11/18:歴史は悲喜劇を演じつゝ螺旋状に「上昇?下降? それとも堂々廻り?

Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World
今日が誕生日の Louis Daguerre 178751 の寫眞


歴史暦:古今東西 11/18 今日の出來事

0326/1118:Vatican「L'antica basilica di San Pietro」
is consecrated.

Old St. Peter's Basilica was the building that stood, from the 4th to 16th centuries, where the new St. Peter's Basilica stands today in Vatican City.
Construction began by orders of the Roman Emperor Constantine I between 318 and 322, and took about 30 years to complete. Over the next twelve centuries, the church gradually gained importance, eventually becoming a major place of pilgrimage in Rome.

Fresco showing cutaway view of Constantine's St. Peter's Basilica as it looked in the 4th century


The 1628 full-size copy in oil of the great Navicella mosaic by Giotto


The Visigoths(led by king Alaric I)cross the Alps and invade northern Italy.

The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period.

Migrations of the main column of the Visigoths






吐蕃(とばん、拼音:TŭbōまたはTŭfān、チベット語:བོད་ཆེན་པོ、ワイリー転写:Bod chen po)は、七世紀初頭から九世紀中頃にかけてのチベットにあった王國。中国では、唐が吐蕃と呼んで以来、17世紀中ごろまでチベットの総称として使用された。




Sima Guang 101986, is the Northern Song Dynasty writer, historian, official Shi Renzong, Yingzong, Shenzong, Zhezong four dynasties, he presided over the compilation of the first Chinese history of the general history of Chronicles "Zi Zhi Tong Jian." Sima Guang extremely conservative political tendency, is a very traditional old school, Su Shi privately accused him of "Sima Niu" because of political issues, expressed his dissatisfaction with his conservative and stubborn. Song Dynasty deteriorating and exclusionary reform status quo conservative people can not get away.


1095/1118:バチカン「Synod of Clermont」
called by Pope Urban II, it led to the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held from November 18 to November 28, 1095 at Clermont, France. Pope Urban II's speech on November 27 was the starting point of the First Crusade.


Maginulfo is elected the Antipope as Sylvester IV.

The Archpriest Maginus, chosen by the Roman nobility as an antipope to the reigning Paschal II, is consecrated as the New Year's Eve IV Pope and enthroned.

Antipapa がもっとも多く立てられたのは、十一世紀から十二世紀にかけてで、そこにはカトリック教會と神聖ロウマ帝國との驅引があった。神聖ロウマ皇帝は政事權力を宗教界にも及ぼさうとして、その方法として獨自の「教皇」を立てた。だが、西ロウマ帝國の對立國家がロウマ教會に肩入れなどして、效果はさほどあがらなかった。


Philippe II devient roi de France.


The coronation of Philip II Augustus in the presence of Henry II of England


Pope Innocent III excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV.



Pope Martin IV excommunicates King Peter III of Aragon.

Per il suo sostegno ai Vespri siciliani e alla successiva appropriazione della Sicilia, il re Pietro III. scomunicato da Aragon da papa Martino IV.

Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Unam sanctam, claiming spiritual supremacy for the papacy.

The Bull Unam Sanctam of Pope Boniface VIII, not least because of the dispute with Philip the Fair of France, which tries to prove the absolute authority of the Pope in all religious and secular questions, is dated, but may not be published until the following year ,

According to the legend, William Tell shot the apple on his son 's head bowed.



A seawall at the Zuiderzee dike in the Netherlands breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people. This event will be known as St Elizabeth's flood.

The flood of Elisabeth causes great damage in the area around Dordrecht and Rotterdam. Thousands of people - the estimates reach 10,000 - drown. The Biesbosch nature area is created by the flood.


Christopher Columbus first sights the island now known as Puerto Rico.


Le roi français Charles VIII occupe Florence, en Italie.




1601/1118:オットマン帝国「Nagykanizsa の包圍戰」
Tiryaki Hasan Pasha, an Ottoman provincial governor, routs the Habsburg forces commanded by Ferdinand the Archduke of Austria during the Siege of Nagykanizsa.


1626/1118:Vatican「new St Peter's Basilica」is consecrated.
la Basilica di San Pietro a Roma viene inaugurata da Papa Urbano VIII dopo un periodo di costruzione di 120 anni.



