Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 12/31 今日の出來事


Fin du second triumvirat romain.

The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which is viewed as marking the end of the Roman Republic.


0192/1231:Assassinio di Commodo, imperatore romano.

0192/1231:Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus 016192、暗殺

stato un imperatore romano, membro della dinastia degli Antonini; regnò dal 180 al 192. Come Caligola e Nerone, è descritto dagli storici come stravagante e depravato.
Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.
先帝 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 012180 の(第十一子で六男)だが、ティトゥス帝以来となる父子間での帝位継承により皇帝となった。コンモドゥスは「紫の皇子」と呼ばれた最初の皇帝となった(紫は皇帝権をさし、皇帝を父から父子相承した皇帝といふ意味)。

In November 192, Commodus held Plebeian Games, in which he shot hundreds of animals with arrows and javelins every morning, and fought as a gladiator every afternoon, winning all the fights. Also in December he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January.
At this point, the prefect Laetus formed a conspiracy with Eclectus to supplant Commodus with Pertinax, taking Marcia into their confidence. On 31 December Marcia poisoned his food but he vomited up the poison; so the conspirators sent his wrestling partner Narcissus to strangle him in his bath. Upon his death, the Senate declared him a public enemy (a de facto damnatio memoriae) and restored the original name to the city of Rome and its institutions. Commodus' statues were thrown down. His body was buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian.

Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gaul.

les barbares germaniques passent le Rhin et Stilicon est impuissant pour les contenir, ce qui marque le début de la chute de l'Empire romain d'Occident.


Byzantine general Belisarius completes the conquest of Sicily, defeating the Gothic garrison of Palermo (Panormos), and ending his consulship for the year.

Il generale Belisar conquista Siracusa con le sue truppe. Questo pone fine al dominio dei Vandali in Sicilia, che ora fa parte dell'impero bizantino sotto Giustiniano I.


0870/1231:イギリスでバイキング相手の「Battle of Englefield」
 The Vikings clash with ealdorman Æthelwulf of Berkshire. The invaders are driven back to Reading (East Anglia), many Danes are killed.



Trần Thái Tông devient empereur et premier représentant de la dynastie Trần au Đại Việt (ancêtre du Viêt Nam).

The Lý dynasty of Vietnam ends after 216 years by the enthronement of the boy emperor Trần Thái Tông, husband of the last Lý monarch, Lý Chiêu Hoàng, starting the Trần dynasty.


Durante la conquista di Maiorca, le truppe di Giacomo I d'Aragona massacrarono gli abitanti di Medina Maiorca.

James I of Aragon the Conqueror enters Medina Mayurqa (now known as Palma, Spain) thus consummating the Christian reconquest of the island of Majorca.


1384/1231:John Wyclif 132085、死去

「ヰクリフ」an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, and seminary professor at Oxford. He was an influential dissident within the Roman Catholic priesthood during the 14th century.



This Bible is for the government of the people, by the people, and for the people. 彼が英譯した聖書の序文の一節、Abraham Lincoln 180965 引用して有名になった。と云はれてゐるが、実際には序文中には存在しないさうだ。{なら、關係ないんだらう。

In Amsterdam, the throwing of snowballs is prohibited.



1491/1231:Jacques Cartier 149157、誕生

un navigateur, explorateur malouin et écrivain par ses récits de voyage.
Auteur de cartes ayant permis l'apparition du golfe du Saint-Laurent sur les représentations du globe, Cartier, par ses Relations, est le premier Européen à décrire et nommer ces eaux, leurs rives et leurs habitants, et le territoire visité sous le nom iroquois Canada (groupe de cabanes).


The troops of the French King Charles VIII invade Rome during the First Italian War. }The ruler wants to enforce hereditary claims on the Kingdom of Naples, which further strengthens the Habsburg-French opposition, but also upsets the other Italian small states.


{Leonard da Vinci 145219 の成人時代はイタリアがこんなにも四分五裂してゐた時代であった。この混亂した政事状況(外國からの容喙なども含めて)がむしろ、ルネサンス的精神を活性化させてゐたにちがひない。レオナルドの一生はほとんど旅行者のそれであった。

1514/1231:Andreas Vesalius 151464、誕生

ヴェサリウス」a Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy.


1571/1231(元龜02/1215):107天皇 後陽成157117、誕生

「Go-Yōzei」the 107th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Go-Yōzei's reign spanned the years 1586 through to his abdication in 1611, corresponding to the transition between the Azuchi–Momoyama 安土桃山[織田信長153482&豊臣秀吉153798] period and the Edo 江戸[徳川家康154316] period.





Création de l'ordre du Saint-Esprit par Henri III.


Croix de l’Ordre du Saint-Esprit.
Le roi Henri III préside la première cérémonie de l'ordre du Saint-Esprit. Enluminure de Guillaume Richardière


The British East India Company is chartered.

Création de la Compagnie britannique des Indes orientales.



