05/26:歴史はわめくざわめく「南無妙法蓮、実存の、トランペットの Kind of Blue

Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 05/26 今日の出來事

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Miles Davis 192691 が誕生し、
Martin Heidegger 188976 が死去した日、

Julius Caesar visits Tarsus on his way to Pontus, where he meets enthusiastic support, but where, according to Cicero, Cassius is planning to kill him at this point.


Germanicus returns to Rome as a conquering hero; he celebrates a triumph for his victories over the Cherusci, Chatti and other German tribes west of the Elbe.

Il generale romano Nerone Claudio Germanico che conduce alle sue campagne di successo degli ultimi due anni dopo Germania magna un tour trionfale. ci sono come trofei tra le altre Cheruskerprinzessin Thusnelda, figlia di Segestes e moglie di Arminio, e suo figlio di due anni Tumelico effettuata.

0451/0526:中近東、Battle of Avarayr
 between Armenian rebels and the Sasanian Empire takes place. The Empire defeats the Armenians militarily but guarantees them freedom to openly practice Christianity.


0752/0526(天平勝寶04/0409):[平城京] 東大寺の盧遮那佛、開眼供養




King Edmund I of England is murdered by a thief whom he personally attacks while celebrating St Augustine's Mass Day.


En la catedral de Leon König Alfons VII. Coronado emperador en España.

Alfonso VII of León and Castile is crowned in León Cathedral as Imperator totius Hispaniae (Emperor of all of Spain).


Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk, propounds Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō for the very first time and declares it to be the essence of Buddhism, in effect founding Nichiren Buddhism.


1326/0526(嘉暦01/0424):日本[鎌倉] 北条守時、十五代執権に就任


William of Ockham, the Franciscan Minister-General Michael of Cesena and two other Franciscan leaders secretly leave Avignon, fearing a death sentence from Pope John XXII.

↑(Wikipedia en)
An alternative understanding, recently proposed by George Knysh, suggests that he was initially appointed in Avignon as a professor of philosophy in the Franciscan school, and that his disciplinary difficulties did not begin until 1327.
It is generally believed that these charges were levied by Oxford chancellor John Lutterell. 

The Franciscan Minister General, Michael of Cesena, had been summoned to Avignon, to answer charges of heresy. 
A theological commission had been asked to review his Commentary on the Sentences, and it was during this that Ockham found himself involved in a different debate. Michael of Cesena had asked Ockham to review arguments surrounding Apostolic poverty. The Franciscans believed that Jesus and his apostles owned no property either individually or in common, and the Rule of Saint Francis commanded members of the order to follow this practice. 
This brought them into conflict with Pope John XXII.
Because of the pope's attack on the Rule of Saint Francis, Ockham, Michael of Cesena and other leading Franciscans fled Avignon on 26 May 1328, and eventually took refuge in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV of Bavaria, who was also engaged in dispute with the papacy, and became Ockham's patron.  

Einen Tag nach dem Ende des Reichstages zu Worms wird von den zurückgebliebenen Reichsständen das vom päpstlichen Nuntius Hieronymus Aleander entworfene Wormser Edikt öffentlich bekanntgemacht, mit dem die Reichsacht über den Reformator Martin Luther verhängt wird.

One day after the end of the Reichstag in Worms, the imperial legacy left behind publishes the Edict of Worms, designed by the papal nuncio Hieronymus Aleander, with which the Reichsacht is imposed on the reformer Martin Luther.

1538/0526:スヰス:Jean Calvin 一派、ジュネイヴ市より追放
Geneva expels John Calvin and his followers from the city. Calvin lives in exile in Strasbourg for the next three years.


1573/0526:オランダ獨立戰爭「Battle of Haarlemmermeer」
a naval engagement in the Dutch War of Independence.


1637/0526:Pequot War でのイギリス軍による虐殺
A combined English and Mohegan force under John Mason attacks a village in Connecticut, massacring approximately 500 Pequots.