1647/1118:Pierre Bayle 164706、誕生

un philosophe et écrivain français.


Création de la comédie Les Précieuses ridicules de Molière.

Les Précieuses ridicules は、モリエルの喜劇でプチ・ブルボン劇場でこの日に初演された。國王がおほいに氣に入って何度も私的に上演させた。


1705/1118:Great Northern War ⇨ Warsaw Peace、close
 King August II rejects the contract as only between Sweden and Poland-Lithuania, however, so that the Electorate of Saxony is still at war.


The rebuilt debtors' prison, at the Castellania in Valletta, receives the first prisoners.



1772/1118:Louis Ferdinand von Preußen 177206、誕生

ein preußischer Prinz aus dem Hause Hohenzollern, Feldherr, Komponist und Pianist.

彼は伯父のフリドリヒ二世同樣、熱心な音楽愛好家で、Ludwig van Beethoven 177027の崇拝者であった。ベトベンの『第三ピアノ協奏曲』は彼に獻呈されてゐる。

Inauguration du théâtre Montansier en présence de Louis XVI et de Marie-Antoinette.


Victoire de Túpac Amaru II à Sangarará.


1786/1118:Carl Maria von Weber 178626、誕生

ein deutscher Komponist, Dirigent und Pianist.


1787/1118:Louis Daguerre 178751、誕生

「ルイ ダゲル」un peintre et photographe français2. Sa commercialisation du daguerréotype inspiré des travaux de Joseph Nicéphore Niépce a fait qu'il a un temps été considéré comme l'inventeur de la photographie.



1803/1118:ハイチ革命「Bataille de Vertières」
The Battle of Vertières(the last major battle of the Haitian Revolution)is fought, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti, the first black republic in the Western Hemisphere.

After the reintroduction of slavery in the French colonies by Napoleon Bonaparte, the rebellious blacks in the French part of Hispaniola under Jean-Jacques Dessalines defeat the French at the Battle of Vertières crucial and thus finally fight for the independence of Haiti.

En pleines Guerres napoléoniennes, Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin capture trois grands bâtiments de la Compagnie anglaise des Indes orientales.

In a naval action during the Napoleonic Wars, French frigates defeat British East Indiamen in the Bay of Bengal.


1812/1118:ナポレオン戰爭「Battle of Krasnoi」ends
 in French defeat, but Marshal of France Michel Ney's leadership leads to him becoming known as "the bravest of the brave".



In the battle of Ingavi, the Bolivians under General José Ballivián Segurola defeat the invaded Peruvian army with President Agustín Gamarra at the head. This ends the Peruvian-Bolivian War.


The Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia is separated from Hungary and separate crown land in the Habsburg monarchy. The loyalty of the Illyrian movement to the Habsburg government in the revolutionary turmoil is thus rewarded.


Ouverture Rue de Sèvres du premier grand magasin de Paris, « Le Bon Marché » fondé par Aristide Boucicaut.



1860/1118:Ignace Paderewski 186041、誕生

ein polnischer Pianist und Komponist, Politiker und Freiheitskämpfer.



King Christian IX of Denmark signs the November constitution that declares Schleswig to be part of Denmark.
This is seen by the German Confederation as a violation of the London Protocol and leads to the German–Danish war of 1864.


Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" is published in the New York Saturday Press.


Pneumatic tube systems: A first line of the Berlin Pneumatic Dispatch Transport is put into operation.


Susan Anthony & 14 other women are arrested for illegal voting in the United States presidential election of 1872.


1876/1118:France & Great Britain
 take over Egypt's debt administration announcing its national bankruptcy.


1882/1118:Jacques Maritain 188273、誕生

un philosophe français.
C'est l'une des figures importantes du thomisme au XXe siècle.

1883/1118:American & Canadian railroads
 institute five standard continental time zones, ending the confusion of thousands of local times.


1901/1118:Britain & USA
 sign the Hay–Pauncefote Treaty, which nullifies the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty and withdraws British objections to an American-controlled canal in Panama.



Government-owned Yawata Steelmaking started operation.


1903/1118:USA & Panama「Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty」
 is signed by the United States and Panama, giving the United States exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone.




Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.

Nach Auflösung der Personalunion mit Schweden wählt das norwegische Storting Prinz Carl von Dänemark als Håkon VII. zum König.

