Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 12/28 今日の出來事



Bonifatius I ??0422、042ロウマ教皇
He was a contemporary of Saint Augustine of Hippo, who dedicated to him some of his works.


Majorian is acclaimed emperor of the Western Roman Empire and recognized by Emperor Leo I the Thracian.

Majorien est acclamé empereur d'Occident et est reconnu par l'empereur d'Orient Léon Ier le Grand.

An earthquake destroys the city of Dvin, Armenia.


Westminster Abbey is consecrated.







Vote de la Grande ordonnance par les États généraux.

The great ordinance of 1357 is an attempt, led by Etienne Marcel, to impose a control on the French monarchy, especially in fiscal and monetary matters.

1367/1228:02室町將軍 足利義詮133067、卒去

Ashikaga Yoshiakira was the 2nd shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1358 to 1367 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshiakira was the son of the founder and first shogun of the Muromachi shogunate, Ashikaga Takauji. His mother was Akahashi Tōshi, also known as Hōjō Nariko.


1478/1228:スヰスで「Battle of Giornico
 takes place during the Ennetbirgian campaigns. Together, about 600 Uri and locals can defeat a Milanese army of several thousand men. The Leventina is then governed permanently from the canton of Uri.



1503/1228:Pietro di Lorenzo de' Medici 147203、死去

è stato un politico e militare italiano, figlio primogenito di Lorenzo de' Medici e Clarice Orsini e fratello di Giovanni de' Medici, il futuro Papa Leone X.
When his father Lorenzo, who built the Medici's heyday, died of disease at the age of 43 at 1492, the clown succeeded at the age of 20 at the age of 20.
He was originally poor and his complaints of Florence citizens were also rising. In 1494, when the French army invaded for the Kingdom of Naples, he was exiled from Florence because he approved the entry of the French Army without doubt without fighting. At this time, the Medici Bank also failed. After that, he became an exile.

After that, he was acting with the army of Cesare Borgia, but during the battle in 1503, he drowned in the Galilean River while on the run.
Due to his death, the head of the Medici family was inherited by his younger brother Giovanni (Cardinal, later Pope Leo X).

Prima osservazione di Nettuno di Galileo, ma la considera una stella.

First observation of Neptune by Galileo, but he considers it a star.


1622/1228:François de Sales 156722、死去

un prêtre catholique savoyard.
Nommé évêque de Genève, il ne put jamais prendre possession de son siège devenu la "Rome des calvinistes" et resta en résidence à Annecy. Proclamé saint et docteur de l'Église il est liturgiquement commémoré le 24 janvier.


King Taksin's coronation achieved through conquest as a king of Thailand and established Thonburi as a capital.


Detained as alleged perpetrators of the Ratcliffe Highway murders John Williams commits suicide.




1829/1228:Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck 174429、死去

「ラマルク」un naturaliste français.
Au début du XIXe siècle, il a réalisé la classification des invertébrés, qui regroupent environ 80 % des animaux. Il est un de ceux qui ont pour la première fois utilisé le terme de biologie pour désigner la science qui étudie les êtres vivants.


Osceola leads his Seminole warriors in Florida into the Second Seminole War against the United States Army.

Osceola (180438), born as Billy Powell, became an influential leader of the Seminole in Florida. Of mixed parentage, Creek, Scots-Irish, Black, and English, he was raised as a Creek by his mother, as the tribe had a matrilineal kinship system. They migrated to Florida when he was a child, with other Red Stick refugees, after their defeat in 1814 in the Creek Wars.



Chateaubriand est nommé ministre des Affaires étrangères pour mener une politique favorable à la Sainte-Alliance.



Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico with the signing of the Santa María–Calatrava Treaty.


1856/1228:Thomas Woodrow Wilson 185624、誕生

an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910 and then ran and was elected as a progressive Democrat to the office of Governor of New Jersey. Wilson's victory in the 1912 presidential election made him the first Southerner elected to the presidency since Zachary Taylor in 1848.
He also led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism." He was a major leader at the Paris [Versailles] Peace Conference in 1919, where he championed the proposed League of Nations. However, he was unable to obtain Senate approval for U.S. membership. After he suffered debilitating strokes in September 1919, his wife and staff members handled most of his presidential duties.