1644/0526:ポルトガルvsスペイン「Batalla de Montijo」
Las fuerzas portuguesas y españolas reclaman la victoria en la Batalla de Montijo.

Portuguese and Spanish forces both claim victory in the Battle of Montijo.

1701/0526(元祿14/0419):日本[江戸]「赤穂事件」 淺野家斷絶、赤穂城の明け渡し



The Battle of Ackia was fought near the present site of Tupelo, Mississippi. British and Chickasaw soldiers repelled a French and Choctaw attack on the then-Chickasaw village of Ackia.

Chickasaw Wars は十八世紀にアメリカの植民地化を進めていたイギリス入植政府が、チカソ族インディアンの領土をフランス入植者と奪いあった「インディアン戦争」である。
Chickasaw Wars, "The Indian War" where the British settlement government, which was advancing colonization of the United States in the 18th century, competed the territory of the Chicasaw Indians with the French settlers.

an attempt to revolt against the Ottoman Empire before the Greek War of Independence, ends in disaster for the Greeks.


1783/0526:アメリカ獨立戰爭終結して、Great Jubilee Day
 held at North Stratford, Connecticut, celebrated the end of fighting in American Revolution.


Le Louvre est déterminé par un décret de l'Assemblée nationale et au musée, pour recueillir les œuvres de la science et de l'art. Il sera ouvert le 10 Août 1793e


Napoléon Bonaparte assumes the title of King of Italy and is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Milan Cathedral, the gothic cathedral in Milan.



Der 16-jährige Kaspar Hauser taucht auf dem Unschlittplatz in Nürnberg auf und spricht den Schuhmachermeister Weickmann an. Sein Fall erregt bald internationales Aufsehen.



カスパハウザの出自については彼の存命中からさまざまな風説が立てられてゐた。さる大家の世繼だが、世繼問題で取り換へばやの物語に仕立てたり、ナポレオンボナパルトに関係づける大膽な說も噂になった。ナポレオンの妃の姪に不幸な結婚生活を送ってゐる人がゐたが、その人をナポレオンはパリに連れて行き、政事的な理由で彼女を養子にし「フランスの娘」といふ稱號をあたへた。そして、バーデン大公家の世繼と娶せたと云ふのである。 ‥‥ 


1830/0526:USAの手前勝手、Indian Removal Act is passed
 by the U.S. Congress; it is signed into law by President Andrew Jackson two days later.


1877/0526:日本、明治維新の元勲 木戸考允183377、死去

Kido Takayoshi was a Japanese statesman of the Meiji Restoration. He was known as Katsura Kogorō (桂 小五郎) during the late Tokugawa period.


1877/0526:Isadora Duncan 187727、誕生

an American dancer who performed to acclaim throughout Europe.


彼女の有名な逸話 ―― 彼女はある思ひつきで当時高名だったイギリスの文藝家 George Bernard Shaw 185650 に結婚を申し込んだ。「あなたの頭腦と私の肉體を持った子が生まれたらどんなに素敵でせう」。
これにたいし、 Shaw は當意即妙に答へた「あなたの頭腦と私の肉體を持った子供が生まれたら、どんなに悲慘でせう」。
だが、彼女の名譽にために云っておけば、Shaw に結婚を申し込んだのはイザドラではなく、フランスの大女優、サラ(ベルナアル)とするのもある。サラとイザドラ、かるく韻を踏んで心地よい都市傳説の感じが匂ってくる。案外、これは Shaw の自作自演かも知れない。当時流行の優生學を揶揄するための ―― 
WWⅡ以後、優生學は人間にかんするかぎりは犯罪扱ひになったが、他の動植物については遺伝子組み替へなど盛んに研究されておほいに進展し、その成果は食糧問題に寄与してゐる。そして、いづれは人間へに適用、 ‥‥ いや、これは文藝的に想像逞しくしてみただけだ。が、もっともっとスゴイことにすでになってゐるのかも知れない。

1877/0526:日本 陸軍人(皇道派) 荒木貞夫187766、誕生

Araki Sadao was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II. As one of the principal nationalist right-wing political theorists in the Empire of Japan, he was regarded as the leader of the radical faction within the politicized Imperial Japanese Army and served as Minister of War under Prime Minister Inukai 犬養毅193232.
He later served as Minister of Education during the Konoe 近衛文麿189145 and Hiranuma 平沼騏一郎186752 administrations.
After World War II, he was convicted of war crimes and given a life sentence.