Discours de Jean Jaurès contre la Peine de mort.


1909/1118:Johnny Mercer 190976、誕生

an American lyricist, songwriter and singer.
He is best known as a tin pan alley lyricist, but he also composed music. He was also a popular singer who recorded his own songs as well as those written by others. From the mid-1930s through the mid-1950s, many of the songs Mercer wrote and performed were among the most popular hits of the time. He wrote the lyrics to more than fifteen hundred songs, including compositions for movies and Broadway shows. He received nineteen Academy Award nominations, and won four Best Original Song Oscars.

Two United States warships are sent to Nicaragua after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) are executed by order of José Santos Zelaya.


1916/1118:WWⅠ「First Battle of the Somme」
 In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle which started on July 1, 1916.

The Battle of the Somme, the most lucrative battle of the First World War, ends in a draw.


Latvia declares its independence from Russia.


Paul von Hindenburg gibt mit seiner Aussage vor dem öffentlich tagenden Untersuchungsausschuss der Nationalversammlung über die Ursachen der Niederlage im Ersten Weltkrieg der Dolchstoßlegende neue Nahrung.

Hindenburg gives new nourishment to the stabbing legend with his testimony to the National Committee of Inquiry on the causes of defeat in the First World War.

1922/1118:Marcel Proust 187122、死去

un écrivain français, dont l'œuvre principale est une suite romanesque intitulée À la recherche du temps perdu, publiée de 1913 à 1927.



Release of the animated short Steamboat Willie, the first fully synchronized sound cartoon, directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, featuring the third appearances of cartoon characters Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse. This is considered by the Disney corporation to be Mickey's birthday.
In the cartoon Steamboat Willie, one of the first with sound, Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse made her first big appearance.

1929/1118:Grand Banks earthquake:
Off the south coast of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean, a Richter magnitude 7.2 submarine earthquake, centered on the Grand Banks, breaks 12 submarine transatlantic telegraph cables and triggers a tsunami that destroys many south coast communities in the Burin Peninsula.




Richard Evelyn Byrd discovers the extinct shield volcano Mount Sidley in the Antarctic.


1936/1118:Guerra civil en España:
Alemania e Italia aprueban la administración española de Franco.

スペイン内戦: ドイツとイタリアがスペインのフランコ政権を承認。

German leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano meet to discuss Benito Mussolini's disastrous Italian invasion of Greece.


1941/1118:Walther Nernst 186441、死去

ein deutscher Physiker und Chemiker. Für seine Arbeiten in der Thermochemie erhielt Nernst den Nobelpreis für Chemie 1920.








Der Roman Das Glasperlenspiel von Hermann Hesse wird veröffentlicht.




1943/1118:WWⅡ「Battle of Berlin」
440 Royal Air Force planes bomb Berlin causing only light damage and killing 131. The RAF loses nine aircraft and 53 air crew.




The Ballantyne's Department Store fire in Christchurch, New Zealand, kills 41; it is the worst fire disaster in the history of New Zealand.


The Iva Valley Shooting occurs after the coal miners of Enugu in Nigeria go on strike over withheld wages; 21 miners are shot dead and 51 are wounded by police under the supervision of the British colonial administration of Nigeria.





1952/1118:Paul Éluard 189552、死去

Poète français。本名「Eugéne-Emille-Paul Grindel」

1909(14歳)、École Supérieure Colbertの奨学生になったが、結核を病み、1912暮、ダヴォスのサナトリウムに入院。そこで年上のロシア人の少女ヘレナ・ドミトロヴニェ・ディアコノヴァを知り、彼女を「ガラ」と呼んで愛した。
1930(35歳)、Salvador Dalí190489 のもとへ奔ったガラと離婚し、

1957/1118:PRChina、毛澤東 speech
中国共产党领袖毛泽东在莫斯科共产党和工人党代表会议上演讲,称要给帝国主义打核战争,“核战争有什么了不起,全世界27亿人,死一半还剩一 半,中国6亿人,死一半还剩3亿”

Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong delivered a speech at the meeting of the Communist and Workers' Parties in Moscow, saying that he wants to wage a nuclear war for the imperialists. "What a remarkable nuclear war, with 2.7 billion people in the world, half in the dead, half in China, 600 million in China , Half left 300 million "

1959/1118:アメリカシネマ『Ben Hur』プレミア
The film Ben Hur by director William Wyler premieres in New York City.


