Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World
今日が命日となった星の王子樣の Antoine de Saint-Exupéry 190044


歴史暦:古今東西 07/31 今日の出來事


La vérité d'hier est morte, celle de demain est encore à bâtir. Aucune synthèse valable n'est entrevue, et chacun d'entre nous ne détient qu'une parcelle de vérité. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry « Lettre à un otage »
The truth of yesterday is dead, that of tomorrow is still to be built. No valid synthesis is glimpsed, and each of us has only a piece of truth.
今日、七月三十一日は、私が「歴史の天使」の一人とおもふ Antoine de Saint-Exupéry 190044 が偵察飛行に飛び立って、そのまゝ行方を斷った日だ。今でははっきりしてゐるのだが、ドイツ空軍に撃墜されて、地中海に沈んだのであった。

La vérité d'hier est morte, celle de demain est encore à bâtir.
この現代に變りうる「新た世」のための思想=思考と空想。それが「歴史の天使」を志した私が自分に課した宿題である。こんな私に忠告する聲がある ――

何が新しく生まれた美しさで 何が失はれた大切なものか ―― いつも考へること。 What is the beauty that was born new and what is important that was lost -- always thinking.


-030/0731:Roman Republic、Assedio di Alessandria d'Egitto 

The Battle of Alexandria was fought on July 31, 30 BC between the forces of Octavian and Mark Antony during the Final War of the Roman Republic.
Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian's forces, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to his suicide.


The oldest recorded eruption of Mount Fuji.

After three days of siege, Thessaloniki falls into the hands of Saracens, who destroy the city.


1009/0731:Romanus Pontifex、
Pope Sergius IV becomes the 142nd pope, succeeding Pope John XVIII.

{イタリア人がロウマ教會を墮落させたのか、ロウマ教會がイタリア人を墮落させたのか ‥‥ Whether the Italians dropped the Roman Church, whether the Roman Church caused the Italians to fall,

Attempted usurpation by John Komnenos the Fat for the throne of Alexios III Angelos.


1358/0731:France、Assassinat par les Parisiens d'Étienne Marcel qui refusait de laisser entrer dans la ville les troupes navarraises et anglaises.

Assassination by the Parisians of Etienne Marcel, who refused to allow the Navarrese and English troops to enter the city.

1423/0731:Hundred Years' War: Battle of Cravant:
The French army is defeated by the English at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne.

à Cravant, sur les rives de l'Yonne, les Franco-Écossais de Louis de Bourbon, comte de Vendôme et de Jean Stuart, futur connétable de France, venant de Bourges, sont défaites et massacrées par les anglo-bourguignons venant d'Auxerre de Thomas Montaigu, comte de Salisbury, et de Jean II de Toulongeon, maréchal de Bourgogne ; Jean Stuart est fait prisonnier.

Jacques Cœur est arrêté par ordonnance de Charles VII de France.

Jacques Cœur is arrested by order of Charles VII of France.

Après avoir entendu le Grand Conseil, le roi Charles VII, au château de Taillebourg près de Saint-Jean-d'Angély (Charente-Maritime), décide d'imputer à Jacques Cœur le crime de lèse-majesté, ce qui a pour conséquence l'arrestation immédiate du Grand Argentier, astreint à tenir prison fermée, et entraîne la mise sous séquestre de ses biens.

Los judíos son expulsados de España cuando el Decreto de la Alhambra entra en vigor.

The Jews are expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect.

1556/0731:イエズス會創設 Ignacio de Loyola 149156、死去

o fundador da Companhia de Jesus, uma ordem religiosa católica romana que teve grande importância na Reforma Católica, cujos membros são conhecidos como os jesuítas.


La Armada Española se encuentra frente a la costa de Inglaterra.

The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England.


Maurice, Prince of Orange disbands the waardgelders militia in Utrecht, a pivotal event in the Remonstrant/Counter-Remonstrant tensions.


1655/0731:Russo-Polish War (1654~67):
The Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, which it holds for six years.


1658/0731:Mughal empire、
Aurangzeb is proclaimed Moghul emperor of India.

Aurangzeb, after a successful war with the brothers, captured his father Shah Jahan, the builder of the Taj Mahal, and took over the rule in the Mughal empire.


The Peace of Breda ends the Second English-Dutch Sea War.
Nieuw Nederland(New York)goes to England, in return the Netherlands receives Surinam, which is called from then on Dutch-Guayana, and concessions in the navigation act.




Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the crime of seditious libel after publishing a politically satirical pamphlet, but is pelted with flowers.

『ロビンソンクルソウ』の作者でもある Daniel Defoe 166031 が政治的な扇動を目的としたパンフレットを作成した嫌疑で Pillory(晒し台)に上げられる。晒し台には見物衆持參の汚物が投げつけられるのが習慣となってゐたが、デフォには花束が捧げられたといふ。

1712/0731:Great Northern War:
Danish & Swedish ships clash in the Baltic Sea; the result is inconclusive.


