Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World
La Liberté guidant le peuple, par Eugène Delacroix.

歴史暦:古今東西 04/27 今日の出來事

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1790年の春、市民革命に熱狂中のフランスでは「Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité」リベルテ・エガリテ・フラテリテ(自由平等友愛)の合言葉が火花のやうに飛び交ってゐた。

-399/0427:ギリシア思想家 Socrates -46999、青年を惑はした罪で刑死

a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher
credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon.


Emperor Arcadius marries Aelia Eudoxia, daughter of the Frankish general Flavius Bauto. She becomes one of the more powerful Roman empresses of Late Antiquity.

Around three months after the empire division of 395, the Emperor Arcadius Aelia Eudoxia, daughter of Bauto, marries. Perhaps this hasty conclusion was introduced by the Eutropius chamberlain to circumcise the influence of Rufinus, the guardian of the young Emperor, who wanted to marry his daughter with Arcadius.


Shahrbaraz is crowned as king of the Sasanian Empire.

0700/0427(文武天皇04/0404):日本の皇族 飛鳥皇女??0700、薨去

La princesse Asuka est une princesse japonaise de la période Asuka. Elle est fille de l'empereur Tenji. Sa mère est dame Tachibana dont le père Abe no Kurahashi Maro.

飛ぶ鳥の 明日香の河の 上つ瀬に 石橋渡し 下つ瀬に 打橋渡す 石橋に 生ひ靡ける 玉藻もぞ 絶ゆれば生ふる 打橋に 生ひをれる 川藻もぞ 枯るれば生ゆる 何しかも わが王の 立たせば 玉藻のもころ 臥せば 川藻のごとく 靡かひし 宜しき君の 朝宮を 忘れたまふや 夕宮を 背きたまふや うつそみと 念ひし時 春べは 花折りかざし 秋立てば 黄葉かざし しきたへの 袖たづさはり 鏡なす 見れども飽かず 三五月の いやめづらしみ 念ほしし 君と時時 幸して 遊びたまひし 御食向ふ きのえの宮を 常宮と 定めたまひて あぢさはふ 目言も絶えぬ しかれかも あやにかなしみ ぬえ鳥の 片恋嬬 朝鳥の 往来はす君が 夏草の 念ひ萎えて 夕星の か往きかく去き 大船の たゆたふ見れば なぐさむる 情もあらず そこゆゑに せむすべ知れや 音のみも 名もみも絶えず 天地の いや遠長く 偲び行かむ み名に懸かせる 明日香河 万世までに はしきやし わが王の 形見かここを [巻2-196]
明日香川しがらみ渡し塞かませば 流るる水ものどかにあらまし [巻2-197]
明日香川明日だに見むと念へやも わが王のみ名忘れせぬ [巻2-198]

Islamic conquest of Hispania: Moorish troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar to begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus).


1296/0427:First War of Scottish Independence 1296~1328
John Balliol's Scottish army is defeated by an English army commanded by John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey at the Battle of Dunbar.

Pope Julius II places the Italian state of Venice under interdict.

L'appartenenza alla Lega di Cambrai Papa Giulio II imposto l'interdetto sulla Repubblica di Venezia per permettere ai membri della Lega per espandere il suo territorio a spese della Repubblica Marinara.

1521/0427:Fernão de Magalhães 148021、航海中原住民に殺害

On the Philippines island of Mactan, the Portuguese sailor and explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who sails under the Spanish flag, is killed during a battle against the local population under his chief Lapu-Lapu. After the death of the admiral, Juan Sebastián Elcano takes over the leadership of the world circle.
Explorer Ferdinand Magellan is killed by natives in the Philippines led by chief Lapu-Lapu um navegador português, que se notabilizou por ter organizado a primeira viagem de circum-navegação ao globo de 1519 até 1522.

1522/0427:スペインvsフランス「Biocca 戰」
Combined forces of Spain and the Papal States defeat a French and Venetian army at the Battle of Bicocca.


Re-founding of the city of Bogotá, New Granada (now Colombia), by Nikolaus Federmann and Sebastián de Belalcázar.

Défaite de l'armée de François Ier face à celle de Charles Quint à la bataille de la Bicoque, confirmant le rôle désormais décisif des armes à feu sur les champs de bataille.

Cebu is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines.


Pope Pius V declares Queen Elisabeth I a heretic.

Duel of the Mignons claims the lives of two favourites of Henry III of France and two favorites of Henry I, Duke of Guise.

# In April 1578, the rival court parties of Henry III and Henry, Duke of Guise decided to reenact the battle of the Horatii and the Curiatii. On 27 April, Jacques de Caylus, Louis de Maugiron and Jean d'Arcès (representing the party of the King) engaged in a mock battle with Charles de Balzac, Ribérac, and Georges de Schomberg (representing the party of the Guises). Maugiron and Schomberg were killed in the fighting, Ribérac died of wounds the following noon, d'Arcès was wounded in the head and convalesced in a hospital for six weeks, while Caylus sustained as many as 19 wounds and died after 33 days of agony. Only Balzac got off with a mere scratch on his arm.

