Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 11/19 今日の出來事

Libius Severus is declared emperor of the Western Roman Empire. But, the real power is in the hands of the magister militum Ricimer.

Libius Severus 042065:Western Roman Emperor from November 19, 461 to his death.
Flavius Ricime 040572:a Romanized Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire from 456 until his death in 472. Deriving his power from his position as magister militum of the Western Empire, Ricimer exercised political control through a series of puppet emperors.


0636/1119:イラクで「Battle of al-Qādisiyyah」
The Rashidun Caliphate defeated the Sasanian Empire at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah in Iraq.


The Rashidun Caliphate (Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (0632–61) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.


1328/1119:明太祖 朱元璋132898、誕生







1492/1119:Nur ad-Dīn Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī 141492、死去

a Persian poet who is known for his achievements as a prolific scholar and writer of mystical Sufi literature.
He was primarily a prominent poet-theologian of the school of Ibn Arabi and a Khwājagānī Sũfī, recognized for his eloquence and for his analysis of the metaphysics of mercy.



descubrimiento de Puerto Rico por Cristóbal Colón.
Christopher Columbus goes ashore on an island he first saw the day before. He names it San Juan Bautista (later renamed Puerto Rico).

Der Druck der Lübecker Bibel wird abgeschlossen. Sie gilt als bedeutendste volkssprachliche Bibel unter den vorlutherischen deutschen Bibeln.

The printing of the Lübeck Bible is completed. It is considered the most important vernacular Bible among the pre-Lutheran German Bibles.





1600/1119:Charles I of England 160049、誕生

monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

1630/1119:Johann Hermann Schein 158630、死去

ein deutscher Komponist und Liedtexter des Frühbarock. Er war von 1616 bis 1630 Thomaskantor.


1665/1119:Nicolas Poussin 159465、死去

un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural.
Il est formé à Paris, mais il est surtout actif à Rome à partir de 1624. Il a peint aussi bien des scènes d'histoire que religieuses, mythologiques, mais aussi des paysages animés.

Et in Arcadia ego (The Shepherds of Arcadia), second version, late 1630s


Landscape with Saint Jean at Patmos (Late 1630s)



L’homme au masque de fer est l'un des prisonniers les plus fameux de l'histoire française. Le mystère entourant son existence, ainsi que les différents films et romans dont il a fait l'objet, n'ont cessé d'alimenter les imaginations.
Le point de départ de l'affaire est la mort, le 19 novembre 1703 à la Bastille, au terme d'une longue captivité, d'un prisonnier dont nul ne connaissait le nom ni le motif de l'incarcération. Il aurait été enterré dans le cimetière de l'église Saint-Paul sous le nom de Marchiali, bien que d'autres sources indiquent les noms de Marchioly, ou Marchialy et avec une fausse indication d'âge

Sur cette base, l'histoire a été considérablement amplifiée, la légende y a ajouté force détails, et la politique s'en est emparée, l'homme au masque de fer devenant, sous la plume de Voltaire,


La première de l'opéra Dardanus de Jean-Philippe Rameau se déroule au Grand Opéra Paris.

1770/1119:Adam Johann von Krusenstern 177046、誕生

Иван Фёдорович Крузенштерн
この航海で日本海を通り、彼が作成した地圖に「Mer du Japon」と記載した。

1794/1119:USA & UK「Jay's Treaty」
The United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign Jay's Treaty, which attempts to resolve some of the lingering problems left over from the American Revolutionary War.



1795/1119:「Treaty of London of 1795」sign
 known in English as the Jay Treaty after the name of John Jay, President of the Supreme Court of the United States.


1805/1119:Ferdinand de Lesseps 180594、誕生

diplomate et entrepreneur français. Il est surtout connu pour avoir fait construire le canal de Suez et pour être à l'origine du scandale de Panama pour lequel il a été condamné.

Hamburg wird zur Vorbereitung der Kontinentalsperre von napoléonischen Truppen besetzt. Es beginnt die Hamburger Franzosenzeit.