Seven days after a Spanish treasure fleet of 12 ships left Havana, Cuba for Spain, 11 of them sink in a storm off the coast of Florida. 

A few centuries later, treasure is salvaged from these wrecks.

Mit der Einnahme Passaus durch bayerische Truppen greift Kurfürst Karl Albrecht von Bayern in den Österreichischen Erbfolgekrieg ein.

Charles Albert of Bavaria invades Upper Austria and Bohemia.

Der Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Wien wird eröffnet. Er ist damit der weltweit älteste noch bestehende Zoo.


Odawa Chief Pontiac's forces defeat British troops at the Battle of Bloody Run during Pontiac's War.


The U.S. Second Continental Congress passes a resolution that the services of Gilbert du Motier "be accepted, and that, in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family and connexions, he have the rank and commission of major-general of the United States."


1784/0731:フランス百科全書 Denis Diderot 171384、死去

un écrivain, philosophe et encyclopédiste français des Lumières, à la fois romancier, dramaturge, conteur, essayiste, dialoguiste, critique d'art, critique littéraire et traducteur.

≫ 簡潔な文は鋭い釘のごとく、眞實を我々の記憶に刻み込む。

The first U.S. patent is issued, to inventor Samuel Hopkins for a potash process.

The inventor Samuel Hopkins receives the first patent of the USA for a new production process of Pottasche. The document bears, among other things, the signatures of President George Washington and Foreign Minister Thomas Jefferson.

1800/0731:Friedrich Wöhler 180082、誕生

ein deutscher Chemiker.





In Philadelphia, County Durham, UK, the boiler explodes the experimental steam locomotive Brunton's Mechanical Traveler. 16 spectators around die. This accident is the oldest known kettle explosion of a locomotive and to this day the one with the highest number of deaths at all.



1826/0731:"Boys be ambitious" William S. Clark 182686、誕生

アメリカ合衆国の教育者。化学、植物学、動物学の教師。農学教育のリーダー。 1876年(明治9)札幌農学校(現北海道大学)開校。初代教頭。

Americans who had great influence in a word of "Boys be ambitious" to the Japanese after the Meiji Restoration.(明治維新以降の日本人に "Boys be ambitious" の一言で多大な影響をあたへたアメリカ人)。

Georg Büchners revolutionäre und sofort von der Obrigkeit verfolgte Streitschrift Der Hessische Landbote, die soziale Missstände im Vormärz anprangert, wird heimlich im Großherzogtum Hessen verteilt.

Georg Büchner's revolutionary and immediately pursued by the authorities, the Hessische Landbote, which denounces social grievances in the Vormärz, is secretly distributed in the Grand Duchy of Hesse.




1886/0731:Franz Liszt 181186、死去

ein ungarischer Komponist, Pianist, Dirigent, Theaterleiter, Musiklehrer und Schriftsteller mit deutscher Muttersprache.


Conradh na Gaeilge(Gaelic Federation)is established in Dublin.


1894/0731:Japan vs China、日清戰爭

Japan's Komura minister informed the General Administration, cut off diplomatic relations with the Qing Dynasty. The next day both sides declared war at the same time, the Sino-Japanese War of the Sino-Japanese War.

Basque Nationalist Party, founded.


1901/0731:Jean Dubuffet 190185、誕生

un peintre, sculpteur et plasticien français.

1904/0731:Russo-Japanese War(日露戰爭):
Battle of Hsimucheng: Units of the Imperial Japanese Army defeat units of the Imperial Russian Army in a strategic confrontation.


1905/0731:Russo-Japanese War(日露戰爭):



1912/0731:Milton Friedman 191206、誕生

an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy

The Balkan States sign an armistice in Bucharest.


1914/0731:Jean Jaurès 185914、暗殺

Le politicien socialiste Jean Jaurès, un des principaux représentant du réformisme français et opposant la guerre, a été assassiné dans un café parisien des nationalistes Raoul Villain. L'assassin est acquitté par la suite, après plus de quatre ans de détention au tribunal.

the Entente began the Third Flanders Battle to achieve a breakthrough in the Ypres area.



Die deutsche Nationalversammlung nimmt die Weimarer Verfassung an.

German national assembly adopts the Weimar Constitution, which comes into force on August 14.

羽越本線が全通し、「敦賀 - 青森」の日本海側、縦貫線が完通。


The radio mystery program、The Shadow airs for the first time.


1932/0731:John Searle 1932--、誕生

Widely noted for his contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, and social philosophy, he began teaching at UC Berkeley in 1959.