1617/1231:Bartolomé Esteban Murillo 161782、誕生

「バルトロメ エステバン ムリリョ」スペインの画家
un pintor barroco español. Formado en el naturalismo tardío, evolucionó hacia fórmulas propias del barroco pleno con una sensibilidad que a veces anticipa el Rococó en algunas de sus más peculiares e imitadas creaciones iconográficas como la Inmaculada Concepción o el Buen Pastor en figura infantil.


The Peace of Nikolsburg ended the clashes between Emperor Ferdinand II and Bethlen Gábor, Prince of Transylvania, at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War.



Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu was a Japanese samurai of the Edo period.
He was an official in the Tokugawa shogunate and he was a favorite of the fifth shogun, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉164609.
Following the love of Tsunayoshi, led the government during the Genroku era as the Great Old 大老.

James II of England is named Duke of Normandy by Louis XIV of France.


JamesII                        Louis XIV


The first Huguenots set sail from France to the Cape of Good Hope.

At the instigation of the East India Company, a first ship carrying Huguenot refugees of French origin leaves Holland to colonize lands of the Cape of Good Hope.


A big earthquake shakes the Japanese prefecture Kanagawa. Together with a subsequent tsunami, it is destroying Tokyo, Odawara and other places in the region. Over 10,000 people die in the natural disaster.



Arthur Guinness signs a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum and starts brewing Guinness.

Arthur Guinness signs a lease granting him the use of a brewery in Dublin to make Guinness beer.



1775/1231:アメリカ獨立戦争「Battle of Quebec」
 British forces repulse an attack by Continental Army General Richard Montgomery.

bataille de Québec entre les forces de l'Armée continentale américaine et celles des Britanniques, dans les premiers stades de la guerre d'indépendance américaine.

Benjamin Franklin arrives in Paris to ask for help from France to the American insurgents.



The bankrupt Dutch East India Company is formally declared dissolved.


Restauro della Repubblica di Ginevra.


Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, then a small logging town, as the capital of Canada.


1862/1231:American Civil War、Abraham Lincoln signs
 an act that admits West Virginia to the Union, thus dividing Virginia in two.


1862/1231:American Civil War「Battle of Stones River」
 begins near Murfreesboro, Tennessee.


The USS Monitor, the United States Navy's first battleship, sinks by storm on heavy seas off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.




Tsuda Umeko was a Japanese educator, christian and pioneer in education for women in Meiji period Japan.

 ↑渡米直後 1871、十九年後↓

1869/1231:Henri Matisse 186954、誕生

マティス」un peintre, dessinateur, graveur et sculpteur français.
Figure majeure du XXe siècle, son influence sur l'art de la seconde partie du siècle est considérable par l'utilisation de la simplification, de la stylisation, de la synthèse et de la couleur comme seul sujet de la peinture, aussi bien pour les nombreux peintres figuratifs ou abstraits qui se réclameront de lui et de ses découvertes. Il fut le chef de file du fauvisme.

Article de L'Illustration du 4 novembre 1905


With the Albert Bridge, London opens a connection between the two districts of Chelsea and Battersea over the Thames.



1877/1231:Gustave Courbet 181977、死去

「クルベ」un peintre et sculpteur français, chef de file du courant réaliste.


L'Atelier du peintre (1855)

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3f/Origin-of-the-World.jpg/1280px-Origin-of-the-World.jpg L'Origine du monde (1866)

Karl Benz filed for a patent on his first reliable two-stroke gas engine, and he was granted the patent in 1879.



Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time, in Menlo Park, New Jersey.



1880/1231:George Marshall 188059、誕生

an American statesman and soldier.
He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army under presidents Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman, and served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under Truman.
He was hailed as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II.





une écrivaine et poétesse japonaise.
Elle est une des figures majeures de la littérature japonaise et a écrit plus d'une centaine de romans et de nouvelles.


Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar signs the Persian Constitution of 1906.





1907/1231:USA、タイムズスクヱアで初の「NewYear Eve]
The first New Year's Eve celebration is held in Times Square in Manhattan.


1908/1231:Simon Wiesenthal 190805、誕生

ein österreichisch-jüdischer Überlebender des Holocaust sowie Architekt, Publizist und Schriftsteller.

When the Second World War began in September 1939, it was soon placed in concentration camps by the German government's persecution of Jews. Later he lost his wife and family, and a total of 89 people, including relatives, were the victim of the Holocaust. However, he survived by the release of the Mauthausen concentration camp by the US military in May 1945.

The Manhattan Bridge, a suspension bridge over the East River between Manhattan and Brooklyn, is inaugurated.


En France, loi sur les monuments historiques.



First broadcast on the BBC radio of the Big Ben carillon.


A theater of light performances in Shinjuku "Moulin Rouge Shinjukuza" opens



Terada Torahiko was a Japanese physicist and author who was born in Tokyo.
He was a professor at Tokyo Imperial University, a researcher at RIKEN, and worked on a wide range of topics in physics.
Also, he was a professor at the Earthquake Research Institute.

