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歴史暦:古今東西 05/03 今日の出來事

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La princesse Tōchi est une princesse impériale du Japon durant la période Asuka de l'histoire du Japon.
Her name Tōchi is derived from the Tōchi district, a neighbourhood located a few miles north of Asuka. Princess Tōchi was daughter of Emperor Tenmu and Princess Nukata. She married Prince Ōtomo, who became Emperor Kōbun. They lived in the capital of Ōtsu in the Ōmi Province (currently Ōtsu, Shiga). He succeeded after his father, Emperor Tenji, died. She subsequently was Empress-consort until Emperor Kōbun was killed by her father in the Jinshin War.
After the war, she returned to Asuka and lived with her mother and her son in the Asuka Kiyomihara palace. In 675 she visited the Ise Grand Shrine with Princess Abe.
In 678, she was appointed a Saiō by divination and was supposed to leave her residence to stay in Saikū (斎宮) in the 7th day of the 4th month, when she suddenly died in the residence. Upon her death, Prince Takechi composed three verses of lamentation in her honour (from his verses collected in Man'yōshū).
She was buried at a place mentioned as Akō in the Nihonshoki.



河上乃 湯津盤村二 草武左受 常丹毛冀名 常處女煮手
かはのへの ゆついはむらに くさむさず つねにもがもな とこをとめにて
今日が十市皇女065078の命日だと歴史暦に教へられて ――

飛鳥の(飛鳥から少し外れるが)忍阪あたりを歩いてゐると思ひだされ、それには、ラヴェルの有名な『亡き王女のためのパヴァヌ』がBGMに聞こえてきて、 …… さうした感傷に過ごした時のことが、戀人との時間のやうに思ひだされました。


0762/0503:中國[唐] 06皇帝 玄宗068562、崩御

Tang Xuanzong Li Longji was born in Luoyang, Shendu, in 685. He was the ninth emperor of the Tang Dynasty (reigned from 712 to 756). He reigned in 44 years and was the oldest emperor of the Tang Dynasty, Tang Ruizong's third son. Mou Dou Tak. Temple No. Xuanzong, nicknamed Dao Da Ming Xiao Emperor. The character is wise and decisive, versatile, knowing the rhythm, being good at calligraphy, and the instrument is magnificent.



Emperor Xuanzong giving audience to Zhang Guo, by Ren Renfa (1254–1327)

1035/0503:日本[平安朝] 貴族 藤原齋信096735、死去

Fujihara no TadaNobu、平安時代中期の公卿。太政大臣藤原爲光094292の二男。
中納言昇進後も、中宮大夫として道長の長女の中宮藤原彰子に仕える一方で、1004寛弘01、従二位、寛弘05、正二位と順調に昇進し、寛弘06 には権大納言に昇進。藤原公任を越えて、四納言の筆頭格となった。が、その後は


1207/0503:日本[鎌倉時代]貴族 九条兼實114907、死去

Fujiwara no Kanezane, aussi appelé Kujō Kanezane (九条 兼実?), est le fondateur de la famille Kujō (d'après la suggestion de Minamoto no Yoritomo) bien que certaines sources citent Fujiwara no Morosuke 藤原師輔090960 pour fondateur.
Il organise la compilation du Kitano Tenjin Engi『北野天神縁起』(l'histoire du sanctuaire Kitano Tenman-gū). À l'âge de 38 ans, il est nommé régent kampaku 關白 de l'empereur Go-Toba 082後鳥羽尊成118039天皇 et Daijō-daijin 太政大臣(premier ministre) en 1189.
Son journal « feuilles (comparables à des) bijoux » (玉葉, gyokuyō) nous est parvenu.

1270/0503:ハンガリ王 Béla IV 127006、崩去

Béla venerabilis war seit 1235 als Béla IV. König von Ungarn und als Bela III. in Personalunion auch König von Kroatien sowie von 1254 bis 1258 Herzog der Steiermark.
He is one of the famous King of Hungary due to the reconstruction project of Hungary which was devastated by the invasion of the Mongolian army in 1241.

The English Parliament ratifies the agreement concluded on 17 March by Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer with the Scottish king Robert the Bruce, in which the independence of Scotland from England is guaranteed "forever".