≫ 他の文化との関係から見るのでないかぎり、自分自身の文化を理解することはできない。

Die NSDAP gewinnt bei der Reichstagswahl 37,3 % aller Stimmen und wird damit mit Abstand zur größten Fraktion im Reichstag.

The NSDAP (Nazi Party) wins more than 38% of the vote in German elections.

1936/0731:Olympic Game
At the IOC General Assembly held in Berlin, the venue for the summer Olympic Games in 1940 was decided to Tokyo (but in the influence of the Japan-China War, Japan returned its right to hold in 1938)

{返上しなかったら、とどうしても歴史の IF を思ひ考へてみたくなる。アメリカとの戰爭は1938年時点ではまだ始まってゐなかった。日本での初めての國際的イベントとなったはずだ。世界中の人々が日本といふ極東の、西洋列強に伍した新興國家をその地で見ることにより、また日本人も世界中の人々を間近にみることによって、日本の空氣はおほいに變ったものになったはずだ ―― と想像されて。


Bulgaria signs a non-aggression pact with Greece and other states of Balkan Antanti (Turkey, Romania, Yugoslavia).


Archaeologists discover engraved gold and silver plates from King Darius the Great in Persepolis.


1939/0731:Tzvetan Todorov 1939--、誕生

, essayiste, philosophe et historien français d'origine bulgare.

1941/0731:Deutsch Nazis、Holocaust:
Der deutsche Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring beauftragt Reinhard Heydrich, den Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD, ihm einen Gesamtentwurf über die Durchführung der angestrebten Endlösung der Judenfrage vorzulegen.

Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Nazi official Hermann Göring, orders SS General Reinhard Heydrich to "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question."



1944/0731:Antoine de Saint-Exupéry 190044、この日を以て行方不明=L'écrivain et Flieger Antoine de Saint-Exupéry commencent à un vol de reconnaissance à Grenoble et reste ensuite disparu.

Restes de l'avion ont été récupérés près de l'île de Riou, près de Marseille de 2003.



1945/0731:Vichy France、
Pierre Laval(the fugitive former leader of Vichy France)surrenders to Allied soldiers in Austria.

Arrestation de l'ex-chef du gouvernement du Régime de Vichy Pierre Laval par les soldats alliés.

USS Nevada is sunk by an aerial torpedo after surviving hits from two atomic bombs (as part of post-war tests) and being used for target practice by three other ships.


1952/0731:Waldemar Bonsels 188052、死去

Waldemar Bonsels's most famous work is the children's book Die Biene Maja (Maya the Bee). This work also served the basis for a Japanese animated television series named Maya the Honey Bee in the mid-1970s,




création de l'ETA, groupe armé anti-franquiste et séparatiste basque.

A group of Basque students founded the underground resistance movement, Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA), which is using terrorist means in the struggle against the Franco dictatorship in Spain and aims for an independent Basque state.

1964/0731:NASA、Ranger program:
Ranger 7 sends back the first close-up photographs of the moon, with images 1,000 times clearer than anything ever seen from earth-bound telescopes.


1966/0731:Bud Powell 192466、死去

 a American Jazz Pianist


1971/0731:NASAApollo program:
Apollo 15 astronauts become the first to ride in a lunar rover.




A Delta Air Lines jetliner, flight DL 723 crashes while landing in fog at Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts killing 89.


1975/0731:七人の侍の一人 加東大介191175、死去




The battleship "Yamato" of the Japanese Navy that was sunk is discovered on the ocean floor of the East China Sea.


1986/0731:Teddy Wilson 191286、死去

an American jazz pianist. Described by critic Scott Yanow as "the definitive swing pianist",

{私は、Lester Young との共演 I didn't know what time it was が忘れられない。




32 people are killed & 1,674 injured when a bridge at the Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal collapses in Butterworth, Penang, Malaysia.


1991/0731:USA & UCCR
The United States and Soviet Union both sign the START I Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, the first to reduce (with verification) both countries' stockpiles.

第一次戦略兵器削減条約(START I)に調印。冷戦の実質的終結


Seven Lithuanian security guards are killed by the Soviet Interior Ministry Special Forces (OMON) at Medininkai on the border of Lithuania and Belarus.


The nation of Georgia joins the United Nations.


Thai Airways International Flight 311 crashes into a mountain north of Kathmandu, Nepal killing all 113 people on board.


1999/0731:NASA、Discovery Program:
Lunar Prospector: NASA intentionally crashes the spacecraft into the Moon, thus ending its mission to detect frozen water on the moon's surface.


Fidel Castro hands over power to his brother, Raúl.


2007/0731:Northern Ireland、Operation
Banner, the presence of the British Army in Northern Ireland, and the longest-running British Army operation ever, comes to an end.





2012/0731:Eugene Luther Gore Vidal 192512、死去

an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.



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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World