Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 06/15 今日の出來事

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『ペエルギュント』の作曲家、Edvard Grieg 184307 が生まれ、

JazzPianist の Erroll Garner 19217 が生まれ、
JazzGuitarist の Wes Montgomery 192568 が死に、そして、
JazzVocalist の Ella Fitzgerald 191796 が死んだ日


Louis II is crowned as king of Italy at Rome by pope Sergius II.


0745/0615(天平17/0511):日本[平城京] 聖武天皇


0923/0615:フランス「Battle of Soissons」王たちの災難、
King Robert I of France is killed and King Charles the Simple is arrested by the supporters of Duke Rudolph of Burgundy.


The Valencia, taken by the Islamic Almoravids, is recaptured by El Cid. Until his death five years later he holds the region for the Christian kingdom of Castile.



1189/0615:日本[鎌倉] 悲劇の英雄 源義經115989、敗死


Minamoto no Yoshitsune was a military commander of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura periods.
During the Genpei War, he led a series of battles which toppled the Ise-Heishi branch of the Taira clan, helping his half-brother Yoritomo consolidate power. He is considered one of the greatest and the most popular warriors of his era, and one of the most famous samurai fighters in the history of Japan.
Yoshitsune perished after being betrayed by the son of a trusted ally.







King John of England puts his seal to the Magna Carta.


Magna Carta Libertatum(the Great Charter of the Liberties)


1219/0615:Northern Crusades:
Danish victory at the Battle of Lyndanisse (modern-day Tallinn) establishes the Danish Duchy of Estonia. According to legend, this battle also marks the first use of the Dannebrog, the world's first national flag still in use, as the national flag of Denmark.


1381/0615:農民反亂指導者 Wat Tyler 134181、騙し殺しに遭ふ
a leader of the 1381 Peasants' Revolt in England.
He marched a group of rebels from Canterbury to the capital to oppose the institution of a poll tax and demand economic and social reforms. While the brief rebellion enjoyed early success, Tyler was killed by officers loyal to King Richard II during negotiations at Smithfield, London.




1389/0615:Battle of Kosovo、コソボと云へばあのコソボ
The Ottoman Empire defeats Serbs and Bosnians.



In a decisive battle at Onon River, the Mongol forces of Oljei Temur were decimated by the Chinese armies of the Yongle Emperor.


Christopher Columbus lands on the island of Martinique on his fourth voyage.


Pope Leo X threatens to excommunicate Martin Luther in Exsurge Domine.

教皇レオXが大勅書『エクスルゲドミネ』を発布、Martin Luther 148346 に自説を撤回しなければ破門と警告。

1594/0615:フランスの画家 Nicolas Poussin 159465、誕生

un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural. Il est formé à Paris, mais il est surtout actif à Rome à partir de 1624. Il a peint aussi bien des scènes d'histoire que religieuses, mythologiques, mais aussi des paysages animés.


Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s

1623/0615:オランダの政事家 Cornelis de Witt 162372、民衆のリンチで

In 1672 he was accused of treason for treason against Willem III of Oranje (later William III of England) and was murdered by the people along with his brother Johan.



Margaret Jones is hanged in Boston for witchcraft in the first such execution for the Massachusetts Bay Colony.


The first human blood transfusion is administered by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys.


Vitus Bering in Petropavlovsk in the context of the second Kamchatka expedition to ship with the order to explore the coast of America. He discovers Alaska.



1747/0615:日本 幕末の思想家 高山彥九郎174793、誕生

Takayama Hikokurō est l'un des « Trois hommes excellant de l'ère Kansei » (Kansei no san-kijin 寛政の三奇人) avec Hayashi Shihei et Gamō Sanbei.



Benjamin Franklin examines his theory that flashes are quasi sparks on a huge scale. It makes an electric kite rise with approaching thunderclouds, which causes a lightning strike. The test results in the formation of lightning conductors.


1763/0615:日本 俳諧師 小林一茶176327、誕生

Kobayashi Issa was a Japanese poet and lay Buddhist priest of the Jōdo Shinshū sect known for his haiku poems and journals.江戸時代の俳諧師




1775/0615:USA Rev War: ワシントン、大陸軍の總司令官に就任
George Washington is appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.



Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier et son cavalier Pierre Romain début de Boulogne-sur-Mer avec les pays développés par lui Rozière, un mélange de ballon d'hydrogène et d'un ballon à air chaud, vers la Grande-Bretagne. Tout en essayant de traverser la Manche, ils sont les premières victimes de l'aviation, quand il est allumé au bout de cinq kilomètres de l'hydrogène dans son Rozière et écraser la nacelle du ballon.



La duchesse de bal de Richmond aura lieu à la veille de la bataille de Quatre-Bras.




日本外史』1827 は幕末から明治にかけて志士をはじめとする日本人にもっとも讀まれたであらう歴史書。




1843/0615:ノルヱイ作曲家 Edvard Grieg 184307、誕生

ein norwegischer Pianist und Komponist der Romantik. Bekannt wurde er vor allem durch das von ihm komponierte musikalische Werk Peer Gynt.


1844/0615:USA Goodyear、タイヤの製法特許を取得
Charles Goodyear receives a patent for vulcanization, a process to strengthen rubber.


1846/0615:USA & Canada、國境線確定
The Oregon Treaty establishes the 49th parallel as the border between the United States and Canada, from the Rocky Mountains to the Strait of Juan de Fuca.


Jacob Fussell starts his first factory for the production of ice-cream.


1859/0615:北アメリカで「Pig War」?
 Ambiguity in the Oregon Treaty leads to the "Northwestern Boundary Dispute" between United States and British/Canadian settlers.

ブタが戰爭したわけではない。戰爭をしたのは人間、イギリス人とアメリカ人である。場所は、北米大陸とバングウバ島との間にあるサンフアン諸島。ブタを撃ち殺したことが戰爭への切っ掛けとなったので「Pig War」と呼ばれるやうになった。ブタにはいい迷惑だった。この戰鬪での流血の犠牲となったのは、そのブタ一匹であったといふ。となれば「ブタ戰爭」と呼んでもいいやうな氣もする。




1864/0615:USA Civil War「2nd Battle of Petersburg」begins.


Arlington National Cemetery is established

 when 200 acres (0.81 km2) around Arlington Mansion (formerly owned by Confederate General Robert E. Lee) are officially set aside as a military cemetery by U.S. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton.


Preußische Deklaration an das österreichische Kaiserreich.

結局、Schlacht bei Königgrätz 1866/0703 で決着がつき、ドイツ統一プロイセン中心におこなはれることになった。

Eadweard Muybridge takes a series of photographs to prove that all four feet of a horse leave the ground when it runs; the study becomes the basis of motion pictures.



Crown Prince Wilhelm becomes Kaiser Wilhelm II; he will be the last Emperor of the German Empire. Due to the death of his predecessors Wilhelm I and Frederick III, 1888 is the Year of the Three Emperors.


The deadliest tsunami in Japan's history kills more than 22,000 people.



1902/0615:アメリカの發達心理学者 Erik Erikson 190294、誕生

a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings.
He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis.




A fire aboard the steamboat SS General Slocum in New York City's East River kills 1,000.


The Second Hague Peace Conference with 44 participating States on questions of war law, disarmament and the peaceful settlement of international conflicts begins. It will last until 18 October.


1908/0615:日本[明治] 文藝家 川上眉山186908、自殺

Kawakami Bizan est un romancier japonais de l'ère Meiji.
Il quitte l'école des beaux arts de l'Université de Tokyo et rejoint le cercle littéraire Kenyūsha dont la personnalité principale est Ozaki Kōyō. C'est un auteur à succès bien connu. Son œuvre est variée et comprend des poèmes, des carnets de voyage et des romans. Après avoir combattu la montée du naturalisme en littérature, il se suicide.

1911/0615:日本 幕末維新の偉人 大鳥圭介183311、死去

Ōtori Keisuke était un commandant militaire japonais pendant les dernières années du shogunat des Tokugawa et le début de l'ère Meiji.




1915/0615:Thomas Huckle Weller 191508、誕生

an American virologist. He, John Franklin Enders and Frederick Chapman Robbins were awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1954 for showing how to cultivate poliomyelitis viruses in a test tube, using a combination of human embryonic skin and muscle tissue.

1917/0615:Kristian Birkeland 186717、死去

a Norwegian scientist. He is best remembered for his theories of atmospheric electric currents that elucidated the nature of the aurora borealis.
In order to fund his research on the aurorae, he invented the electromagnetic cannon and the Birkeland-Eyde process of fixing nitrogen from the air. Birkeland was nominated for the Nobel Prize seven times.


