Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World
今日が誕生日の Camille Claudel 186443 の La Valse 1888


歴史暦:古今東西 12/08 今日の出來事

現代世界的には1980年、Newyorkで John Lennon が射殺された日といふことになるのだらうか。


-065/1208:Quintus Horatius Flaccus -06508、誕生

「ホラチウス」known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus.
The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words."

Later Yan is defeated by its former vassal Northern Wei at the Battle of Canhe Slope.



Du Fu 杜甫 returns to Chang'an 長安 as a member of Emperor Xuanzong'肅宗s court, after having escaped the city during the An Lushan 安祿山 Rebellion.



sacre du roi des Francs Louis II le Bègue.

Louis the Stammerer (son of Charles the Bald) is crowned king of the West Frankish Kingdom at Compiègne.


0899/1208:Arnulf von Kärnten 085099、死去

Arnolf von Kärnten (auch Arnulf, Arnold) aus dem Adelsgeschlecht der Karolinger war ab 887 König des Ostfrankenreiches und von 896 bis 899 römischer Kaiser.



Stammtafel der Karolinger aus der zweiten Hälfte des 12.


the Yellow River diversion. Before the diversion, the Yellow River moved northeast toward Kaifeng 開封 and into the Bohai Sea 渤海 in Shandong. After the diversion route, the lower Yellow River flows through the route and is divided into three sub-areas: the administrative areas of China, generally passing through Henan Province's Shenyang, Zhengzhou, Yuanyang, Yanjin, Fengqiu, Zhongmou, Kaifeng and Lankao; Xiaoshan, Anhui, and finally into Jiangsu, Fengxian, Peixian, Xuzhou, Pixian, Suining, Suqian, Siyang, Huaian, Lianshui, Funing, Binhai then into the Yellow Sea.



a Japanese samurai 武家 commander in the Genpei War 源平合戰, the great conflict between the Minamoto 源氏 and Taira 平氏 clans.

When depicted in tales or in art, Takatsuna is often shown racing Kajiwara Kagesue across the River Uji atop Shogun Yoritomo's white horse, Ikezuki, to be the first to engage in battle at the 1184 battle of Uji.


Kajiwara Kagesue 梶原景季116200, Sasaki Takatsuna 佐々木高綱116014, and Hatakeyama Shigetada 畠山重忠116405 racing to cross the Uji River 宇治川 before the second battle of Uji.


The first battle between the forces of Švitrigaila and Sigismund Kęstutaitis is fought near the town of Oszmiana (Ashmyany), launching the most active phase of the Lithuanian Civil War.


La Biblioteca Ambrosiana di Milano apre la sua sala di lettura al pubblico come seconda biblioteca in Europa dopo la Biblioteca Bodleiana di Oxford.

The Milan-based Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room for the public as the second library in Europe after the Oxford Bodleian Library.

Leonard da Vinci 145219 の手稿類も蔵してゐる。

1542/1208:Mary Stuart (Queen of Scots) 154287、誕生

Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.

A woman (either Margaret Hughes or Anne Marshall) appears on an English public stage for the first time, in the role of Desdemona in a production of Shakespeare's play Othello.



Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu (柳沢 吉保) was a Japanese samurai 武家 of the Edo period. He was an official in the Tokugawa shogunate 徳川幕府 and he was a favorite of the fifth shogun, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉164609.
He served Tsunayoshi from an early age, becoming his wakashū 若衆 and eventually rose to the position of soba yōnin 側用人.
He was the daimyō 大名 of the Kawagoe han 川越藩, and later of the Kōfu han 甲府藩; he retired in 1709.
He built Rikugien Garden 六義園, a traditional Japanese garden, in 1695.

Yanagisawa played a pivotal role in the matter of the forty-seven rōnin(赤穗浪士)


1793/1208:Madame Du Barry 174393、死去

(Jeanne Bécu de Cantigny, dite), favorite de Louis XV


La mort par la guillotine
Le 8 décembre 1793, Madame du Barry est décapitée par la guillotine de la place de la Révolution (aujourd'hui place de la Concorde). Sur le chemin de la guillotine, elle s'est effondrée dans le tambour et a crié: "Tu vas me faire du mal, pourquoi?" Terrifiée, elle a crié pour la pitié et a supplié la foule indifférente pour l'aide. Ses derniers mots au bourreau étaient: Un instant de plus, monsieur l'exécuteur, je vous en supplie! Elle a été enterrée au cimetière de la Madeleine, comme beaucoup d'autres victimes de la terreur, y compris Louis XVI et Marie-Antoinette.

Only six years after the first great fire, another major fire destroys large parts of New Orleans.