Mohammed Yakub Khan for Afghanistan and Louis Cavagnari for Great Britain conclude the treaty of Gandamak, ending the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
In addition to a mission in Kabul, the United Kingdom is given control of Afghan foreign policy.



1895/0526:USA 報道写真家 Dorothea Lange 189565、誕生

an American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). Lange's photographs humanized the consequences of the Great Depression and influenced the development of documentary photography.

Lange's iconic 1936 photograph, Migrant Mother


Grandfather and grandson at Manzanar Relocation Center

Nicholas II becomes the last Tsar of Imperial Russia.


Charles Dow publishes the first edition of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.


Dracula, a novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, is published.

『青髯』につづいて『ドラキュラ』か、そして、Serial Killer たちの登場

1900/0526:南米コロンビア「Thousand Days' War」
The Colombian Conservative Party turns the tide of war in their favor with victory against the Colombian Liberal Party in the Battle of Palonegro.


1905/0526:日本 詩人(俳人) 加藤楸邨190593、誕生

Katou Shūson、un poète japonais de haiku 俳句 et spécialiste de littérature japonaise.











Der deutsche Ingenieur August von Parseval unternimmt in Berlin-Tegel die erste erfolgreiche Fahrt mit seinem Luftschiff. Pilot des Parseval-Luftschiffes ist Hauptmann von Krogh.



Skizze eines Parseval-Luftschiffes


1907/0526:USA 映画俳優 John Wayne 190779、生

Marion Mitchell Morrison, known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed Duke, was an American actor and filmmaker.
Wayne's career took off in 1939, with John Ford's Stagecoach making him an instant star. He went on to star in 142 motion pictures altogether, including the dozens with his name above the title produced before 1939.




Democratic Republic of Georgia、 is established.



1919/0526:インドの緑の父 杉山龍丸191987、誕生

大正から昭和の小説家となった夢野久作188936 の長男として生まれ、


1922/0526:ドイツ映画、Fラング『Dr. Mabuse 第二部 Inferno』封切
Ein Spiel von Menschen unserer Zeit des österreichisch-deutschen Regisseurs Fritz Lang, basierend auf der durch Thea von Harbou adaptierten Romanvorlage von Norbert Jacques, mit Rudolf Klein-Rogge in der Titelrolle wird in Deutschland uraufgeführt.


The first 24 Hours of Le Mans was held and has since been run annually in June.


The Senate of the United States decides on the racist Immigration Act of 1924, which is influenced by Eugene Madison Grant, to restrict immigration to the United States.



1926/0526:Jazzトランペッタ Miles Davis 192691、誕生

Miles Dewey Davis III was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, and composer.
He is among the most influential and acclaimed figures in the history of jazz and 20th century music. Davis adopted a variety of musical directions in his five-decade career which kept him at the forefront of a number of major stylistic developments in jazz

Tommy Potter, Charlie Parker, Max Roach, Miles Davis, Duke Jordan August 1947


1927/0526:USA、Ford Model T、生産終了



1927/0526:イギリス、Arcos incident:
British and Soviet Union disapprove.






Wikipedia 讀んで、双葉山定次191268 がなかなかおもしろい(おかしいといふ意味ではありません)人物であったことがよく解った。

Im niedersächsischen Fallersleben legt Adolf Hitler den Grundstein für das Volkswagenwerk, in dem in Zukunft durch die Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH unter der Leitung von Ferdinand Porsche der KdF-Wagen hergestellt werden soll.



Mao Zedong published "On Protracted War."