Humphry Davy reports to the Royal Society on the successful extraction of potassium and sodium by electrolysis.


1809/1119:ナポレオン戰爭「Bataille d'Ocaña」
At the Battle of Ocaña, during the Napoleonic Wars, the French army under Marshal Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult defeated the Spanish army.

Pendant la guerre d'indépendance espagnole, la bataille d'Ocaña fut disputée le 19 novembre 1809 et aboutit à la victoire des Français sous les ordres du maréchal Soult contre les Espagnols du général Juan Carlos de Aréizaga. De tout le conflit, ce fut la plus grande défaite de l'armée espagnole qui perdit près de 19 000 hommes, morts, blessés, prisonniers, et déserteurs compris, sur un effectif de 51 000 hommes. Ce désastre est principalement dû à la brillante utilisation de la cavalerie française.


1816/1119:ポウランド「Warsaw University」is established.

Die Universität Warschau wird gegründet.




寒柳水禽図 (パワーズコレクション) 絹本油彩 寛政初期




Abre el Museo del Prado en Madrid.



Con la capitulación de la tripulación en el sitiado Fuerte San Juan de Ulúa, cerca de Veracruz, España pierde su última base en territorio mexicano.

With the capitulation of the crew in the long-besieged Fort San Juan de Ulúa near Veracruz, Spain loses its last base on Mexican territory.

1828/1119:Franz Schubert 179728、逝去

ein österreichischer Komponist.
Er komponierte rund 600 Lieder, weltliche und geistliche Chormusik, sieben vollständige und fünf unvollendete Sinfonien, Ouvertüren, Bühnenwerke, Klaviermusik und Kammermusik.



Alfred Tennyson is named Poet Laureate by Queen Victoria.


Abre la ópera Teatro Real en Madrid.



American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the dedication ceremony for the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

On the battlefield of Gettysburg, a military cemetery is inaugurated in the middle of the ongoing Civil War. The speech given by US President Abraham Lincoln, the Gettysburg Address, will later be placed in the south wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. engraved.






1869/1119:カナダ「Ruperts Land」買収
Based on the Rupert's Land Act of 1868, the Hudson's Bay Company sells its North American territory Ruperts Land to Canada.



las tropas de Chile derrotan al ejército unificado peruano-boliviano en la Guerra de Salpete en la Batalla de Dolores.

Chile's troops defeat the unified Peruvian-Bolivian army in the Salpete War at the Battle of Dolores.

A meteorite lands near the village of Grossliebenthal, southwest of Odessa, Ukraine.


1885/1119:Serbo-Bulgarian War
Bulgarian victory in the Battle of Slivnitsa solidifies the unification between the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia.


In the English Channel, the Dutch ocean liner W. A. Scholten sinks after colliding with a British coal freighter. 132 passengers and crew members die.


1888/1119:José Raúl Capablanca 188842、誕生

un ajedrecista cubano, campeón mundial de ajedrez de 1921 a 1927. Por su genio precoz, fue apodado "el Mozart del ajedrez"; por el aura de invencibilidad en su época dorada se le llamó "la máquina del ajedrez".
a Cuban chess player, world chess champion from 1921 to 1927. For his precocious genius, he was nicknamed "the Mozart of chess"; by the aura of invincibility in his golden age he was called "the chess machine".

 Capablanca con su padre José María Capablanca

1905/1119:Tommy Dorsey 190556、誕生

, tromboniste, trompettiste et chef d’orchestre de jazz américain



1909/1119:Peter Drucker 190905、誕生

an Austrian-born American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corporation.
He was also a leader in the development of management education, he invented the concept known as management by objectives and self-control, and he has been described as "the founder of modern management".

1933、發表した論文ががナチスの憤激を呼ぶことが予想され、事前にイギリスに移住。そこでJohn Maynard Keynes 188346の講義を聞き、結婚もする。

1912/1119:First Balkan War:
The Serbian Army captures Bitola, ending the five-century-long Ottoman rule of Macedonia.


