Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World



歴史暦:古今東西 10/02 今日の出來事

Theophilos succeeds his father Michael II as Byzantine Emperor.

Θεόφιλος 080542:he Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842. He was the second emperor of the Amorian dynasty and the last emperor to support iconoclasm.


0939/1002:神聖ロウマ帝國「Battle of Andernach」
 King Otto I crushes a rebellion against his rule, by a coalition of Eberhard of Franconia and other Frankish dukes.

Bei Andernach finden die beiden aufständischen Herzöge Eberhard von Franken und Giselbert von Lothringen bei einem Gefecht mit Gefolgsleuten König Ottos I. den Tod.

Otto I. (HRR) 091273:German king from 936 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 until his death in 973.



Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.

From September 20 to October 2, 1187, when Balian of Ibelin surrendered the city to Saladin. Citizens wishing to leave paid a ransom. The defeat of Jerusalem signalled the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Europe responded in 1189 by launching the Third Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart, Philip Augustus, and Frederick Barbarossa separately.


1263/1002:Norway vs Scotland「Battle of Largs」



1452/1002:イングランド王 Richard III 145285、誕生

He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat at Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England.

He is the subject of the historical play Richard III by William Shakespeare.
セクスピアなどで一般的になった「悪王」リチャド三世について、さうではなかったとする說を、ミステリイ形式(アアムチェアデテクティヴのジャンル)で書いたものに Josephine Tey 189652 の『時の娘』があります。傑作です。歴史=史実と物語との重なりあひを思ひ考へるにはいい教材です。

Richard Neville's rebellion forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne.


1528/1002:England「William Tyndale
(the renowned English Reformer and Bible translator)published his famous work The Obedience of a Christian Man.

William Tyndale 149436:an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. ← He was tried on a charge of heresy in 1536 and was condemned to be burned to death, despite Thomas Cromwell's intercession on his behalf. Tyndale "was strangled to death while tied at the stake, and then his dead body was burned".

Jacques Cartier et ses compagnons arrivent dans la région de l'établissement nommé Hochelaga qu'il nommera Mont Royal, cette montagne de l'île et de la ville appelée Montréal depuis 1642.

Jacques Cartier discovers the area where Montreal is now located.


Ivan the Terrible、Conquest of Kazan




In the course of their violent reconquest of Ireland the English troops begin with the siege of Wexford.


As part of the peace treaties of Nijmegen, Sweden and the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands end their war.


1700/1002:Spain、Charles II d'Espagne の王位繼承
le roi d'Espagne Charles II rédige un testament attribuant la couronne d'Espagne au duc d'Anjou, petit-fils de Louis XIV.


1775/1002:江戸期の女流俳人 加賀千代女1680375、永眠







1780/1002:American Revolutionary War
John André(British Army officer)is hanged as a spy by American forces.


George Washington sends proposed Constitutional amendments (The United States Bill of Rights) to the States for ratification.


1814/1002:Chile「Battle of Rancagua」
 Spanish Royalists troops under Mariano Osorio defeats rebel Chilean forces of Bernardo O'Higgins & José Miguel Carrera.

At the beginning of their Reconquest of Chile, the Spanish Royalists defeated the Chilean independence fighters, who had been hanged by Rancagua the day before, in the battle of Rancagua. The Liberation Army generals, Bernardo O'Higgins and José Miguel Carrera, can escape to Argentina.

1832/1002:文化人類学創始者 Edward Burnett Tylor 183217、誕生

an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology 文化人類学.

1835/1002:テキサス革命「Battle of Gonzales
 Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, Texas, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.



The HMS Beagle under the command of Robert FitzRoy with Charles Darwin on board after their South American expedition back in England. Darwin's work will be based on insights from this journey.



1847/1002:ドイツの軍人政事家 Paul von Hindenburg 184734、誕生

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg
ein deutscher Generalfeldmarschall und Politiker. Im Ersten Weltkrieg übte die von ihm geführte Oberste Heeresleitung von 1916 bis 1918 quasi diktatorisch die Regierungsgewalt aus.
Hindenburg wurde 1925 zum zweiten Reichspräsidenten der Weimarer Republik gewählt.
1932 wurde er wiedergewählt. Am 30. Januar 1933 ernannte er Adolf Hitler zum Reichskanzler.


1851/1002:Ferdinand Foch 185129、誕生

un général et académicien français, maréchal de France, de Grande-Bretagne et de Pologne.
Il est le commandant en chef des forces alliées sur le front de l'Ouest pendant la Première Guerre mondiale.

≫ Pressé fortement sur ma droite, mon centre cède, impossible de me mouvoir, situation excellente, j'attaque.(我が軍の右翼は押されてゐる。中央は崩れかけてゐる。撤退は不可能。状況は最高、突撃!)ドイツ軍との戰鬪を陣頭指揮していた際に。

≫ Ce n'est pas une paix, c’est un armistice de vingt ans.(これは平和などではない。たかだか20年の停戦だ)ヴェルサイユ条約の事を

1852/1002:希ガスの發見者 William Ramsay 185116、誕生

a British chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" (along with his collaborator, Lord Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for their discovery of argon).