In Wien dirigiert Ludwig van Beethoven die Uraufführung seiner 7. Sinfonie.


1830/1208:Benjamin Constant 176730、死去

「バンジャマン コンスタン」Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque
un romancier, homme politique, et intellectuel français d'origine vaudoise.

He examined the relationship between state power and the individual that had become problematic in the French Revolution.
In 1802 he was put down by Napoleon, but
in 1815 invited by him to write an amendment to the Constitution of France.
Constant influenced with his ideas the November Uprising, the Greek Revolution, the Liberal Revolution in Portugal and the Belgian Revolution.


1794年に出会ったスタル夫人と關係を持った。夫人はすでに別居状態であり、サロンの活動に熱中してゐた。二人は暫く行動をともにし、スヰスとパリを往來した。コンスタンはスタル夫人から物心兩面でおほいに影響を受けた。子供もできた。この頃から彼は積極的な政事的行動を開始、選擧に出馬したりする。しかし、やがてNapoléon Bonaparte 176921が登場して來て、反ナポレオンだったコンスタンは

1832/1208:Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 183210、誕生

「ビョルンスティエルネ ビョルンソン」ein norwegischer Dichter, Literaturnobelpreisträger und Politiker.
Bjørnson verfasste unter anderem die norwegische Nationalhymne Ja, vi elsker dette landet und war der Begründer des Riksmålsforbundet.



(中江兆民, Nakae Chōmin), pseudonyme 號 de (中江篤介, Nakae Tokusuke?) est un écrivain et penseur politique japonais actif de l'époque Meiji.
En 1871, il part pour la France dans le cadre de la mission Iwakura 岩倉 et se familiarise avec des idées plus radicales, en particulier celles de Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
En 1888, Chōmin écrit le roman politique, le Sansuijin keirin mondō (三酔人経綸問答, discussion entre trois hommes ivres sur la conduite des affaires). Cette œuvre a été particulièrement importante à l'époque car elle a posé le débat sur la pertinence du pacifisme et sur l'adoption de la démocratie par une nation non occidentale.

À la fin de sa vie, Chōmin publia :Ichinen-yū-han (一年有半, Un an et demi, 1901) : fragments autobiographiques, politiques, philosophiques. On y trouve la fameuse phrase : « Au Japon, il n'a jamais existé de philosophie, les Japonais sont un peuple sans philosophie. 日本に哲學なし。日本人は哲學なき民なり»
Zoku Ichinen-yū-han (続一年有半, Un an et demi, suite, II) : présentation d'une philosophie matérialiste et athée.

L'opera Luisa Miller di Giuseppe Verdi con il libretto di Salvatore Cammarano dopo la tragedia Kabale e Liebe di Friedrich Schiller debutta al Teatro San Carlo di Napoli.


Papa Pio IX. Con la sua lettera Ineffabilis Deus proclama il dogma dell'Immacolata Concezione.

In his Apostolic constitution Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogmatic definition of Immaculate Conception, which holds that the Blessed Virgin Mary was conceived free of Original Sin.
ロウマ教皇ピウス9の回勅 Ineffabilis Deus で「無原罪の御宿り」がカトリックの教義として公認。

1859/1208:Thomas de Quincey 178559、死去

「トマス ドゥ クインシ」un écrivain britannique. Il naît dans la ville industrielle de Manchester (Lancashire). Son père, marchand de textile, meurt en 1793.


Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1822)
加齡にして晦渋な文体で自分の阿片中毒体験を告白して反響を呼ぶ。が、反響が大きすぎて、社界的惡影響と非難を蒙った。この作品は Charles Baudelaire 182167 に愛読された他、Hector Berlioz 180369 にも霊感をあたへ『幻想交響曲』を作らせるなど後世の藝術家に、その反ないし非社界的生き方を啓示した。

On Murder Considered as one of the Fine Arts (1827)
His immediate influence extended to Edgar Allan Poe, Fitz Hugh Ludlow, Charles Baudelaire and Nikolai Gogol, but even major 20th-century writers such as Jorge Luis Borges admired and claimed to be partly influenced by his work.

1861/1208:Aristide Maillol 186144、誕生

「アリスチド マイヨル」un peintre, graveur et sculpteur français.
Maillol fut l'un des sculpteurs les plus célèbres de son temps. Son œuvre, silencieuse, fondée sur des formes pleines élaborées à partir de l'étude du nu féminin, et simplifiées jusqu'à l'épure, représente une véritable révolution artistique, anticipant l'abstraction.