Dans la bataille pour la faveur du roi français Henri III. sont - malgré l'interdiction du duel royal - dans le duel de Mignon, l'une des batailles les plus célèbres de l'histoire française, trois « Mignon » et trois autres membres de l'entourage royal sur.


1595/0427:Saint Sava の遺跡、燒かれる
The relics of Saint Sava are incinerated in Belgrade on the Vračar plateau by Ottoman Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha; the site of the incineration is now the location of the Church of Saint Sava, one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world.

https://is.gd/Tn81cG Koca Sinan Pasha - Wikipedia

1599/0427(慶長04/0303):日本の戰國大名 前田利家153799、死去

Maeda Toshiie was one of the leading generals of Oda Nobunaga following the Sengoku period of the 16th century extending to the Azuchi–Momoyama period.


In der Schlacht bei Mingolsheim besiegen die vereinigten Heere Peter Ernsts II. von Mansfeld und Georg Friedrichs von Baden-Durlach im Dreißigjährigen Krieg die Kaiserlichen unter Johann T’Serclaes von Tilly am Ohrenberg. Der Ort Mingolsheim gerät während der Schlacht in Brand und wird großteils zerstört.


1650/0427:スコットランドBattle of Carbisdale:
A Royalist army from Orkney invades mainland Scotland but is defeated by a Covenanter army.



John Milton 160874, blind and impoverished, sells the copyright of Paradise Lost for £10.

Milton Dictates the Lost Paradise to His Three Daughters

1720/0427:ロンドン「King’s Theater」こけら落とし
At the King's Theater in London, in the presence of King George I, the premiere of the opera Radamisto by George Frideric Handel will be performed with the libretto by Nicola Francesco Haym, the libretto L'Amor tirannico, Zenobia by Domenico Lalli .

In celebration of the ending of the Austrian Succession War by the Peace of Aachen, the British King George II arranged a fireworks display in London's Green Park.
The fireworks music of Georg Friedrich Händel, which was premiered on the occasion of the event, was enthusiastically received.

Feuerwerk auf der Themse

1759/0427:イギリス 女流文筆家 Mary Wollstonecraft 175997、誕生

an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book.
Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason.

Les prix élevés conduisent à Beaumont-sur-Oise français pillage sur le marché des céréales. Les attaques des insurgés régionales dans les semaines autour et se rend jusqu'en banlieue de zoom Paris. Militaire frappe la guerre de farine tombe peut, mais König Ludwig XVI doit revenir de privé à Instruire commerciale d'État.

High prices lead to Beaumont-sur-Oise looting on the grain market. The attacks of the regional insurgents in the weeks around and goes as far as the suburbs of Paris zoom. Military hits the flour war may fall, but König Ludwig XVI must return from private to State trading instructor.

1777/0427:American R- War「Battle of Ridgefield」
A British invasion force engages and defeats Continental Army regulars and militia irregulars at Ridgefield, Connecticut.

Après plusieurs années de censure, le jeu La Folle Journée ou Le Mariage de Figaro peut (le grand jour, ou Les Noces de Figaro) par Pierre Beaumarchais de 1778 sera créée à Paris et est immédiatement devenu un succès triomphal.

1790/0427:フランス革命Liberté!, Egalité!, Fraternité!」Au cours de la Révolution française, considéré comme radicalement cordeliers est fondée. Ses membres populariser la devise Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité.

La Liberté guidant le peuple, par Eugène Delacroix.



1791/0427:USA 電信の発明 Samuel Morse 179172、誕生

an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.



In St. Petersburg, part of the Polish magnates, under the patronage of the Russian Tsarina Catherine II, concludes the confederation of Targowica announced two days later in Targowica. It has to reverse the main plot, the reforms in Poland and in particular the constitution of 3 May 1791.

1805/0427:First Barbary War
United States Marines and Berbers attack the Tripolitan city of Derna (The "shores of Tripoli" part of the Marines' Hymn).

1820/0427:社界進化論者 Herbert Spencer 182003、誕生

an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies.
As a polymath, he contributed to a wide range of subjects, including ethics, religion, anthropology, economics, political theory, philosophy, literature, astronomy, biology, sociology, and psychology.
During his lifetime he achieved tremendous authority, mainly in English-speaking academia. "The only other English philosopher to have achieved anything like such widespread popularity was Bertrand Russell, and that was in the 20th century."
Spencer was "the single most famous European intellectual in the closing decades of the nineteenth century" but his influence declined sharply after 1900: "Who now reads Spencer?" asked Talcott Parsons in 1937


適者生存 (survival of the fittest)

1822/0427:USA 將軍&大統領 Ulysses S. Grant 182285、誕生

Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant;[
an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
A prominent United States Army general during the American Civil War, Grant led the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy with the supervision of Abraham Lincoln.
As the 18th President of the United States (1869–77) Grant led the Republicans in their efforts to remove the vestiges of Confederate nationalism and slavery during Reconstruction.