1921/0615:Jazzピアニスト Erroll Garner 192177、誕生

an American jazz pianist whose typical melodic and rhythmic style earned him great popularity, as well as the admiration of his masters.
His best-known composition, the ballad "Misty", has become a jazz standard.
1955年にはカリフォルニア州カメルでのライブを音源としたアルバム『Concert by the Sea』や『Contrasts』をリリイス。大ヒット。後世に影響力を持つレコウドとなった。

1929/0615:日本、関西の喜劇王 藤山寛美192990、誕生

Un comédien du Japon. Il est un acteur représentant la comédie Kansai de l'ère Showa après la guerre et a laissé de nombreux chefs-d'œuvre.

A German expedition led by Karl Wien loses sixteen members in an avalanche on Nanga Parbat. It is the worst single disaster to occur on an 8000m peak.



1938/0615:ドイツ表現派 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 188038、死去

ein deutscher Maler und Grafiker und zählt zu den wichtigsten Vertretern des Expressionismus.
Kirchner war ein Gründungsmitglied der Künstlergruppe Brücke.
1937 brandmarkten die Nationalsozialisten seine Werke als „entartet“. Über 600 dieser Werke wurden daraufhin verkauft oder zerstört. Ein Jahr darauf starb er durch Suizid.

Fränzi vor geschnitztem Stuhl, 1910

Das Wohnzimmer, 1921

1940/0615:WWⅡ:Operation Ariel begins:
Allied troops start to evacuate France, following Germany's takeover of Paris and most of the nation.


Battle of Saipan: The United States invade Japanese-occupied Saipan.



From a regional party section of the Communist Party of China, whose first edition appears, the Renmin Ribao (national newspaper) becomes the official language of the party and one of the two largest daily newspapers in the People's Republic of China.


Mexican archaeologist Alberto Luz discovered the tomb of the stone chamber at the "temple of the inscription" of Yucatan Peninsula / Palenque.


1953/0615:中共最高指導者 習近平、誕生

Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
As Xi holds the top offices of the party, the state, and the military, he is sometimes referred to as China's "paramount leader"; in 2016, the party officially gave him the title of "core" leader.
As General Secretary, Xi holds an ex-officio seat on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's top decision-making body


Xi Jinping, à gauche, son frère Xi Yuanping et leur père Xi Zhongxun en 1958.






1962/0615:フランスのピアニスト Alfred Cortot 187762、死去

un pianiste français.
Il est considéré comme l'un des grands interprètes du XXe siècle. Pédagogue renommé, il est un des fondateurs de l'École normale de musique de Paris.
Son rôle dans le gouvernement de Vichy et son attitude pendant l'Occupation sont un sujet de controverses.



アメリカで、坂本九の『上を向いて歩こう 』が『(SUKIYAKI』と名を變へて売りだされ、ヒットチャートのビルボードの週間ランキングで一位を獲得。

1968/0615:Jazzギタリスト Wes Montgomery 192568、死去

John Leslie "Wes" Montgomery was an American jazz guitarist.
He is widely considered one of the major jazz guitarists, emerging after such seminal figures as Django Reinhardt and Charlie Christian and influencing countless others.
He was known for an unusual technique of plucking the strings with the side of his thumb which granted him a distinctive sound.



Charles Manson on trial for Sharon Tate murders


A Paris, les étudiants japonais des auteurs de l'incident qui a mangé la chair humaine de la femme française est arrêté.


Kouji Tanikawa won the Hihumi Kato in the battle of Shogi 's masterpiece, and the youngest masters in Shogi' s history was born.


Rembrandt's painting Danaë is attacked by a man (later judged insane) who throws sulfuric acid on the canvas and cuts it twice with a knife.

In Leningrad, a disturbed mentality in the Hermitage caused an acid and knife work on the painted painting Danae by the painter Rembrandt van Rijn.


1991/0615:フィリピン、Mt.Pinatubo 二十世紀で二番目の大噴火
In the Philippines, Mount Pinatubo erupts in the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th Century. In the end, over 800 people die.