In the Second Opium War British and French ships start from the Pearl River with the shelling of Canton.


Tazawa Inabune est une femme de lettres japonaise.


1878/1228:William Lendrum Mitchell 187836、誕生

a United States Army general who is regarded as the father of the United States Air Force. USAの「空軍の父」
Mitchell was an air force independentist, a proponent of battleship useless theory.
From 13th to 21st July 1921, Mitchell confirmed that it was a large-scale bombing test against a battleship with the Army and Army cooperation.
Mitchell then went around preaching the establishment of the United States Air Force to various fields, but could not be used, eventually became disliked by the military leadership, was released, was transferred to the reserve role.

After the discharge. "In the future people will see the aircraft as the greatest means of defense and transport all over the world," he said.

1879/1228:スコットランド「Tay Bridge disaster」
 The central part of the Tay Rail Bridge in Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom collapses as a train passes over it, killing 75.

The Firth of Tay Bridge over the Tay in Scotland collapses as it crosses a train. 75 people die. Theodor Fontane later writes the ballad Die Brück 'am Tay.





「Mori Tsutomu」Japanese politician in the prewar Showa era, member of the House of Representatives.
He was an imperialist who recognized himself as "Cecil Rose of the Orient" and played a major role in entering Japan in China in cooperation with the military.


1885/1228:Vladimir Tatlin 188553、誕生

「タトリン」Владимир Евграфович Татлин), Художник, скульптор, архитектор, дизайнер, художник-постановщик из Российской империи

Tatlin's tower, 1919

Казимир Малевич 187835 らとともに、1920年ソビエト連邦のロシアアヴァンギャルドおよびロシア構成主義の代表的な作家の一人にあげられるが、その活動に關はりながらもマレヴィチらと袂を分かち、構成主義をもっとも批判した作家でもあった。

In Bombay, the inaugural meeting of the Indian Congress Party takes place.


1888/1228:Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau 188831、誕生

ムルナウ」(Friedrich Wilhelm Plumpe, dit), réalisateur allemand

1890/1228:USA「Wounded Kee Massacre
 Ethnic cleansing carried out by the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the US Army (US Army) against the Sioux Indian band.

The white side calls this massacre "battle" and the seventh cavalry that executed the massacre has been awarded the medal of honor. However, the Indian side calls this "massacre against the Big Foot's line" and makes it a symbol of the Indian War.


Yamamoto Kakuma was a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period, who went on to become an educator and politician in the Meiji era.


Frères de Lumière à Paris a ouvert le cinématographe pour la première fois dans le commerce.

Première projection publique payante de cinéma au Salon indien du Grand Café à Paris : La Sortie de l'usine Lumière à Lyon d'Auguste et Louis Lumière.

Wilhelm Röntgen veröffentlicht seine erste Mitteilung zu den später nach ihm benannten Röntgenstrahlen.

Wilhelm Röntgen publishes a paper detailing his discovery of a new type of radiation, which later will be known as x-rays.

Première de Cyrano de Bergerac d'Edmond Rostand au théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin.



1903/1228:George Gissing 185703、死去

an English novelist who published 23 novels between 1880 and 1903. Gissing also worked as a teacher and tutor throughout his life. He published his first novel, Workers in the Dawn, in 1880. His best known novels, which are published in modern editions, include The Nether World (1889), New Grub Street (1891), and The Odd Women (1893).


1903/1228:John von Neumann 190357、誕生

a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, and computer scientist.
He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, representation theory, operator algebras, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and quantum statistical mechanics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics.


Hori Tatsuo est un écrivain japonais et poète de la première moitié du XXe siècle. Hori est également traducteur.
Il était dégoûté de la tendance à la «nouveauté privée» de l'art littéraire japonais de l'ère Meiji et essayait de faire consciemment de la «fiction» une romance (roman occidental).
Il a activement adopté la psychologie de la littérature française et apporté de nouveaux sentiments à l'interprétation des classiques japonais, en particulier la littérature féminine de la période Heian, et a créé un monde littéraire unique en les fusionnant.

Le città del sud Italia di Messina e Reggio Calabria vengono distrutte da un grave terremoto che uccide oltre 100000 persone.