Vénus (1928), bronze,

1861/1208:Georges Méliès 186138、誕生

「ジョルジュ メリエス」フランスの映画作家
Ayant choisi la prestidigitation comme profession, il profite d'une donation de son père, industriel de la chaussure, pour devenir propriétaire et directeur en 1888 du théâtre Robert-Houdin, en sommeil depuis la mort du célèbre illusionniste.
Le 28 décembre 1895, il découvre avec émerveillement les images photographiques animées lors de la première représentation publique à Paris du Cinématographe par les frères Lumière et propose même de racheter le brevet de la machine.
映画の創成期に種々様々な技法を開発した。SFXの創始者で、多重露光や低速度撮影、ディゾルブ、ストップモウションも試みた。手で着彩したカラ映画も制作。撮影を通して現実を操作し変換する作風から、最初の "Cinemagician" とも呼ばれた。
1902/05、映画史上有名な『月世界旅行』を、Jules Verne 182805 の『月世界旅行』とHerbert George Wells 186646 の『月世界最初の人間』を参考に制作した。


After Mexico stops repaying its foreign debt, Spanish troops land in Veracruz as the first expeditionary force. The European creditor states want to use military means to force a continuation of payments. Under the allied powers France, Great Britain and Spain, Emperor Napoleon III. own plans involving a French intervention in Mexico.


The Jesuit church Iglesia de la Compañía in Santiago de Chile is destroyed by fire. The more than 2,000 victims of the fire are erected a monument exactly ten years later.



1864/1208:George Boole 181564、死去

an English mathematician, educator, philosopher and logician.
He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and is best known as the author of The Laws of Thought (1854) which contains Boolean algebra.

≫ No general method for the solution of questions in the theory of probabilities can be established which does not explicitly recognise, not only the special numerical bases of the science, but also those universal laws of thought which are the basis of all reasoning, and which, whatever they may be as to their essence, are at least mathematical as to their form.

His Death
In late November 1864, in heavy rain, Boole walked from his home at Lichfield Cottage in Ballintemple to the university, a distance of three miles, and lectured wearing his wet clothes. He soon became ill, developing pneumonia. As his wife believed that remedies should resemble their cause, she put her husband to bed and poured buckets of water over him – the wet having brought on his illness

1864/1208:Camille Claudel 186443、誕生

une sculptrice et artiste peintre française.
Collaboratrice, maitresse et muse du sculpteur Auguste Rodin, sœur du poète, écrivain, diplomate et académicien Paul Claudel, sa carrière est météoritique, brisée par un internement psychiatrique et une mort quasi-anonyme.


Auguste Rodin, La Pensée (1901)

1864/1208:Jean Sibelius 186557、誕生

「ジャン シベリウス」a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods.
He is widely recognized as his country's greatest composer and, through his music, is often credited with having helped Finland to develop a national identity during its struggle for independence from Russia.

1864/1208:Jacques Hadamard 186463、誕生

「ジャック アダマル」un mathématicien français, connu pour ses travaux en théorie des nombres, en analyse complexe, en analyse fonctionnelle, en géométrie différentielle et en théorie des équations aux dérivées partielles

Pope Pius IX promulgates the encylical Quanta cura and its appendix, the Syllabus of Errors, outlining the authority of the Catholic Church and condemning various liberal ideas.

Pope Pius IX. publishes the encyclical Quanta Cura, condemning religious freedom and the separation of church and state. In the appendix Syllabus errorum he lists a list of 80 "errors of time".

1864/1208:イギリス「Clifton Suspension Bridge」架橋
The Clifton Suspension Bridge, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel over the Avon near Bristol, is inaugurated.


Clifton Suspension Bridge (Illustration 1879)




Japanese novelist, the younger brother of the historian Tokutomi Sohō 徳富蘇峰186357.

{秋水は今日が誕生日の中江兆民184701の愛弟子だった。秋水の號も兆民が使ってゐたものであった。大逆事件の時、すでに兆民はこの世の人ではなかった。もし彼が生きてゐたら、 …… 生きてゐたら、彼も秋水の黒幕として大逆事件に卷き込まれてしまったのだらうな。

Il primo Concilio Vaticano è aperto solennemente.

ouverture du concile Vatican I.


The devastating fire of the Ringtheater in Vienna demands hundreds of deaths. The event has an international impact on preventive fire safety.



1886/1208:Diego Rivera 188657、誕生

un destacado muralista mexicano de ideología comunista, famoso por plasmar obras de alto contenido social en edificios públicos.

Samuel Gompers founds the American Federation of Labor, one of the first union federations in the US, in Columbus, Ohio.