Samuel Goldwyn and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Pictures.

The film company Goldwyn Picture Corporation is founded in Hollywood by Samuel Goldfish and his two partners Edgar and Archibald Selwyn.

1917/1119:Indira Gandhi 191784、誕生

インドの初代首相、Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 186948 を父に誕生。第五代と第八代の首相を務めた。息子のエジブは第九代の首相となり、この一族はインドの「ネルウガンディ王朝」と呼ばれる。


Hyperinflation in Deutschland: Der Preis für ein Kilogramm Brot beläuft sich auf rund 233 Milliarden Reichsmark

Hyperinflation in Germany: The price for one kilogram of bread amounts to about 233 billion Reichsmark

1925/1119:Henri Fayol 184125、死去

「アンリ フェヨル」
un ingénieur civil des mines français, auteur de L'administration industrielle et générale (1916)
En raison de ses travaux, il est considéré comme l'un des pionniers de la gestion d'entreprise et l'un des précurseurs du management.

1925/1119:Zygmunt Bauman 192517、誕生

a Polish sociologist and philosopher.



Earle Haas applies for patent protection for the tampon he developed with an insertion aid.


Red Army and the Red Army six long march began.

1938/1119:Lev Shestov 186638、死去

(Лев Исаакович Шестов)
ein russischer, jüdischer Philosoph des Existentialismus.
Il s'attaque à la philosophie rationaliste de la tradition grecque et influence dès 1933 Albert Camus, notamment dans Le mythe de Sisyphe et Caligula.


1938/1119:Ted Turner 1938--、誕生

Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III
an American media mogul and philanthropist. As a businessman, he is known as founder of the Cable News Network (CNN), the first 24-hour cable news channel. In addition, he founded WTBS, which pioneered the superstation concept in cable television.
1991年には女優の Jane Fonda と結婚、2001年に離婚。

1941/1119:WWⅡ「Battle between HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran」
 The two ships sink each other off the coast of Western Australia, with the loss of 645 Australians and about 77 German seamen.


1942/1119:Bruno Schulz 189242、ゲシュタポに射殺

ein polnischer Schriftsteller, Literaturkritiker, Graphiker, Zeichner und Opfer des Holocaust.
He is regarded as one of the great Polish-language prose stylists of the 20th century.
Several of Schulz's works were lost in the Holocaust, including short stories from the early 1940s and his final, unfinished novel The Messiah. Schulz was shot and killed by a German Nazi in 1942 while walking back home toward Drohobycz Ghetto with a loaf of bread.


Selbstporträt (1920/22)


1942/1119:WWⅡ「Battle of Stalingrad」Operation Uranus
Soviet Union forces under General Georgy Zhukov launch the Operation Uranus counterattacks at Stalingrad, turning the tide of the battle in the USSR's favor.

Contre-attaque à Stalingrad de l'Armée rouge, qui encercle les forces allemandes lors de l'opération Uranus.

Nazis liquidate Janowska concentration camp in Lemberg (Lviv), western Ukraine, murdering at least 6000 Jews after a failed uprising and mass escape attempt.


U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt announces the 6th War Loan Drive, aimed at selling US$14 billion in war bonds to help pay for the war effort.


1944/1119:WWⅡ 「Battle of Vianden」
Thirty members of the Luxembourgish resistance defend the town of Vianden against a larger Waffen-SS attack in the Battle of Vianden.




Afghanistan, Iceland and Sweden join the United Nations.


1949/1119:James Ensor 186049、死去

un artiste peintre, graveur et un anarchiste belge


US General Dwight Eisenhower becomes Supreme Commander of NATO-Europe.






1961/1119:Meg Ryan 1961--、誕生

an American actress, director, and producer.


1962/1119:Jodie Foster 1962--、誕生

an American actress and filmmaker who has worked in films and on television. She has often been cited as one of the best actresses of her generation.


