの眼は大きく見開かれていて、口は開き、翼は拡げられている。歴史の天使はこのような様子であるに違いない。かれは顔を過去に向けている。ぼくらであれば事件の連鎖を眺めるところに、かれはただカタストローフのみを見る。そのカタスロローフは、やすみなく廃墟の上に廃墟を積み重ねて、それをかれの鼻っさきへつきつけてくるのだ。たぶんかれはそこに滞留して、死者たちを目覚めさせ、破壊されたものを寄せ集めて組み立てたいのであろうが、しかし楽園から吹いてくる強風がかれの翼にはらまれるばかりか、その風の勢いが烈しいので、かれはもう翼を閉じることができない。強風は天使を、かれが背中を向けている未来のほうへ、不可抗的に運んでゆく。その一方ではかれの眼前の廃墟の山が、天にとどろくばかりに高くなる。ぼくらが進歩と呼ぶものは、<この>強風なのだ。

Joukichi Takamine acquired a patent on adrenaline manufacturing.


1904/0715:Anton Tchekhov 186004、死去

Антон Чехов、Является ли драматург представлять Россию, короткий романист.

If there is a gun hanging on the wall in the first act, it must fire in the last.

The task of a writer is not to solve the problem but to state the problem correctly.
The critics suppose that it is easy to write a play. They aren't aware that writing a good play is difficult and writing a bad one is twice as hard.

People should be beautiful in every way - in their faces, in the way they dress, in their thoughts, and in their innermost selves.


1910/0715:Naming "Alzheimer's Disease"
In his book Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin gives a name to Alzheimer's disease, naming it after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.


1913/0715:Japan、小林一三、 宝塚唱歌隊(宝塚歌劇団)設立
Kobayashi Isao established Takarazuka Choir squad (present Takarazuka Revue Company).


1916/0715:USA、In Seattle, Washington,
William Boeing & George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).


1918/0715:WWⅠ、The Second Battle of the Marne begins
near the River Marne with a German attack.

The last major German offensive on the Western Front during the First World War.


The Polish Parliament establishes Silesian Voivodeship before the Polish-German plebiscite.


Japanese Communist Party is established in Japan.


1924/0715:日本の洋画家 黒田清輝186624、死去





Nach einem Skandalurteil wird der Wiener Justizpalast gestürmt und in Brand gesteckt.

Massacre of July 15, 1927: 89 protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.

The Chinese Kuomintang formally announces the existing alliance with the Communists. Thus, between both groups, a civil war ensues over the power in the Republic of China, which Chiang Kai-shek's troops initially determine.


1929/0715:ウインの文人 Hugo von Hofmannsthal 187429、死去

ein österreichischer Schriftsteller, Dramatiker, Lyriker, Librettist sowie Mitbegründer der Salzburger Festspiele.
Er gilt als einer der wichtigsten Repräsentanten des deutschsprachigen Fin de Siècle und der Wiener Moderne.


1930/0715:フランス「脱構築Jacques Derrida 193004、誕生

Un philosophe français connu pour développer une forme d'analyse sémiotique connue sous le nom de déconstruction, qu'il a discuté dans de nombreux textes et développée dans le contexte de la phénoménologie.


1936/0715:Japan Pro Baseball

Japan professional baseball, Tokyo Giants and Osaka Tigers play for the first time. Osaka won 8-7.


The government decided to return the right to hold the Tokyo Olympic Games scheduled for the Cabinet meeting in 1940.

{もしオリンピックをやってゐたら、日本の運命はどうなってゐただらう。オリンピックをやり、その分、予定を四年先延ばしにし、その時間で …… しかし、そんな戰略を立てるセンスがあったら、そもそもオリンピック返上などはしなかっただらう。

1939/0715:Eugen Bleuler 185739、死去

, psychiatre suisse.

1940/0715:Robert Wadlow 191840、死去

, géant américain (2,72 m)  記録上で最も高身長の男子(一人では立って歩けなかったさうだが)

Muroran city of Hokkaido was destroyed by the ship's shooting fire by the US Navy.


Italian kingdom declared war on war against Japan.


State of North Borneo(today in Sabah, Malaysia)annexed by the United Kingdom.



Chinese poet, scholar Wen Yiduo Li Gongpu in the memorial service speech, then in the streets of Kunming was assassinated.



1949/0715:Japan, 國鐵「三鷹事件」發生。

Mitaka incident. Unmanned trains run away at the central line Mitaka Station premises and rush into a private house.


1955/0715:Anti-nuclear statement、
Eighteen Nobel laureates sign the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons, later co-signed by 34 others.


1959/0715:USA、The steel strike of 1959 begins,
leading to significant importation of foreign steel for the first time in United States history.




who became a presidential candidate for the Democratic Party proposed "New Frontier" in the nomination acceptance speech.

1960の米大統領選に立候補した John F. Kennedy 191763 が予備選挙を勝ち拔き、0711の民主党大会で民主党大統領候補の指名を獲得した。その二日後の最終日、会場をロサンゼルス・メモリアル・コロシアムに移して大統領指名受諾演説をおこない、そこで「New Frontier」を提唱した。これがJFK政策の代名詞になった。

We stand today on the edge of a New Frontier — the frontier of the 1960s, the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils, the frontier of unfilled hopes and unfilled threats. ... Beyond that frontier are uncharted areas of science and space, unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered problems of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty and surplus.


1966/0715:Vietnam War:
The United States & South Vietnam begin Operation Hastings to push the North Vietnamese out of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone.


The United Red Army is founded.


In Nicosia, Cyprus, Greek junta-sponsored nationalists launch a coup d'état, deposing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as Cypriot president.


1975/0715:Space Race:
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project features the dual launch of an Apollo spacecraft and a Soyuz spacecraft on the first joint Soviet-United States human-crewed flight. It was both the last launch of an Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn family of rockets.


An attack at Orly Airport in Paris is launched by Armenian militant organisation ASALA; leaving eight people dead and 55 injured.


Nintendo released family game computor machine (Fami-com). The price is 14,800 yen.



Kumamoto District Yatsushiro branch was found not guilty of defendant Sakae Sumita. The first innocent judgment against the defendant whose death penalty was fixed.

1989/0715:日本 東條英機の三奸の一人 鈴木貞一188889、死去



A Belgian Air Force C-130 Hercules carrying the Royal Netherlands Army marching band crashes on landing at Eindhoven Airport.


1998/0715:Sri Lankan Civil War:
Sri Lankan Tamil MP S. Shanmuganathan is killed by a claymore mine.


2006/0715:Twitter is launched,
becoming one of the largest social media platforms in the world.


2016/0715:Factions of the Turkish Armed Forces attempt a coup.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World