1469/0503:マキアベリズム張本人 Niccolò Machiavelli 146927、誕生

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli noto semplicemente come Niccolò Machiavelli è stato uno storico, filosofo, scrittore, politico e drammaturgo italiano.
Considerato, come Leonardo da Vinci, un uomo universale, nonché figura controversa nella Firenze dei Medici, è noto come il fondatore della scienza politica moderna, i cui principi base emergono dalla sua opera più famosa, Il Principe, nella quale è esposto il concetto di ragion di stato e la concezione ciclica della storia.

1481/0503:オスマン帝國スルタン Mehmed II 143281、崩去

, commonly known as Muhammad al-Fatih the Conqueror, was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire.
Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia with its reunification and in Southeast Europe as far west as Bosnia.
Mehmed is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey and parts of the wider Muslim world. Among other things, Istanbul's Fatih district, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Fatih Mosque are named after him.

Roumeli Hissar Castle, built by Sultan Mehmed II between 1451 and 1452,


1481 Rhodes earthquake occurred at 3:00 in the morning on 3 May. It triggered a small tsunami, which caused local flooding. There were an estimated 30,000 casualties. It was the largest of a series of earthquakes that affected Rhodes, starting on 15 March 1481, continuing until January 1482.

Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I.

Christoph Kolumbus descubrió en su segundo viaje fue el primer europeo en la isla caribeña de Jamaica, que será nombrado por el español en Santiago.


1616/0503:William Shakespeare 156416、死去

an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon".
His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language, and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.

This was long thought to be the only portrait of William Shakespeare that had any claim to have been painted from life, until another possible life portrait, the Cobbe portrait, was revealed in 2009.



1660/0503:Treaty of Oliva, First Nordic War end

 consolidates the status of Sweden under Charles XI as a great power. The Polish King John II Kasimir confirms the independence of the Duchy of Prussia from Poland-Lithuania.

1704/0503:Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber 164404、死去

, Czech-Austrian violinist and composer

1715/0503:イギリス人のHalley の予告のとほりに皆既日食
A total solar eclipse was visible across northern Europe, and northern Asia, as predicted by Edmond Halley to within 4 minutes accuracy.

Charles Messier a découvert dans la constellation de la Venatici Canes amas globulaire Messier 3. L'objet céleste est composé d'environ 500 000 étoiles et contient 212 étoiles variables - le plus grand nombre dans la Voie Lactée.

Messier 3

1748/0503:F革命期の政事家 Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès 174836、誕生

Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès ou l'abbé Sieyès est un homme d'Église, homme politique et essayiste français, surtout connu pour ses écrits et son action pendant la Révolution française.
Directeur, il est, au début du Consulat, consul provisoire.
Il est ensuite président du Sénat conservateur et comte de l'Empire.



1758/0503:ロウマ教皇 Benedictus PP. XIV 167558、死去

Papa Benedetto XIV, in latino: Benedictus PP. XIV, nato Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini è stato il 247º vescovo di Roma e papa della Chiesa cattolica dal 17 agosto 1740 (giorno dell'elezione al 255º scrutinio) alla sua morte.

1764/0503:F革命の犠牲者 Élisabeth de France 176494、誕生

Élisabeth Philippe 1 Marie Hélène de France, dite Madame Élisabeth, née le 3 mai 1764 à Versailles et morte guillotinée le 10 mai 1794 à Paris.
Elle est le huitième et dernier enfant du dauphin Louis et de Marie-Josèphe de Saxe et la sœur du roi Louis XVI à qui elle apporta un soutien indéfectible.
Emprisonnée avec lui en 1792 et appelée à comparaître devant le Tribunal révolutionnaire sous la Terreur, elle fut condamnée à mort et exécutée.

par Mme Vigée-Lebrun en 1790

The British watchmaker and inventor Alexander Cumming announces a patent for a water closet.

The Constitution of May 3 (the first modern constitution in Europe) is proclaimed by the Sejm of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Four-year-old Sejm concludes with the constitution of 3 May the first democratic constitution in Europe. The "Polish Republic of Poland" is thus becoming a unitary state perceived as a threat by its absolutist neighbors.

1802/0503:USA、Washington, D.C. is incorporated as a city.

Madrid, soldados franceses realizan sus prisioneros españoles en venganza por la revuelta del 2 de mayo Este acontecimiento inspiró la pintura más famosa del pintor español Francisco de Goya: Tres de Mayo.


La bataille de Tolentino eut lieu les 2 et 3 mai 1815 entre des forces autrichiennes commandées par le maréchal Bianchi et une armée italienne menée par Joachim Murat, roi de Naples, durant la guerre napolitaine. Une armée autrichienne, commandée par Neipperg, joua un rôle décisif sans combattre.