Cabinet decision on the issue of deficit-national debt as the first postwar


The establishment of TVB, the first wireless commercial television station in Hong Kong.


1969/1119:NASAApollo program」
Apollo 12 astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean land at Oceanus Procellarum (the "Ocean of Storms") and become the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.



Association football player Pelé scores his 1,000th goal.







Egyptian president Anwar Sadat visited Israel. Meeting with Menaghem Beguin. It will be the first Israeli official visit by Arab world leaders.


TAP Portugal Flight 425 crashes in the Madeira Islands, killing 131.


1979/1119:Iran hostage crisis:
Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran.


1982/1119:Erving Goffman 192282、死去

a Canadian-American sociologist and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century"

In 2007 he was listed by The Times Higher Education Guide as the sixth most-cited author in the humanities and social sciences, behind Anthony Giddens, Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault, and ahead of Jürgen Habermas.

His best-known contribution to social theory is his study of symbolic interaction. This took the form of dramaturgical analysis, beginning with his 1956 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Goffman's other major works include Asylums (1961), Stigma (1963), Interaction Ritual (1967), Frame Analysis (1974), and Forms of Talk (1981).
ドラマツルギによって「インプレッションの術策」(Impression Manegement)と「役割乖離」(Role Distance)の問題において「個人間葛藤」を発見し、アイデンティティ葛藤の分析に重要な貢献を果たし、この彼の社会学的手法によって理論的にも実証的にも社会学に新地平を開拓したとされる

1984/1119:メキシコシティ「San Juanico disaster」
A series of explosions at the Pemex petroleum storage facility at San Juan Ixhuatepec in Mexico City starts a major fire and kills about 500 people.


Cold War: In Geneva, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time.


Pennzoil wins a US$10.53 billion judgment against Texaco, in the largest civil verdict in the history of the United States, stemming from Texaco executing a contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil had entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Getty.


Police in Baling, Malaysia, lay siege to houses occupied by an Islamic sect of about 400 people led by Ibrahim Mahmud.


Serbian communist representative and future Serbian and Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević publicly declares that Serbia is under attack from Albanian separatists in Kosovo as well as internal treachery within Yugoslavia and a foreign conspiracy to destroy Serbia and Yugoslavia.



a prominent Japanese-American severe storms researcher. His research at the University of Chicago on severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and typhoons revolutionized the knowledge of each.

1998/1119:USA「Lewinsky scandal
The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee begins impeachment hearings against U.S. President Bill Clinton.



Shenzhou 1: The People's Republic of China launches its first Shenzhou spacecraft.

The Greek oil tanker Prestige splits in half and sinks off the coast of Galicia, releasing over 20 million US gallons (76,000 m³) of oil in the largest environmental disaster in Spanish and Portuguese history.

The tanker Prestige, which was defeated on 13th November, breaks up and sinks off the Galician coast. 64,000 tons of heavy oil are emptying and contaminate 2,900 km of the French and Spanish coasts. Around 250,000 seabirds die.

2005/1119:イラクで「Massacre d'Haditha」
 fait référence au meurtre de vingt-quatre civils irakiens, hommes, femmes et enfants, par une troupe de marines américains le 19 novembre 2005 à Haditha, une ville de la province irakienne d'Al-Anbar, durant la guerre d'Irak.



2007/1119:Magda Szabó 191707、死去

a Hungarian novelist.
She also wrote dramas, essays, studies, memoirs, and poetry.

2013/1119:Frederick Sanger 191813、死去

, biochimiste britannique, double lauréat du prix Nobel de chimie en 1958 et en 1980

A double suicide bombing at the Iranian embassy in Beirut kills 23 people and injures 160 others.


2014/1119:Mike Nichols 193114、死去

an American film and theatre director, producer, actor and comedian.
He was noted for his ability to work across a range of genres and an aptitude for getting the best out of actors regardless of their acting experience.


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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World