The 7.1 Mw Messina earthquake shakes Southern Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing between 75,000 and 200,000.


The first municipally owned streetcars take to the streets in San Francisco.





1924/1228:Leon Samoilovitch Bakst 186624、死去

художник, сценограф, иллюстратор и дизайнер, работавший преимущественно в Санкт-Петербурге и Париже.「レオン サモイォヴィチ バクスト」
Dans le Ballet Rusu présidé par Sergei Diaghilev, il était en charge d'autres arts de la scène tels que "Oiseau de feu", "Prélude à l'après-midi de Faun", "Daphnis et Chloé".


Nijinsky dans L’Après-midi d’un faune (1912)      L’Oiseau de feu (1910)


Die Seilbahn auf den Fichtelberg im Erzgebirge nimmt ihren Betrieb auf. Die Fichtelberg-Schwebebahn ist die älteste Luftseilbahn in Deutschland.





1932/1228:Manuel Puig 193290、誕生

「プイグ」un escritor argentino de relevancia mundial por sus novelas Boquitas pintadas, El beso de la mujer araña y Pubis Angelical.

En 1945 se esforzó por estudiar lenguas extranjeras y filosofía en la universidad. En 1956, fui a Italia con una beca. Fue director asistente de Vittorio de Sieka y Rene Clement, con el objetivo de ser director de cine y guionista en Cinecitta de Roma, pero se sintió frustrado y se convirtió en novelista. 


a Japanese actor and singer born in Kobe.
His elder brother is Shintaro Ishihara, an author, politician, and the Governor of Tokyo between 1999 and 2012. Yujiro's film debut was the 1956 film Season of the Sun, based on a novel written by his brother. He was beloved by many fans as a representative youth star in the films of postwar Japan and subsequently as a macho movie hero. He was extravagantly mourned following his early death from liver cancer.

1937/1228:Maurice Ravel 187537、死去

Avec son aîné Claude Debussy, Ravel fut la figure la plus influente de la musique française de son époque et le principal représentant du courant dit impressionniste au début du XXe siècle.





Baron Masuda Takashi (益田 孝, November 12, 1848 – December 28, 1938), was a Japanese industrialist, investor, and art collector. He was a prominent entrepreneur in Meiji, Taishō and early Shōwa period Japan, responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu through the creation of a general trading company, Mitsui Bussan.



a Japanese film, stage, and television actor.
Watari was mentored at Nikkatsu by Yujiro Ishihara.

1941/1228:WWⅡ「Operation Anthropoid」開始
 the plot to assassinate high-ranking Nazi officer Reinhard Heydrich, commences.


Calcutta bombardment by Japanese air force.


 After eight days of brutal house-to-house fighting, the Battle of Ortona concludes with the victory of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division over the German 1st Parachute Division and the capture of the Italian town of Ortona.


1945/1228:Theodore Dreiser 187145、死去

an American novelist and journalist of the naturalist school.
His novels often featured main characters who succeeded at their objectives despite a lack of a firm moral code, and literary situations that more closely resemble studies of nature than tales of choice and agency.[2] Dreiser's best known novels include Sister Carrie (1900) and An American Tragedy (1925).


The US Congress passes the War Brides Act. The law allows the entry of US military wives and assists in the reunification of soldier marriages abroad.



Abolish the former religious group law, promulgate and enforce the Royal Decree "religious corporation order".

The DC-3 airliner NC16002 disappears 50 miles south of Miami.


1950/1228:Korea War
The Chinese army crosses the 38th parallel in Korea.


Che Guevara acompañado por solo 300 hombres, logra tomar la ciudad de Santa Clara durante la revolución cubana.

Che Guevara accompanied by only 300 men, manages to take the city of Santa Clara during the Cuban revolution.

Tennessee Williams' drama The Night of the Iguana premieres on Broadway at the Royale Theater, now the Bernard B. Jacobs Theater.


1963/1228:Paul Hindemith189563、死去

ein deutscher Komponist der Moderne (Neue Musik).
In seiner frühen Schaffensperiode schockierte er das klassische Konzertpublikum mit provozierend neuartigen Klängen (schroffen Rhythmen, grellen Dissonanzen, Einbezug von Jazz-Elementen), was ihm den Ruf eines „Bürgerschrecks“ einbrachte.