1822/0503:日本[江戸] 名君 上杉治憲鷹山175122、死去

The lord of the middle period of the Edo period. Dewa Japan Yonezawa clan ninth generation lord.
He made the opportunity to revive the Yonezawa clan just before the return of his territory and is known as one of the best names in the Edo period.


成せばなる 成さねばならぬ 何事も 成らぬは人の 成さぬ成けり 



1823/0503:日本[幕末] 長州藩周布政之助182364、誕生



1834/0503:ロシア政事家 Алексей Аракчеев 177734、死去

русский государственный и военный деятель, пользовавшийся огромным доверием Павла I и Александра I, особенно во второй половине царствования Александра I («аракчеевщина»).
un général et homme politique russe, ministre de la Guerre de 1808 à 1825, chevalier orthodoxe de l'ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem (Russie impériale), chef du département de la guerre au Conseil d'État de la Russie impériale, chef de la Chancellerie impériale. Il fut l'ami et le confident d'Alexandre Ier.
Il est le ministre de l'empereur russe Alexander I, qui a établi une période appelée "régime d'Arachaceev" quand Aleksandr I après la guerre napoléonienne a commencé à récupérer le pouvoir conservateur et exagéré.


1849/0503:ドイツ人、May Uprising in Dresden
begins the last of the German revolutions of 1848~49.


Campagne d'Italie, Napoléon III déclare son intention de libérer l'Italie « des Alpes à l'Adriatique».





1874/0503:フランス 香水富豪 François Coty 187334、誕生

fabricant de parfum français Joseph Marie François Spoturno dit François Coty est un industriel et homme politique français

パリで政事活動する一方、友人の薬剤師から香水の知識と調香を学び、自分の母の旧姓である「コティ」社を創立。化学者のレイモンコレリの助力を得て、フランスでも香水のメッカとして名高かったグラス産の香水の製造販売を始めるとともに、1904年には最初の製品となる香水となる「ロウズ・ジャックミノウ」を発売。それまでの味気ない瓶からアルヌウボウの宝飾家、ルネ・ラリックのデザインによるガラス瓶に入れて売り出し、評判を取った。コティ社の香水は、瞬く間に人気を博し、彼は巨万の富を得た。その後も1906年には「ジャスミン ド コルス」、1909年には「ロリガン」などを発売、ラリックのボトルデザインに入った香水は一世を風靡した。

1928年には、労働者向けの大衆紙として『L'Ami du peuple』 を創刊。安価な購読料と右翼的主張に加えて反ユダヤ主義ファシズム讚歌を扇情的に主帳し、世界大恐慌やスタヴィスキ事件で第三共和政への失望が広まるなかで多くの部数を売り上げた。

1874/0503:スヱデン 海洋學者 Vagn Walfrid Ekman 187454、誕生

Swedish ocean physicist. As advocate of the so-called Ekman's ocean current theory, it was touted as the highest authority of the modern ocean physics world

1886/0503:フランス オルガニスト Marcel Dupré 188671、誕生

, organiste et compositeur français

1892/0503:イギリス 物理学 George Paget Thomson 189275、誕生

an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics recognised for his discovery of the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction.
the son of physicist and Nobel laureate J. J. Thomson

1898/0503:イスラエル 女性首相 Golda Meir189878、誕生

(born Golda Mabovitch, Голда Мабович; Golda Meyerson/Myerson) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.


1903/0503:USA Bing Crosby 190377、誕生

Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby Jr. was an American singer and actor.
Crosby's trademark warm bass-baritone voice made him the best-selling recording artist of all time,


1913/0503:精神分析 心理学 Heinz Kohut 191381、誕生

ein US-amerikanischer Psychoanalytiker österreichischer Herkunft.
an Austrian-American psychoanalyst best known for his development of self psychology, an influential school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory which helped transform the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches.

1915/0503:WWⅠに從軍したカナダ人が遺した詩 ――
The Canadian John McCrae, whose friend Alexis Helmer fell the day before, wrote one of the most famous English-language poems of the First World War, In Flanders Fields.


The first leaders of the Easter rising in Ireland, including Patrick Pearse, are shot at the Kilmainham Gaol in Dublin. The executions last until May 12th.

1916/0503:Patrick Pearse 187916、射殺

Patrick Henry Pearse was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist and political activist who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. Following his execution along with fifteen others, Pearse came to be seen by many as the embodiment of the rebellion.