1903/1208:Herbert Spencer 182003、死去

an English philosopher and sociologist.
He was the first to apply the theory of evolution (here: the concept of "survival of the fittest") to social development, thus establishing the paradigm of evolutionism that is often regarded as the precursor of social Darwinism.

「適者生存 (survival of the fittest) 」は Charles Darwin 180982 ではなく、Spencer の造語。
Auguste Comte 179857 の実証主義社会学に多大の影響を受けたスペンサの社会学では、有機體のメタファを借りて社界をシステムとして把握し、これを「維持・分配・規制」のシステムに分かち、その「構造と機能」を中心的概念とした。

Spencer was "the single most famous European intellectual in the closing decades of the nineteenth century" but his influence declined sharply after 1900: "Who now reads Spencer?" asked Talcott Parsons in 1937.


日本の映画俳優。 (嵐 寛壽郎 Arashi Kanjūrō) was a Japanese film actor. He entered the film industry in 1927 and came to fame playing Kurama Tengu 鞍馬天狗, a character in the Bakumatsu 幕末 era created by Jirō Osaragi 大佛次郎 in his novels


The Montezuma Castle in Arizona and the Inscription Rock in New Mexico are declared National Monuments of the USA.



A squadron of Britain's Royal Navy defeats the Imperial German East Asia Squadron in the Battle of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.


In the satirical magazine Punch the poem In Flanders Fields for the First World War of the Canadian John McCrae is published.


In Flanders fields the poppies blow
    Between the crosses, row on row,
  That mark our place; and in the sky
  The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead.   Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
  Loved and were loved, and now we lie
      In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
  The torch; be yours to hold it high.
  If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
      In Flanders fields.

{この後出てくる、今日暗殺された John Lennon の Imagine と比べることもないけれど、比べてしまった。

1919/1208:ポウランド&ロシア「Curzon line」
 is created in Paris as a proposal for the Polish-Russian demarcation line.



An ad with the slogan "One Looks Worth A Thousand Words" in the journal Printers' Ink develops after the proverb A picture is worth a thousand words.


1922/1208:Lucian Freud 192211、誕生

a British painter and draftsman, specializing in figurative art, and is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists.

Northern Ireland ceases to be part of the Irish Free State.


Die Uraufführung von Bertolt Brechts Stück Baal am Leipziger Alten Theater löst einen Skandal aus. Das Drama wird auf Drängen des Oberbürgermeisters abgesetzt.


1925/1208:Sammy Davis Jr 192590、誕生

Samuel George « Sammy » Davis, Jr., artiste américain


The world premiere of the opera A Witch of Salem by Charles Wakefield Cadman takes place in Chicago.

1927/1208:Niklas Luhmann 192798、誕生

a German sociologist and social theorist.
As the most important German-speaking representative of sociological systems theory and socio-cybernetics, Luhmann is one of the outstanding classics of social science in the 20th century.

1984年に主著(Soziale Systeme=社会の諸システム)を発表。社会システム理論に「オウトボイエシス」概念を導入

The Brookings Institution, one of the United States' oldest think tanks, is founded through the merger of three organizations that had been created by philanthropist Robert S. Brookings.


patenting of the modern coaxial cable of the American inventor Herman Affel.

The electrical engineers Lloyd Espenschied and Herman A. Affel receive a US patent for their invented coaxial cable, which they applied for on 23 May 1929.

同軸ケイブル 1880年に、O ヘヴィサイドによって発明された。(ヘヴィサイドは、イギリスの物理学者で、伝送線路の表皮効果の研究などをおこなってゐた。


「やまもと ごんべえ(威嚴をつけて、ごんのひょうえ と讀ませる)
日本の軍人、政事家。an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and the 16th and 22nd Prime Minister of Japan.


Rudolf Heß weiht den Adolf-Hitler-Kanal bei Gleiwitz ein und führt den ersten Spatenstich für den geplanten Donau-Oder-Kanal aus.

Rudolf Hess inaugurates the Adolf Hitler Canal near Gliwice and executes the groundbreaking ceremony for the planned Danube Oder Canal.

Oderhafen Cosel aus der Luft, ganz links der Gleiwitzer Kanal

1941/1208:WWⅡ、U.S. President Roosevelt declares December 7 to be "a date which will live in infamy", after which the U.S. declares war on Japan.


Japanese forces simultaneously invade Shanghai International Settlement, Malaya, Thailand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the Dutch East Indies.

One day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the US declared war on Japan. Japan, for its part, is launching a large-scale offensive in Southeast Asia in the Pacific War: the invasion of Thailand begins with the battle for Prachuap Khiri Khan and the British crown colony of Hong Kong is also under attack. Another consequence of Japanese expansionist policies is the Battle of the Philippines, which will last until 9 June 1942.