1962/1118:Niels Bohr 188562、死去

ein dänischer Physiker. Er erhielt 1921 die Hughes-Medaille der Royal Society und den Nobelpreis für Physik im Jahr 1922 „für seine Verdienste um die Erforschung der Struktur der Atome und der von ihnen ausgehenden Strahlung“.



The first push-button telephone goes into service.




U.S. President Richard Nixon asks the U.S. Congress for $155 million in supplemental aid for the Cambodian government.


Oman declares its independence from United Kingdom.




1976/1118:Man Ray 189076、死去

an American visual artist who spent most of his career in France.
He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal.
He produced major works in a variety of media but considered himself a painter above all.
He was best known for his photography, and he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer.
Man Ray is also noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself

 Man Ray portrayed by Lothar Wolleh, Paris, 1975


1978/1118:Lennie Tristano 191978、死去

an American jazz pianist, composer, arranger, and teacher of jazz improvisation.
{好きなジャズピアニストの一人です。好きな演奏は『You don't know what love is』です。この曲自體が好きなのですが、なかでもこの人のピアノソロの演奏が好きです。

In Jonestown, Guyana, Jim Jones led his Peoples Temple to a mass murder–suicide that claimed 918 lives in all, 909 of them in Jonestown itself, including over 270 children. Congressman Leo Ryan is murdered by members of the Peoples Temple hours earlier.


The US fighter aircraft F-18 Hornet completes its maiden flight.


1981/1118:Japan「ロス疑惑」 ロサンゼルスで三浦和義の妻が銃で撃たれ重体。

Los Angelus allegation: Mr. Kazuyoshi Miura's wife in Los Angeles was shot with a gun and heavy body.

1985/1118:USAコミック『Calvin and Hobbes』出版
The first comic strip about Calvin and Hobbes is published in the United States. He makes his illustrator Bill Watterson known to a wide audience.

Bill Watterson によるコミックストリップ形式の新聞連載漫画。1985年から1995年まで連載された。現在でも多くの新聞で再掲載されている。


1987/1118:Jacques Anquetil 193487、死去

un coureur cycliste français. Professionnel de 1953 à 1969, il est considéré comme l'un des plus grands coureurs de l'histoire du cyclisme et possède l'un des palmarès les plus riches de son sport.


1987/1118:London「King's Cross fire」
In London, 31 people die in a fire at the city's busiest underground station, King's Cross St Pancras.


1988/1118:USA「War on Drugs」
U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs a bill into law allowing the death penalty for drug traffickers.




After an 87-day siege, the Croatian city of Vukovar capitulates to the besieging Yugoslav People's Army and allied Serb paramilitary forces.


In the United States, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is approved by the House of Representatives.


In South Africa, 21 political parties approve a new constitution, expanding voting rights and ending white minority rule.


The grunge band Nirvana plays an unplugged concert in New York, which will later be released on CD.


The European Patent Office Munich issues a patent for a genetically modified "anti-slush tomato" developed in the USA.


A fire occurs on a train traveling through the Channel Tunnel from France to England causing several injuries and damaging approximately 500 metres (1,600 ft) of tunnel.


Iraq disarmament crisis: United Nations weapons inspectors led by Hans Blix arrive in Iraq.


The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court rules 4–3 in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health that the state's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional and gives the state legislature 180 days to change the law making Massachusetts the first state in the United States to grant marriage rights to same-sex couples.


le meurtre en plein vol de la parachutiste amatrice Els Van Doren marque le début de l'affaire Clottemans.



Taichung Mayor Hu Zhiqiang's wife Shao Xiaoxing was hit hard by a passenger coach driven by Liao Junjie on the Wushanntou section of Tainan County, State Road No. 3, on his return journey after the election of Huang Junying, the mayor of the KMT in Kaohsiung.

元厚生事務次官宅連続襲撃事件: 山口剛彦元厚生事務次官夫妻が自宅で刺殺されたのが発見され、吉原健二元厚生事務次官の妻も自宅で襲撃され重傷を負う。


The spacecraft MAVEN, to study the atmosphere of the planet Mars, is started.



Massacre de la synagogue de Har Nof à Jérusalem.



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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World