1971/1228:Max Steiner 188871、死去

Maximilian Raoul Walter « Max » Steiner was an Austrian-born American music composer for theatre and films.
Steiner played a major part in creating the tradition of writing music for films, along with composers Dimitri Tiomkin, Franz Waxman, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, Alfred Newman, Bernard Herrmann, and Miklós Rózsa.

Kim Il-sung assumed the newly established state president in accordance with the new Constitution established in North Korea the day before.


The remains of Martin Bormann, at the time of National Socialism head of the Party Chancellery of the NSDAP with the powers of a Reich Minister, are identified in Berlin.


L'oeuvre d'Alexandre Isaïevitch Soljenitsyne L'archipel du Goulag apparaît en russe dans un éditeur émigrant à Paris.


The Endangered Species Act is passed in the United States.



Japanese actor, moderator.


Yokomizo Seishi, a novelist in Shōwa period Japan.


In the United States, Elizabeth Carr is born as a test tube baby. She is the first artificial insemination child in US history.


1984/1228:Sam Peckinpah 192584、死去

「ペキンパ」an American film director and screenwriter who achieved prominence following the release of the Western epic The Wild Bunch (1969). He was known for the visually innovative and explicit depiction of action and violence as well as his revisionist approach to the Western genre.

Many of his films were noted for behind-the-scenes battles with producers and crew members, damaging his reputation and career during his lifetime. Some of his films, including Major Dundee (1965), Straw Dogs (1971), The Getaway (1972), Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (1973), Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia (1974) and Cross of Iron (1977), remain controversial.

1989/1228:チェコの大統領に Alexander Dubček
 is elected President of the Czechoslovak Parliament in the course of the Velvet Revolution.



réalisateur japonais 日本の映画監督



1900/1228:Ed van der Elsken 192590、死去

「エルスケン」un photographe néerlandais.


Il a publié une vingtaine de livres dont le célèbre Une Histoire d'amour à Saint-Germain des Près.


CIA Director James Woolsey must resign following the case of spy Aldrich Ames.




To stop the spread of H5N1, the bird flu H5N1 pathogen, Hong Kong authorities kill about 1.5 million chickens.


1998/1228:Robert Rosen 193498、死去

an American theoretical biologist
He made a unique philosophical and mathematical consideration on what "life is?" And tried to formulate it in a framework called relational biology.

Rosen's research was concerned with the most fundamental aspects of biology, specifically the questions "What is life?" and "Why are living organisms alive?".
Rosen believed that the contemporary model of physics - which he showed to be based on a Cartesian and Newtonian formalism suitable for describing a world of mechanisms - was inadequate to explain or describe the behavior of biological systems.

2004/1228:Susan Sontag 193304、死去

an American writer, film-maker, teacher, and political activist.

She published her first major work, the essay "Notes on 'Camp'", in 1964. Her best-known works include On Photography, Against Interpretation, Styles of Radical Will, The Way We Live Now, Illness as Metaphor, Regarding the Pain of Others, The Volcano Lover, and In America.


2006/1228:War in Somalia
 The militaries of Somalia's Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopian troops capture Mogadishu unopposed.


Forty-three people die in a suicide bombing in Karachi, Pakistan, where Shia Muslims are observing the Day of Ashura.



Takamine Hideko est une actrice et essayiste japonaise.
Elle débute au cinéma dès son enfance et devient extrêmement populaire au point qu'on la compare à Shirley Temple.
Elle poursuit sa carrière à l'âge adulte et reste une des actrices les plus populaires du cinéma japonais jusqu'aux années 1960. Parmi ses films les plus importants, Carmen revient au pays(カルメン、故郷に歸る)de Keisuke Kinoshita 木下恵介191298 et Nuages flottants(浮雲)de Mikio Naruse 成瀬巳喜男190569.
Son autobiographie Une vie au turbin (渡世日記, Tosei nikki) a reçu le prix du Club des essayistes du Japon en 1976.




Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 crashes into the Karimata Strait en route from Surabaya to Singapore, killing all 162 people aboard.


2015/1228:Japan & sKorea「日本軍慰安婦問題」



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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World