Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 12/19 今日の出來事


Publius Septimius Geta, co-emperor of Rome, is lured to come without his bodyguards to meet his brother Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla), to discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrives, the Praetorian Guard murders him and he dies in the arms of his mother, Julia Domna.




Henry II of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey.







Anne(Duchess of Brittany, is married to Maximilian I)Holy Roman Emperor by proxy.



1562/1219:フランス宗教戰爭「Battle of Dreux」
 takes place during the French Wars of Religion.

Between Catholics and Huguenots. The Catholics were led by Anne de Montmorency while Louis I, Prince of Condé led the Huguenots. Though commanders from both sides were captured, the French Catholics won the battle.

The Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery depart England carrying settlers who founded, at Jamestown, Virginia, the first of the thirteen colonies that became the United States.

{?と思ったけど、調べてみて解った。SusanConstant も Godspeed も、Discovery も船の名前だった ――
Susan Constant, captained by Christopher Newport, was the largest of three ships of the English Virginia Company (the others being Discovery and Godspeed) on the 1606~07 voyage that resulted in the founding of Jamestown in the new Colony of Virginia.



One of a number of battles surrounding the siege of Osaka, in this war the Tokugawa shogunate destroyed the Toyotomi clan, the last major opposition to its control of Japan.


Le roi de France Louis XIV arrête le cardinal de Retz pour son ingérence dans la politique du jour et l'emprisonne dans le pénitencier de Vincennes.

The King of France Louis XIV arrested the Cardinal de Retz for his interference in the politics of the day and imprisoned him in the Penitentiary of Vincennes.

Under the regency of Sweden's underage King Charles XI the University of Lund is founded.



1675/1219:アメリカ、入植者vs先住民「Great Swamp Fight」
a pivotal battle in King Philip's War, gives the English settlers a bitterly won victory.

The Great Swamp Fight(the Great Swamp Massacre)was a crucial battle fought during King Philip's War between colonial militia of New England and the Narragansett tribe. It was fought near the villages of Kingston and West Kingston in present-day South Kingstown, Rhode Island.

Narragansett casualties, including many hundred women and children. The battle has been described as "one of the most brutal and lopsided military encounters in all of New England's history.

The Dutch hydraulic engineer and cartographer Nicolaus Samuelis Cruquius begins in Delft as one of the world's first with regular meteorological records (temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, precipitation).
As a result, there are uninterrupted weather records since 1706 in the Netherlands.


1722 /1219:オランダ、インドに國策會社、設立
Fondation de la Compagnie d'Ostende.

# La Compagnie d'Ostende dont le nom officiel était Compagnie générale, impériale et royale des Indes, fut une compagnie privée créée dans les Pays-Bas méridionaux au début du XVIIIe siècle pour commercer avec les Indes. https://is.gd/oCwBp1


Thomas Paine publishes one of a series of pamphlets in The Pennsylvania Journal entitled "The American Crisis".


Often known as The American Crisis or simply The Crisis, there are 16 pamphlets in total
Paine signed the pamphlets with the pseudonym, "Common Sense."

1777/1219:American Revolutionary War:
George Washington's Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.



William Pitt the Younger becomes prime minister in London, at age 24, the youngest person in British history.



1793/1219:フランス軍、Toulon をイギリス軍から取り返す
The French Revolutionary Army recaptures Toulon occupied by the English in the First Coalition War.


Two British frigates under Commodore Horatio Nelson and two Spanish frigates under Commodore Don Jacobo Stuart engage in battle off the coast of Murcia.


1811/1219:イギリス、連續殺人事件「Ratcliffe Highway murders」
In London, another three people are murdered in their home, the case goes down in history as the Ratcliffe Highway murders.


1828/1219:USA「Nullification Crisis」
 Vice President of the United States John Calhoun pens the South Carolina Exposition and Protest, protesting the Tariff of 1828.


1843/1219:Charles Dickens『A Christmas Carol』publish
A Christmas Carol tells the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an old miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the Ghosts of Christmas Past, Present, and Yet to Come. After their visits Scrooge is transformed into a kinder, gentler man.

Dickens in 1842, the year before the publication of A Christmas Carol

1848/1219:Emily Brontë 181848、死去

an English novelist and poet who is best known for her only novel, Wuthering Heights, now considered a classic of English literature. Emily was the third-eldest of the four surviving Brontë siblings, between the youngest Anne and her brother Branwell. She wrote under the pen name Ellis Bell.

The three Brontë sisters, in an 1834 painting by their brother Branwell Brontë.


1851/1219:Joseph Mallord William Turner 177551、死去

an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.

Turner. Self Portrait,


Snow Storm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth, 1842


Rain, Steam and Speed – The Great Western Railway painted (1844)

He became more pessimistic and morose as he got older, especially after the death of his father, after which his outlook deteriorated, and his gallery fell into disrepair and neglect. He lived in poor health from 1845, dying in London in 1851 aged seventy-six. He is buried in Saint Paul's Cathedral, London.