1940/0526:WWⅡ:Operation Dynamoダンケルク撤退
Battle of Dunkirk began in the Western campaign of the German Wehrmacht. Operation Dynamo to evacuate the British Expeditionary Force and remains of the French army is under the command of Admiral Bertram Ramsay.



1940/0526:WWⅡ:Siege of Calais ends
 with the surrender of the British and French garrison.


1942/0526:ポウランドのスパイ Jerzy Sosnowski 189642、死去

Jerzy Ksawery Franciszek Sosnowski was a major of the Second Department of the General Headquarters of the Polish Army (called Dwójka) and a Polish spy in Weimar Germany, using pseudonyms Georg von Nałęcz-Sosnowski and Ritter von Nalecz. In the Soviet Union, he was known as Jurek Sosnowski, some sources present his name as Stanislaw Sosnowski.

1926年から、彼はナレム騎士、反ボリシェヴィキ同盟員の富裕なポウランド貴族、ソスノフスキ男爵としてドイツに移住し、ドイツの上流階級と親交を結んだ。その後七年間に渡って、彼はポウランド政府が対独諜報に割り当てた予算の半額となる百万帝国マルクを支給され ……

1942/0526:WWⅡ:Battle of Gazala takes place


Das deutsche Afrikakorps unter General Erwin Rommel beginnt im Afrikafeldzug mit dem Unternehmen Theseus zur Eroberung der Festung Tobruk. Gleichzeitig beginnt die bis zum 11. Juni dauernde Schlacht von Bir Hakeim gegen Einheiten der Forces Françaises Libres unter Marie-Pierre Kœnig.

1946/0526:日本のオペラ歌手 三浦環188446、死去

Miura Tamaki est une chanteuse lyrique japonaise, soprano.
Elle est surtout rappelée pour son interprétation du rôle de Cio-Cio-San dans Madame Butterfly de Giacomo Puccini dans les années 1920, rôle qu'elle interprète plus de 2 000 fois. Elle débute dans ce rôle en 1915 à Londres. En son honneur, une statue a été installée au Glover Garden à Nagasaki.


Der deutsche Ingenieur und Erfinder Engelbert Zaschka meldet ein Patent zu seinem Faltrad an.







1969/0526:USA、Apollo program: Apollo 10 returns
 to Earth after a successful eight-day test of all the components needed for the forthcoming first manned moon landing.


1970/0526:Soviet Tupolev Tu-144、
becomes the first commercial transport to exceed Mach 2.



1971/0526:日本の映画男優 左卜全189471、死去

Hidari Bokuzen was a Japanese actor and comedian.
He appeared in such films as Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai, The Lower Depths どん底 and Ikiru 生きる.
Hidari was famous among Japanese audiences for his portrayals of meek, downtrodden men, and although a teetotaller, was renowned for his convincing drunk scenes (see esp. "Ikiru").

1971/0526:Bangladesh Liberation War:
The Pakistan Army slaughters at least 71 Hindus in Burunga, Sylhet, Bangladesh.


The United States and the Soviet Union sign the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

US President Nixon and Secretary Brezhnev / Soviet Union signed the "First Strategic Weapons Negotiation" (SALT I) and "Ballistic Intercept Missile Restriction Treaty" in Moscow.
Das deutsche Afrikakorps unter General Erwin Rommel beginnt im Afrikafeldzug mit dem Unternehmen Theseus zur Eroberung der Festung Tobruk. Gleichzeitig beginnt die bis zum 11. Juni dauernde Schlacht von Bir Hakeim gegen Einheiten der Forces Françaises Libres unter Marie-Pierre Kœnig.