While being a natural scientist, Torahiko is well versed in matters other than natural science, such as literature, leaving many essays that harmonize science and literature. Some of them have anticipated continental movement theory.
"天災は忘れた頃にやってくる(The natural disaster comes at the time you forget)" is said to be the word of Torahiko, but there are no such words in the book, it remains in the remarks

1936/1231:Miguel de Unamuno 186436、死去

「ウナムノ」un escritor y filósofo español perteneciente a la generación del 98.
En su obra cultivó gran variedad de géneros literarios como novela, ensayo, teatro y poesía.

He continued to explore the true Spanish thought, state and people's way of leaving a big influence on the Spanish thought world.
He is known as an existentialist thinker, and continues embracing strong interests such as 'life and death', 'what is it with me?', 'What about me after death' from both aspects of philosophy and poetry.

Zhang Hsueh-liang was sentenced to 10 years in prison by the ROCM and 5 years after he won the citizenship.


1937/1231:Anthony Hopkins 1937--、誕生

a Welsh film, stage, and television actor
he trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, and was then spotted by Laurence Olivier who invited him to join the Royal National Theatre. In 1968, he got his break in film in The Lion in Winter, playing Richard the Lionheart. In the mid 1970s Richard Attenborough, who would direct five Hopkins films, called him "the greatest actor of his generation."

Die Wiener Philharmoniker geben ihr erstes Neujahrskonzert.


Battle of Guadalcanal Island: DaiHonEi(Japanese Miritary Head Quator)decided to withdraw from Guadalcanal Island.


Battle of the German Navy with the British Navy, which occurred in the Barents Sea off Northern Cape of Norway


1944/1231:WWⅡ「Operation Nordwind」, the last major German offensive on the Western Front begins.

Launch of Operation Nordwind, one of the last military offensives of the Wehrmacht on the Western Front during the Second World War.




President Harry Truman officially proclaims the end of hostilities in World War II.




The Marshall Plan expires after distributing more than US$13.3 billion in foreign aid to rebuild Europe.




1957/1231:Óscar Domínguez 190657、死去(自殺)

「ドミンゲス」un pintor surrealista español perteneciente a la generación del 27
On December 31, 1957, committed suicide at the studio in Paris.

One of the greatest contributions Dominguez 's surrealist has always cited was the invention of "décalcomanie" in 1936.

failure of a coup attempt by the Syrian National Socialist Party in Beirut.


The Central African Federation officially collapses, subsequently becoming Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia.


Indonesian President Soekarno threatens to leave the United Nations, if Malaysia is admitted to the organization.


Jean-Bédel Bokassa, leader of the Central African Republic army, and his military officers begins a coup d'état against the government of President David Dacko.




海面気圧世界最高記録 (1083.8hPa) を記録。ロシア、中央シベリア高原のアガタ(Agata/北緯67度、東経93度)


1968/1231:超音速旅客機「ツポレフ Tu 144」初飛行
The first flight of the Tupolev Tu-144, the first civilian supersonic transport.



Cambodia disagrees with Vietnam as a reason for invasion of the Vietnamese army.


1980/1231:Marshall McLuhan 191180、死去

「マクルハン」a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual.
His work is one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory, as well as having practical applications in the advertising and television industries
He is known for coining the expression "the medium is the message" and the term global village, and for predicting the World Wide Web almost 30 years before it was invented.
With the arrival of the Internet and the World Wide Web, however, interest was renewed in his work and perspective.

Technology and media are "expansion" of the human body

Analysis such as "Hot" & "Cool" media classification,
TV media theory that "media is a message", global village (earth village)

Tetrad of media effects


A coup d'état in Ghana removes President Hilla Limann's PNP government and replaces it with the Provisional National Defence Council led by Flight lieutenant Jerry Rawlings.




In Nigeria a coup d'état led by Major General Muhammadu Buhari ends the Second Nigerian Republic.

Coup d'État au Nigeria par le général Muhammadu Buhari.

Arson at the Dupont Plaza Hotel in San Juan, Puerto Rico kills 97 people and injures 140.


All official Soviet Union institutions have ceased operations by this date 5 days after the Soviet Union is officially dissolved.


Czechoslovakia is peacefully dissolved in what is dubbed by media as the Velvet Divorce, resulting in the creation of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.


The First Chechen War: Russian army began a New Year's storming of Grozny.


The European Exchange Rate Mechanism freezes the values of the legacy currencies in the Eurozone, and establishes the value of the euro currency.


First President of Russia, Boris Yeltsin, resigns from office, leaving Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as the acting President and successor.


The United States Government hands control of the Panama Canal (as well all the adjacent land to the canal known as the Panama Canal Zone) to Panama. This act complied with the signing of the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties.


Indian Airlines Flight 814 hijacking ended after seven days with the release of 190 survivors at Kandahar Airport, Afghanistan.


The official opening of Taipei 101, the tallest skyscraper at that time in the world, standing at a height of 509 metres (1,670 ft).

Inauguration of Taipei 101, 3rd largest skyscraper in the world.


éclipse lunaire pendant une lune bleue.



A New Year's Eve celebration stampede in Shanghai kills at least 36 people and injures 49 others.




A fire broke out at the Downtown Address Hotel in Downtown Dubai, United Arab Emirates located near the Burj Khalifa 2 hours before the fireworks display was due to commence. 





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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World