Pearse (in uniform centre-right) at the funeral of O'Donovan Rossa 



1919/0503:USA フォウクシンガ Pete Seeger 191814、誕生

an American folk singer and social activist. A fixture on nationwide radio in the 1940s, he also had a string of hit records during the early 1950s as a member of the Weavers, most notably their recording of Lead Belly's "Goodnight, Irene", which topped the charts for 13 weeks in 1950.
Members of the Weavers were blacklisted during the McCarthy Era. In the 1960s, Seeger re-emerged on the public scene as a prominent singer of protest music in support of international disarmament, civil rights, counterculture, and environmental causes.

1921/0503:USA ボクサ Sugar Ray Robinson 192189、誕生

Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr.; May 3, 1921 – April 12, 1989) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1940 to 1965. Widely considered the greatest pound-for-pound boxer of all time, Robinson's performances in the welterweight and middleweight divisions prompted sportswriters to create "pound for pound" rankings, where they compared fighters regardless of weight.


1921/0503:The Partition of Ireland
The Government of Ireland Act 1920 is passed, dividing Ireland into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.


1926/0503:スヱデン 経済学 Knut Wicksell 185126、死去

Johan Gustaf Knut Wicksell was a leading Swedish economist of the Stockholm school.
His economic contributions would influence both the Keynesian and Austrian schools of economic thought. He was married to the noted feminist Anna Bugge.

Wicksell's most influential contribution is his interest theory, published in his 1898 book "Geldzins und Güterpreise". He made an important distinction between the natural rate of interest and the monetary rate of interest. ……






1931/0503:Aldo Rossi 193197、誕生

Un architetto italiano. Sottolineava risultati straordinari per ottenere una valutazione internazionale in tre campi della teoria dell'architettura, del disegno e del design principalmente negli anni '80.
彼は1966年の著書『都市の建築 (L'architettura della citta)』、および1981年の著書『科学的自伝(アルド・ロッシ自伝、Autobiografia scientifica)』、さらに1970年代後半から幾何学的な建築案が次々と実現したことによって、1970年代末から1980年代にかけて非常に強い影響を世界の建築界に持つようになった。

1933/0503:Steven Weinberg 1933--、誕生

an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

Nach dem Verbot der Arbeiterwohlfahrt wird im Dritten Reich die Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt gegründet.


1936/0503:味の素の 池田菊苗186436、死去

Ikeda Kikunae was a Japanese chemist, uncovered the chemical basis of a taste he named umami うまみ. It is one of the five basic tastes along with sweet, bitter, sour and salty.

By 1908, he had isolated brown crystals of glutamic acid (glutamate) which conveyed the characteristic flavor. The chemical monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the chemical basis for the umami flavor. He chose to call it Ajinomoto (味の素, "essence of flavor"). By 1909 he had developed a process for mass-producing MSG. He was able to extract MSG from wheat and defatted soybean, and patented the process for its manufacture. With this method the global production of MSG increased rapidly

1937/0503:アメリカ人作家、Gone with the Wind
a novel by Margaret Mitchell, wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.


The All India Forward Bloc is formed by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.


1942/0503:Věra Čáslavská 194216、誕生

a Czechoslovak artistic gymnast and Czech sports official. She won a total of 22 international titles between 1959 and 1968 including seven Olympic gold medals, four World titles and eleven European championships. Čáslavská is the most decorated Czech gymnast in history and is one of only two female gymnasts, along with Soviet Larisa Latynina, to win the all-around gold medal at two consecutive Olympics.


Japanese naval troops invade Tulagi Island in the Solomon Islands during the first part of Operation Mo that results in the Battle of the Coral Sea between Japanese forces and forces from the United States and Australia.


An estimated 7,000 concentration camp prisoners and a 380 men crew and security team are killed when British bombers in WWII sink the Cap Arcona and Thielbek ships in the Neustadt Bay during the Second World War, probably without knowledge of the cargo. In the same attack, the German naval vessel in the Bay of Lübeck is also under attack.


Far East International Military Trial (Tokyo Trial) Open




In Japan, a new constitution, drawn up by the Allied occupation powers according to Japan's proposals, comes into force. Tennō Hirohito, who has already surrendered with the capitulation of his divinity, now has only representative tasks.