1953/1208:USA、大統領「Atoms for Peace」演説
U.S. President Eisenhower delivers his "Atoms for Peace" speech, which leads to an American program to supply equipment and information on nuclear power to schools, hospitals, and research institutions around the world.


Der Europarat beschließt sein Emblem: eine blaue Fahne mit zwölf goldenen Sternen.

The Flag of Europe is adopted by Council of Europe.
Adoption du drapeau européen.


1957/1208:Jazz、ホリデ&ヤング『Fine and Mellow』、テレビで
Billie Holiday sings - accompanied by Lester Young - the title Fine and Mellow in the TV program The Sound of Jazz.




Workers at four New York City newspapers (this later increases to nine) go on strike for 114 days.


Pan Am Flight 214, a Boeing 707, is struck by lightning and crashes near Elkton, Maryland, killing all 81 people on board.




The Greek ship SS Heraklion sinks in a storm in the Aegean Sea, killing over 200.


Olympic Airways Flight 954 strikes a mountain outside of Keratea, Greece, killing 90 people in the worst crash of a Douglas DC-6 in history.


1971/1208:Indo-Pakistani War:
 The Indian Navy launches an attack on West Pakistan's port city of Karachi.


United Airlines Flight 553, a Boeing 737, crashes after aborting its landing attempt at Chicago Midway International Airport, killing 45. This is the first-ever loss of a Boeing 737.


A plebiscite results in the abolition of monarchy in Greece.


1976/1208:Rock、EaglesHotel California』リリス
The album Hotel California of the rock band Eagles appears in the USA. It rises in the episode in the top group of best-selling albums.


1978/1208:Golda Meir 189878、死去

(גּוֹלְדָּה מֵאִיר), femme politique israélienne, Première ministre d'Israël de 1969 à 1974 .
an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.



1980/1208:John Lennon 194078、射殺
John Lennon is murdered in front of The Dakota in New York City.

ジョン レノン、ニュウヨウクの自宅前で二挺拳銃のファンに襲撃、射殺される。

At around 10:50 p.m. (EST) on 8 December 1980, lone gunman Mark David Chapman shot Lennon in the back four times in the archway of the Dakota as Lennon and Ono returned to their Manhattan apartment from the Record Plant.

English singer, songwriter, musician, and activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful and musically influential band in the history of popular music.

Imagine there's no Heaven
It's easy if you try
No Hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for today...


une importante figure dans le domaine de l'étude du japonais et de la sinologie. Il est surtout connu comme rédacteur en chef du Dai Kan-Wa jiten (en), dictionnaire complet des sinogrammes ou kanji.


South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union in South Asia is established.


The first Palestinian Intifada against Israel begins with civil disobedience, followed by acts of violence.

An Israeli army tank transporter kills four Palestinian refugees and injures seven others during a traffic accident at the Erez Crossing on the Israel–Gaza Strip border, which has been cited as one of the events which sparked the First Intifada.


Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF treaty for the complete dismantling of all nuclear medium range weapons.


A United States Air Force A-10 Thunderbolt II crashes into an apartment complex in Remscheid, Germany, killing 5 people and injuring 50 others.




The leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine sign an agreement dissolving the Soviet Union and establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States.




1994/1208:Antônio Carlos Jobim 192794、死去

a Brazilian composer, conductor, pianist, singer, arranger and guitarist.
It is considered the greatest exponent of all time of Brazilian popular music by Rolling Stone and one of the creators and main forces of the bossa nova movement.


Unununium, Uuu 

81 people are killed by armed groups in Algeria.


Zimbabwe leaves the Commonwealth of Nations after international criticism of Robert Mugabe's policy has become too fierce.


2004/1208:ペルで「Cusco Declaration」
 is signed in Cusco, Peru, establishing the South American Community of Nations.

With the declaration of Cuzco the South American community of states is founded, which is to bring about an unification of the continent on the model of the EU.

Bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kill 127 people and injure 448 others.


With the second launch of the SpaceX Falcon 9 and the first launch of the SpaceX Dragon, SpaceX becomes the first private company to successfully launch, orbit and recover a spacecraft.


2010/1208:Japan、spacecraft IKAROS
The Japanese solar-sail spacecraft IKAROS passes the planet Venus at a distance of about 80,800 km.


Syrian army starts final phase of the attack and progress has been made in the district of, "Sheikh Said" and preparing to storm the neighborhood "Sukkari" in East of Aleppo.


follow us in feedly  

Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World