1992/0615:日本の生物学者 今西錦司190292、死去

Imanishi a été le premier, dans les années 1950, à parler de cultures animales. Considéré comme le cofondateur de la primatologie au Japon avec Jun'ichirō Itani, il est en outre à l'origine de l'Institut de recherche sur les primates de l'université de Kyōto.
Son ouvrage le plus connu s'intitule Le Monde des êtres vivants.

# 棲み分け理論:カゲロウの生態学的研究と植物相にかんする生物地理学的な研究から[棲み分け理論]種同士の社界的關係について、たとへばカゲロウ類の陽中は渓流に生息するが種によってその環境が異なるとともに形態も異なってゐる。それぞれが棲み分けた環境に順応適應し、新たな亞種が形成されたと推測される。今西の棲み分け理論における獨自性は、個體ではなく、種が選擇の單位になってゐる点。この種は分類学上の種とは異なり、實際の生物個體の認知機構と實際のCommunicationにより構成されたもので、同種個體はそれにより種社界を形成する。この種社界が種の實體である。種が異なるといふ認識で棲み分けがなされ、同位社界が組織形成され棲み分けがなされる。たんなる生息地分布をさす「生息地分割としての棲み分け」と今西の個體ではなく種社界を主體とした共時構造としての棲み分けを區別する必要がある。今西の種の棲み分けは現代の生態学では受け容れられてゐない。 
# 今西說によれば、生理生態が似た個體同士は生活史において競爭と協調の動的平衡を生じる。このなかで組織されたのが實體としての種であり、今西が提唱する種社界である。種社界はさまざまな契機で分裂していく。分裂した種社界は棲み分けることで、可能ならば競爭を避けつゝ適切な場所に移動できた時、生物個體と種社界はそれぞれ自己完結的・自立的な働きを示す。その結果生じる生理生態、形態の變化が進化である。つまり、進化とは棲み分けの密度化といふ方向性を持ち、その過程で、突然變異は種社界で通常以上に高度に發生する必要があり、その變異が速やかに種社界に擴がること、變異はランダムではなく發生の制約上の方向性を持ち、どちらかと云へば前適應的に起きた變異にたいし生物が主體的に振舞ふので適應的に見える=今西進化論(『主體性の進化論』1981

1992/0615:日本、PKO国会『 PKO協力法』成立。


Israel and Vatican City establish full diplomatic relations.


1996/0615:Jazzシンガー Ella Fitzgerald 191796、死去

an American jazz singer often referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, and Lady Ella.
She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, phrasing and intonation, and a "horn-like" improvisational ability, particularly in her scat singing.


The Troubles: The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonates a powerful truck bomb in the middle of Manchester, England, devastating the city centre and injuring 200 people.


Leaders of the People's Republic of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan formed the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.


Nik Wallenda becomes the first person to successfully tightrope walk directly over Niagara Falls.



2014/0615:アメリカ小説家 Daniel Keyes 192714、死去

an American writer who wrote the novel Flowers for Algernon.
One story idea Keyes wrote but did not submit to Lee was called "Brainstorm", the paragraph-long synopsis that would evolve into Flowers for Algernon. It begins: "The first guy in the test to raise the I.Q. from a low normal 90 to genius level ... He goes through the experience and then is thrown back to what was." Keyes recalled, "[S]omething told me it should be more than a comic book script.
Keyes was given the Author Emeritus honor by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America in 2000.

2016/0615:野球選手 イチロー、日米通算安打4257とし新記録を達成
MBL、Ichiro of outfielder of Miami Marlins has hit 4257 hits for Japan and the United States, achieving new record of lifetime occupation baseball game hits.


明日等へ ―― Friedrich Nietzsche 184400より

≫ 君の魂のなかにゐる英雄を放棄してはならない。
≫ 一度この書のなかに住んだ者は異なった者としてこの世に戻ってくる。けれども、この事は誰にも話してはいけない。
≫ 眞の男のなかには一人の少年が隠れてゐる。この少年が遊びたがるのだ。
≫ 獨創的とは、何か新たなものを初めて觀察することではない。古くからあるもの、また誰の目からも見逃されてゐたものを、新しいもののやうに觀察すること、できることが眞に獨創的といふ意味である。
≫ 物事を完成させるには、才能や技倆よりも時間による成熟を信じながら絶えず進んでいくといふ氣質が決定的な役割をはたす。
≫ 負けても終りではない。終りは、止めた時だ。



Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World