曲學阿世とは『史記』にある成句で、時代に阿り學を曲げる、つまり、學問の眞理を曲げてでも世間に媚びて時勢に迎合すること。普通は「御用學者」にたいして用ゐるのだが、この時は御用學者になってくれない人にたいして用ゐてしまった。正しい使ひ方であったかどうかは『史記』の本文と照らし合はせてみれば、 …… 後は申しません。

1952/0503:シカゴ学派社会学者 Louis Wirth 189752、死去

an American sociologist and member of the Chicago school of sociology.
His interests included city life, minority group behaviour and mass media and he is recognised as one of the leading urban sociologists. Wirth's major contribution to social theory of urban space was a classic essay Urbanism as a Way of Life, published in the American Journal of Sociology in 1938.
His research was mostly concerned with how Jewish immigrants adjusted to life in urban America, as well as the distinct social processes of city life. Wirth was a supporter of applied sociology, and believed in taking the knowledge offered by his discipline and using it to solve real social problems.




1960/0503:欧州自由貿易連合 (EFTA) 発足。
Der am 4. Januar in Stockholm unterschriebene Vertrag zur Gründung der Europäischen Freihandelsassoziation (EFTA) tritt in Kraft. Die Gründungsmitglieder sind Dänemark, Norwegen, Österreich, Portugal, Schweden, die Schweiz und das Vereinigte Königreich.


The Off-Broadway musical comedy The Fantasticks opens in New York City's Greenwich Village, eventually becoming the longest-running musical of all time.




1961/0503:日本民藝の主唱者 柳宗悦188961、死去

Yanagi Sōetsu ou Yanagi Muneyoshi 柳 宗悦, 1889-1961) est un écrivain, penseur et collectionneur japonais, connu pour son implication dans le mouvement Shirakaba (Bouleau blanc) et son travail de réévaluation des arts populaires coréens et japonais.

1913、大学卒業。この頃から Walter Whitman 181992 の「直観」重視の思想に共鳴、これが芸術と宗教に立脚する独特な柳思想の基礎となった。

1923の関東大震災を機に京都へ転居 。木喰佛に注目し、1924年から全国の木喰仏調査。



Les étudiants occupent les locaux de l'Université de la Sorbonne à Paris. Après avoir été expulsés de force par la police le même jour, à partir du Quartier Latin, les émeutes de mai.


1971/0503:日本 作家 高橋和巳193171、死去

Takahashi Kazumi est un romancier japonais et spécialiste de littérature chinoise de l'ère Shōwa.

Walter Ulbricht tritt in der DDR auf Druck der Sowjetunion „aus gesundheitlichen Gründen“ als Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der SED zurück, sein Nachfolger wird Erich Honecker.


Erich Honecker und Leonid Breschnew

The first unsolicited bulk commercial email (which would later become known as "spam") is sent by a Digital Equipment Corporation marketing representative to every ARPANET address on the west coast of the United States.

At the lower house elections in the UK and Northern Ireland the opposition Conservative Party under Margaret Thatcher defeated the ruling Labor Party of Prime Minister James Callaghan.

Der teuerste deutsche Spielfilm der 1970er-Jahre, Die Blechtrommel von Volker Schlöndorff nach dem gleichnamigen Roman von Günter Grass mit David Bennent in der Hauptrolle gelangt zur Erstaufführung.

1991/0503:ポウランド人の英文作家 Jerzy Kosiński 193391、死去

, born Józef Lewinkopf, was a Polish-American novelist, who wrote primarily in English.
Born in Poland, he survived World War II and, as a young man, immigrated to the U.S., where he became a citizen.
He was known for various novels, among them The Painted Bird (1965) and Being There (1970), which was adapted as a film (1979).

Kosiński suffered from multiple illnesses towards the end of his life, and he was under attack from journalists who accused him of plagiarism. By his late 50s, he was suffering from an irregular heartbeat, as well as severe physical and nervous exhaustion.
He committed suicide on May 3, 1991, by ingesting a lethal amount of alcohol and drugs and wrapping a plastic bag around his head, suffocating to death.
His suicide note read: "I am going to put myself to sleep now for a bit longer than usual. Call it Eternity."

1997/0503:禁じられた遊び Narciso Yepes 192797、死去

un guitarrista clásico español.
Es considerado uno de los mejores guitarristas clásicos virtuosos del siglo XX.

In 1952 a work ("Romance"), Yepes claims to have written when he was a young boy, became the theme to the film Forbidden Games (Jeux interdits) by René Clément.



Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

歴史暦:古今東西 05/0 今日の出來事

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Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World