1852/1219:Albert Abraham Michelson 185231、誕生

American physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment.
In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, becoming the first American to win the Nobel Prize in a science.

1877, he made the light speed measurement experiment for the first time in Annapolis. After learning in Europe for two years, he retired the navy in 1881. Invented Michaelson interferometer.
1883, he got a position as a physics professor at Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, Ohio, and worked on improving the interferometer there.
1887, Edward Morley and famous "Michaelson Morley Experiment" were done, effectively negating the existence of ether.

The Edo shogunate signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the UK, France and Ran and the Yokohama Settlement.


Die Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft wird durch die Verschmelzung des Deutschen Kolonialvereins und der Gesellschaft für Deutsche Kolonisation mit dem Sitz in Berlin gegründet. Die Haupttätigkeit der Gesellschaft besteht in der Propagierung einer expansiven Kolonialpolitik.

The German colonial society is founded by the merger of the German colonial association and the society for German colonization with the seat in Berlin. The main activity of the society consists in the propagation of an expansionary colonial policy.

1888/1219:Fritz Reiner 188863、誕生

a prominent conductor of opera and symphonic music in the twentieth century. Hungarian born and trained, he emigrated to the United States in 1922, where he rose to prominence as a conductor with several orchestras.

ライナは若き日の師であった Béla Bartók 188145 と親密な關係を持ちつづけた。彼はアメリカに亡命後のバルトクの困窮を救ふために奔走し、『作曲者・著作者・出版者のためのアメリカ協会』に医療費を負担させるとともに、ボストン交響楽団音楽監督だったセルゲイ クウセヴィツキに働きかけて、バルトウクへの作曲依頼を働きかけた。さうしてできたのが『管絃樂のための狂想曲』である。


un architecte japonais. Il sort diplômé de l'École d'Art de Tokyo en 1923.
Son style, connu sous le nom de sukiya 數寄屋, combine des éléments de l'architecture japonaise traditionnelle et de l'architecture moderniste.




1894/1219:Richard Vogt 189479、誕生

ein deutscher Ingenieur und Flugzeugkonstrukteur.



Hopetoun Blunder: The first Governor-General of Australia John Hope appoints Sir William Lyne premier of the new state of New South Wales, but he is unable to persuade other colonial politicians to join his government and is forced to resign.


Two hundred thirty-nine coal miners die in the Darr Mine Disaster in Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania.


1910/1219:Jean Genet 191086、誕生

un écrivain, poète et auteur dramatique français. Par une écriture raffinée et riche, Jean Genet exalte l'homosexualité et l'érotisme, à travers la célébration de personnages ambivalents au sein de mondes interlopes.


William Van Schaick, captain of the steamship General Slocum which caught fire and killed over one thousand people, is pardoned by U.S. President William Howard Taft after three-and-a-half-years in Sing Sing prison.


1915/1219:Édith Piaf 191563、誕生

(Édith Giovanna Gassion, dite), chanteuse française
un chanteur de cabaret français, compositeur et actrice qui est devenu largement considéré comme la chanteuse nationale de la France, en plus d'être l'une des plus grandes stars internationales de la France.

Among her well-known songs are "La Vie en rose" (1946), "Non, je ne regrette rien" (1960), "Hymne à l'amour" (1949), "Milord" (1959), "La Foule" (1957), "L'Accordéoniste" (1940), and "Padam ... Padam ..." (1951).

1915/1219:Aloïs Alzheimer 186415、死去

ein deutscher Psychiater und Neuropathologe. Er beschrieb als erster eine Demenzerkrankung, die heute Alzheimer-Krankheit genannt wird.

In 1901, a case of a female patient whose complaint was mainly attributed to Auguste Deter, such as jealous delusions and memory loss, was announced to the Southwestern German Psychiatric Association in 1906. This case later was referred to as "Alzheimer's disease" It is widely recognized as occupying much of the current so-called "dementia" disease, and it is currently the mainstream research subject of many medical and pharmacologists as a lifetime.


Fin de la bataille de Verdun.

La bataille de Verdun est une bataille qui eut lieu du 21 février au 19 décembre 1916 dans la région de Verdun en Lorraine, durant la Première Guerre mondiale. Elle oppose les armées française et allemande.



Fritz Haarmann wird in Hannover wegen 24-fachen Mordes zum Tode verurteilt.

Fritz Haarmann is sentenced to death in Hannover for 24-fold murder.

Er wird auch Der Vampir, Der Schlächter, Der Kannibale und Der Werwolf von Hannover genannt und als Der Totmacher nach einem gleichnamigen Film tituliert, obwohl dies der Spitzname des Serienmörders Rudolf Pleil war.


The last Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost is sold in London, England.



Three Indian revolutionaries, Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh and Ashfaqulla Khan, are executed by the British Empire.