1973/0526:ドイツ 哲學史家 Karl Löwith 189773、死

ein deutscher Philosoph.
Obwohl protestantisch getauft, wurde er von den Nationalsozialisten als Jude verfolgt und musste 1934 aus Deutschland emigrieren.
Löwiths Forschungsschwerpunkte waren Geschichtsphilosophie und das Denken Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels, Friedrich Nietzsches und Martin Heideggers. Seine Werke Von Hegel zu Nietzsche und Weltgeschichte und Heilsgeschehen gelten als Klassiker der philosophischen Literatur der Gegenwart

"Auslegung von Nietzsches Selbst-Interpretation und von Nietzsches Interpretationen"。
"Das Individuum in der Rolle des Mitmenschen"。
"Nietzsches Philosophie der ewigen Wiederkehr des Gleichen"
"Jacob Burckhardt"
"Meaning in History" ("Weltgeschichte und Heilsgeschehen")。
"Heidegger - Denker in dürftiger Zeit"
"Kritik der geschichtlichen Existenz"
"Gott, Mensch und Welt in der Metaphysik von Descartes bis zu Nietzsche"
”Der Mensch inmitten der Geschichte"(歴史の中に立つ人)。

1976/0526:ドイツ 實存思想家 Martin Heidegger 188976、死去

ein deutscher Philosoph. Er stand in der Tradition der Phänomenologie vornehmlich Edmund Husserls, der Lebensphilosophie insbesondere Wilhelm Diltheys sowie der Existenzdeutung Søren Kierkegaards, die er in einer neuen Ontologie überwinden wollte. Die wichtigsten Ziele Heideggers waren die Kritik der abendländischen Philosophie und die denkerische Grundlegung für ein neues Weltverständnis.
1926 entstand sein erstes Hauptwerk Sein und Zeit, das die philosophische Richtung der Fundamentalontologie begründete (publiziert 1927).

In Sein und Zeit erarbeitet Heidegger Strukturzusammenhänge der menschlichen Existenz und des menschlichen Weltbezuges (Existenzialien). Die komplexen Begriffszusammenhänge haben dem Werk den Ruf der Unverständlichkeit eingetragen. Die Abbildung stellt den Zusammenhang der Hauptbegriffe grafisch dar.




The 7.8 Mw Sea of Japan earthquake shakes northern Honshu with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A destructive tsunami is generated that leaves about 100 people dead.


European Community adopts the European flag.


Following the approval of the Council of Europe, its Council of Ministers, the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers of the European Communities and the European Court of Justice, the European Communities adopt the Europaflagge used hitherto by the Council of Europe.

Kargil War between India & Pakistan in the conflict over the Kashmir region begins with an Indian attack on Pakistani positions.


2004/0526:USA、Oklahoma City bombing.
United States Army veteran Terry Nichols is found guilty of 161 state murder charges for helping carry out the Oklahoma City bombing.


2005/0526:USA ピアニストRuth Laredo 193705、死

an American classical pianist.
She became known in the 1970s in particular for her premiere recordings of the 10 sonatas of Scriabin and the complete solo piano works of Rachmaninoff, for her Ravel recordings and in the last ​16 1⁄2 years before her death for her series in the Metropolitan Museum of Art “Concerts with Commentary”.

1963, istudying with Pablo Casals




Severe flooding begins in eastern and southern China that will ultimately cause 148 deaths and force the evacuation of 1.3 million.


2009/0526:USA 社会学者 Ronald Toshiyuki Takaki 193909、死去

an American academic, historian, ethnographer and author. Born in Oahu, Hawaii, his work addresses stereotypes of Asian Americans, such as the model minority concept.
His initial teaching experience was at the University of California at Los Angeles, where he taught the first Black History course offered at that institution. …… One of his students on the first day asked what the class was going to learn about "revolutionary tactics," and he later recalled that his immediate response was to suggest that he hoped students would learn skills of critical thinking and effective writing—and that these could be quite revolutionary

Takaki committed suicide on 26 May 2009 in Berkeley, California after suffering from multiple sclerosis for nearly 20 years, according to his son Troy

2017/0526:US大統領補佐官 Zbigniew Brzezinski 192817、死去

a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.
He served as a counselor to President Lyndon Johnson from 1966 to 1968 and was President Jimmy Carter's National Security Advisor from 1977 to 1981. Brzezinski belonged to the realist school of international relations, standing in the geopolitical tradition of Halford Mackinder and Nicholas Spykman.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World