1853/1002:フランス的万能人 François Arago 178653、死去

a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, freemason, supporter of the carbonari and politician.

Honoré de Balzac 179950 の『La Recherche de l'Absolu(絶對の探求)』(地方貴族が化学研究に取り憑かれて全財産を使い果たす語)はアラゴとの會話から着想された、と云はれてゐる。

1854/1002:スコトランドの万能人 Patrick Geddes 185432、誕生

a Scottish biologist, sociologist, geographer, philanthropist and pioneering town planner. He is known for his innovative thinking in the fields of urban planning and sociology.

1864/1002:American Civil War「 Battle of Saltville」
 Union forces attack Saltville, Virginia, but are defeated by Confederate troops.


1869/1002:インド近代化の聖者 Mohandas Gandhi 186948、誕生

the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.

≫ 失望したとき、私は歴史全体を通していつも真理と愛が勝利をしたことを思い出す。暴君や殺戮者はその時には無敵に見えるが、最終的には滅びてしまふ。どんなときも、私はそれを思うのだ。

1871/1002:アメリカの國務長官 Cordell Hull 187155、誕生

an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee.
He is known as the longest-serving Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of President Franklin Roosevelt during most of World War II.
Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations".

1877/1002:ドイツ的多能人 Ludwig Karl Georg Pfeiffer 180577、死去

ein deutscher Arzt, Botaniker und Malakologe.


1879/1002:日本の軍人から政事家 柳川平助187945、誕生



1886/1002:日本の海軍人 小沢治三郎188666、誕生



First Pan-America Conference was held in Washington, D.C.


1890/1002:アメリカ生まれのマルクス Groucho Marx 189077、誕生

an American writer, comedian, stage, film, radio, and television star. He was known as a master of quick wit and is widely considered one of the best comedians of the modern era.

The most famous jokes he made
≫ I sent the club a wire stating, "PLEASE ACCEPT MY RESIGNATION. I DON'T WANT TO BELONG TO ANY CLUB THAT WILL ACCEPT PEOPLE LIKE ME AS A MEMBER".  私はそのクラブに電話してやったのさ「私のやうな者を會員にするやうなクラブには私は入りたくない」と。

1892/1002:フランスの作家 Ernest Renan 182392、死去

écrivain, philosophe, philologue et historien français.

1899/1002:イギリスの神秘主義者 Emma Britten 182399、移界(死去)

an English advocate for the early Modern Spiritualist Movement.




1904/1002:イギリスの作家 Graham Greene 190491、誕生

an English novelist regarded by many as one of the great writers of the 20th century. Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquired a reputation early in his lifetime as a major writer, both of serious Catholic novels, and of thrillers (or "entertainments" as he termed them).

1905/1002:日本の女流小説家 圓地文子190586、誕生


1907/1002:イギリスの生化学者 Alexander Robertus Todd 190797、誕生

a British biochemist whose research on the structure and synthesis of nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleotide coenzymes gained him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

1910/1002:日本の中國文學研究者 竹内好191077、誕生


1917/1002:ベルギイの生化学者 Christian de Duve 191713、誕生

a Belgian cytologist and biochemist.

passed at the 5th General Assembly of the League of Nations.


John Logie Baird performs the first test of a working television system.


1927/1002:スヱデンの化学者 Svante August Arrhenius 185927、死去

a Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.


1928/1002:Spain, Madrid「fundación del Opus Dei」創立
 por Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer.

The "Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God", commonly known as Opus Dei, is founded by Josemaría Escrivá.

London Naval Disarmament Treaty」ratified





 on Manchuria 滿洲 recognizes the special interests of Japan and recommends the creation of an autonomous State, under Chinese sovereignty but controlled by Japan.

{こゝでもまったく同樣に繰り返さなければならない ―― この時、日本が「名を捨てて實を取れば」、その後の成行はおほいに異なったものとなってゐたであらう。だが、さうした日本のための「大計」を思ひ描ける指導者はゐなかった。百年の計を立てられる者がゐなかった。性急に強硬に自己主張に徹し、世界中の批判を呼び、國際連盟を孤立し脱退することになり、後は一直線に戰爭へと突進していった。


Italia invadono l'Etiopia.


Dominican Republic strongman Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of the Haitian population living within the borderlands; approximately 20,000 are killed over the next five days.


1940/1002:WWⅡ、Germany「Jews of Warsaw」
Die deutsche Besatzungsbehörde in Warschau ordnet den Umzug aller etwa 400.000 in Warschau lebenden Juden in das Ghetto der Stadt an.