Korean independence activist who set off a bomb that killed several Japanese dignitaries in Shanghai's Hongkew Park (now Lu Xun Park) in 1932.


BBC World Service begins broadcasting as the BBC Empire Service.


Bei einer Probefahrt legt der Fliegende Hamburger die Strecke zwischen Berlin und Hamburg in der Rekordzeit von 142 Minuten zurück. Der Schnelltriebwagen wird ab dem 15. Mai 1933 fahrplanmäßig eingesetzt.

During a test drive the Fliegende Hamburger travels the distance between Berlin and Hamburg in a record time of 142 minutes. The fast railcar will be used from 15 May 1933 on schedule.


Adolf Hitler appoints himself as head of the Oberkommando des Heeres.

Adolf Hitler übernimmt anstelle des entlassenen Generalfeldmarschalls Walther von Brauchitsch den Oberbefehl über die deutsche Wehrmacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg.
Adolf Hitler takes over the command of the German Wehrmacht in the Second World War in place of the dismissed Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch.

Limpet mines placed by Italian divers heavily damage the HMS Valiant and HMS Queen Elizabeth in Alexandria harbour.


John Amery, British Fascist, at the age of 33 executed by the British Government for treason.


1946/1219:Paul Langevin 187246、死去

「ポル ランジュヴァン」un physicien, philosophe des sciences et pédagogue français, connu notamment pour sa théorie du magnétisme, l'introduction de la théorie de la relativité d'Albert Einstein en France, le plan Langevin-Wallon de réforme de l'enseignement et pour l'organisation des congrès Solvay.


Einstein, Ehrenfest, Langevin, Kamerlingh Onnes et Weiss chez Kamerlingh Onnes 


French troops overthrow the government of Ho Chi Minh in Vietnamese Hanoi. The Việt Minh go underground after an attack on the French garrison in the city and begin the fight against the foreign rule led as Indochinakrieg.


1953/1219:Robert Andrews Millikan 186853、死去

American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

After graduating from high school in Iowa State, he entered University of Oberlin, and in 1891 he received a bachelor's degree in Western classical studies. Upon graduating until the second grade, he was asked to a professor in Greek for a physics lecturer, "Anyone who is excellent in Greek and can teach physics anyone." Until then he had no interest in physics, but he studied during the summer vacation and became a lecturer.

Irish-born physician John Bodkin Adams is arrested in connection with the suspicious deaths of more than 160 patients. Eventually he is convicted only of minor charges.

The British police arrest the doctor John Bodkin Adams on suspicion of being a serial killer. As a defendant, he is later acquitted.

India annexes Daman and Diu, part of Portuguese India.


Kurt Cannon flies with 355.5 km / h new world record for helicopters with his Sikorsky S-67 Blackhawk.



1972/1219:USA「Apollo program」
The last manned lunar flight, Apollo 17, crewed by Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans, and Harrison Schmitt, returns to Earth.



Kitani Minoru a été l’un des joueurs de go professionnels les plus célèbres au Japon, au cours du XXe siècle.

Sixteen lives are lost when the Penlee lifeboat goes to the aid of the stricken coaster Union Star in heavy seas.


The Sino-British Joint Declaration, stating that China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and the United Kingdom would restore Hong Kong to China with effect from July 1, 1997 is signed in Beijing, China by Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher.



China's first successful experiment of neutron bomb theory succeeded, laying the foundation for the first test of a neutron bomb after 4 years.

Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet Union, releases Andrei Sakharov and his wife from exile in Gorky.


The United States Government restores federal recognition to the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi Native American tribe.


1996/1219:Marcello Mastroianni 192496、死去

un attore cinematografico italiano.



Ibuka Masaru was a Japanese electronics industrialist and founder of Sony with Morita Akio 盛田昭夫.

SilkAir Flight 185 crashes into the Musi River, near Palembang in Indonesia, killing 104.



President Bill Clinton is impeached by the United States House of Representatives, becoming the second President of the United States to be impeached.

A record high barometric pressure of 1085.6 hPa (32.06 inHg) is recorded at Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl, Mongolia.


Argentine economic crisis: December riots: Riots erupt in Buenos Aires, Argentina.


2005/1219:Vincent Gigante 192805、死去

also known as "Chin", was a New York Italian-American mobster in the American Mafia who was boss of the Genovese crime family from 1981 to 2005.


en Turquie, assassinat du diplomate russe Andreï Karlov qui y était ambassadeur de Russie.

Russian ambassador to Turkey Andrei Karlov is assassinated while at an art exhibition in Ankara. The assassin, Mevlüt Mert Altıntaş, is shot and killed by Turkish guards.

Durch einen mit einem LKW ausgeführten Anschlag auf den Berliner Weihnachtsmarkt an der Gedächtniskirche kommen zwölf Menschen ums Leben und 57 weitere werden verletzt.

A vehicular attack in Berlin, Germany, kills and injures multiple people at a Christmas market.


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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World