The German occupation authority in Warsaw orders the relocation of all 400,000 Jews living in Warsaw to the ghetto of the city.

1941/1002:WWⅡ、Nazis「Operation Typhoon」
 Germany begins an all-out offensive against Moscow.

la Wehrmacht lance l'opération Typhon, la grande offensive contre Moscou.


Ocean Liner RMS Queen Mary accidentally rams and sinks her own escort ship, HMS Curacoa, off the coast of Ireland, killing 239 crewmen aboard the Curacoa.




1944/1002:WWⅡ、Poland「Warsaw Uprising」
Der Warschauer Aufstand endet mit der Kapitulation der Polnischen Heimatarmee und der fast völligen Zerstörung der Stadt durch die Deutschen.


1944/1002:WWⅡ「Battle for Aachen」begins
 on the German West Front. Six weeks later, the city was the first German city to be occupied by the Allies.



GHQ, Occupation governance in the Dai-ichi Seimei Building in Hibiya, start office work.

1945/1002:パブリックキイの発明 Martin Hellman 1945--、誕生

an American cryptologist, best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle.

1947/1002:ロシア生まれの神祕主義者 Pyotr Ouspenskii 187847、他界

Пётр Демьянович Успенский;
a Russian mathematician and esotericist known for his expositions of the early work of the Greek-Armenian teacher of esoteric doctrine George Gurdjieff, whom he met in Moscow in 1915.
He was associated with the ideas and practices originating with Gurdjieff from then on. He shared the (Gurdjieff) "system" for 25 years in England and the United States, having separated from Gurdjieff in 1924 personally, for reasons he explains in the last chapter of his book In Search of the Miraculous.


1948/1002:USSR「Nuclear Weapon」
The USSR begins in Siberia with the construction of nuclear weapons.


1949/1002:USSR & PRChina
The Soviet Union recognises the People's Republic of China, proclaimed the previous day by Mao Zedong.


 by Charles M. Schulz is first published.

(The Washington Post, The Chicago Tribune, The Minneapolis Tribune, The Allentown Call-Chronicle, The Bethlehem Globe-Times, The Denver Post, and The Seattle Times) of Charles M. Schulz's first comedy the name of Peanuts.


 which was one of the first computers, is switched off. This was one of the last computers operating with the decimal system.



The war film The Bridge on the River Kwai is running, whose film music becomes the catchphrase with the March from the River Kwai and the whistled Colonel Bogey March.


Guinea declares its independence from France.


1959/1002:USA, TVシリイズ『Twilight Zone』初回放送
The anthology series The Twilight Zone premieres on CBS television.




1968/1002:前衛藝術の代名詞 Marcel Duchamp 188768、逝去

a French-American painter, sculptor, chess player and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, conceptual art and Dada, although he was careful about his use of the term Dada and was not directly associated with Dada groups.


Mexican President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz orders soldiers to suppress a demonstration of unarmed students, ten days before the 1968 Summer Olympics will start.

second massacre of Tlatelolco in Mexico City, the police kill about 300 people.

A plane carrying the Wichita State University football team, administrators, and supporters crashes in Colorado killing 31 people.


1982/1002:アメリ広告業界の雄 William Bernbach 191182、死去

an American advertising creative director.
He was one of the three founders in 1949 of the international advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB).
He directed many of the firm's breakthrough ad campaigns and had a lasting impact on the creative team structures now commonly used by ad agencies.

Bernbach quotes
"Let us prove to the world that good taste, good art, and good writing can be good selling."
"All of us who professionally use the mass media are the shapers of society. We can vulgarize that society. We can brutalize it. Or we can help lift it onto a higher level."
"The truth isn't the truth until people believe you, and they can't believe you if they don't know what you're saying, and they can't know what you're saying if they don't listen to you, and they won't listen to you if you're not interesting, and you won't be interesting unless you say things imaginatively, originally, freshly."
"It may well be that creativity is the last unfair advantage we're legally allowed to take over our competitors."



Xiamen Airlines Flight 8301 is hijacked and lands at Guangzhou, where it crashes into two other airliners on the ground, killing 128.

廈門航空機ハイジャック事件。ハイジャックされた厦門航空の Boeing737型機が広州に着陸する直前に犯人と機長が揉み合ひとなり地上の飛行機二機と衝突事故、132名が死亡。

The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments are signed by U.S. President Bill Clinton.


1997/1002:条約「Amsterdam ⇨ Maastricht」
l'Union européenne signe le traité d'Amsterdam, qui remplace le traité de Maastricht.


Five Amish girls are murdered by Charles Carl Roberts in a shooting at an Amish school in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania before Roberts commits suicide.


2007/1002:Korea「President Roh Moo-hyun
 across the Military Demarcation Line into North Korea on his way to the second Inter-Korean summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.


In a protest at a religious feast, fifty-two people are killed and many others are injured in Ethiopia's Oromia region.


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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World