1840/0427:イギリスの登山家Edward Whymper 184011、誕生

an English mountaineer, explorer, illustrator, and author best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865.
Four members of his climbing party were killed during the descent.
Whymper also made important first ascents on the Mont Blanc massif and in the Pennine Alps, Chimborazo in South America, and the Canadian Rockies.

The foundation stone for the new building of the British Parliament building Palace of Westminster is laid. The previous building had been largely destroyed by a large fire in 1834.

1848/0427:中國[清] 政事家,詩人 黄遵憲184805、誕生

Huang Zunxian, courtesy name Gongdu (公度), was a Chinese official, scholar, and writer, active during the late Qing dynasty. As a poet, he published more than a hundred poems.

Abolition de l'esclavage en France.

1861/0427:アメリカ大統領、habeas corpus、一時停止
American President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus.


The steamboat Sultana, carrying 2,400 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,800, most of whom are Union survivors of the Andersonville and Cahaba Prisons.

https://is.gd/WvqTqq Sultana (steamboat) - Wikipedia

1882/0427:超越主義の雄弁家 Ralph Waldow Emerson 180382、死去

an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States.

The Royal Red Cross was launched by Queen Victoria as a military award for merit in nursing.

{これこそ、Garter 勳章と呼ぶべきではないだらうか。ヴィクトリア時代

1896/0427:ナイロンの發明者 Wallace Carothers 189637、誕生

Wallace Hume Carothers was an American chemist, inventor and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, credited with the invention of nylon.

1896/0427:USA MLB Rogers Hornsby 189663、誕生

an American baseball infielder, manager, and coach who played 23 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB).
He played for the St. Louis Cardinals (1915–1926, 1933), New York Giants (1927), Boston Braves (1928), Chicago Cubs (1929–1932), and St. Louis Browns (1933–1937).
Hornsby had 2,930 hits and 301 home runs in his career; his career .358 batting average is second only to Ty Cobb's average.
He was named the National League (NL)'s Most Valuable Player (MVP) twice, and was a member of one World Series championship team.


1904/0427:イギリス 文藝家 Cecil Day-Lewis 190472、誕生

often writing as C. Day-Lewis, was an Anglo-Irish poet and the Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1968 until his death in 1972.
He also wrote mystery stories under the pseudonym of Nicholas Blake.


The Chinese Alliance will launch the Huanghuagang Uprising in Guangzhou under the leadership of Huang Xing and attack the Qing government’s Governor General of Guangdong and Guangxi.

1915/0427:ロシア 作曲家 Alexander Scriabin 187215、死去

русский композитор и пианист, педагог, представитель символизма в музыке.
Первым использовал в исполнении музыки цвет, тем самым ввёл понятие «цветомузыка».


1919/0427:日本の郵便事業 前島密183519、死去

Maejima Hisoka was a Japanese statesman, politician, and businessman in Meiji-period Japan.
Maejima founded the Japanese postal service, and is known as "Father of the Postal System".

Der erste Teil des zweiteiligen Spielfilms Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler von Fritz Lang und Thea von Harbou mit Rudolf Klein-Rogge in der Titelrolle wird mit großem Erfolg in Berlin uraufgeführt.

Carabineros de Chile (Chilean national police force and gendarmerie) are created.

1932/0427:Anouk Aimée 1932--、誕生

, French actress

1935/0427:ギリシア 映画監督 Theo Angelopoulos 193512、誕生

Θεόδωρος Αγγελόπουλος was a Greek filmmaker, screenwriter and film producer.
Angelopoulos was one of the most influential and widely respected filmmakers in the world.
He started making films in 1967. In the 1970s he made a series of political films about modern Greece.
In 1998 his film Eternity and a Day went on to win the prestigious Palme d'Or at the 51st edition of the Cannes Film Festival, and his films have been shown at many of the world's most esteemed film festivals

1936/0427:イギリス 數理統計学 Karl Pearson 185736、死去

an English mathematician and biostatistician.
He has been credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics.
He founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London in 1911, and contributed significantly to the field of biometrics, meteorology, theories of social Darwinism and eugenics.
Pearson was also a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.

The United Auto Workers (UAW) gains autonomy from the American Federation of Labor.

1937/0427:イタリア 政治思想家 Antonio Gramsci 189137、死去

un politico, filosofo, politologo, giornalista, linguista e critico letterario italiano.
Membre fondateur du Parti communiste italien, dont il fut un temps à la tête, il est emprisonné par le régime mussolinien3 de 1927 à sa mort.
En tant qu'intellectuel marxiste, il a notamment développé une théorie de l'hégémonie culturelle.
Ses travaux, menés principalement pendant ses onze années d'emprisonnement, portent aussi sur l'histoire d'Italie, le nationalisme, les partis politiques, la littérature (notamment l'œuvre de Machiavel), l'époque de la Renaissance et de la Réforme, ou encore le matérialisme historique.

1938/0427:現象学の開祖 Edmund Husserl 185938、死去

ein österreichisch-deutscher Philosoph und Mathematiker und Begründer der philosophischen Strömung der Phänomenologie.
Er gilt als einer der einflussreichsten Denker des 20. Jahrhunderts.

In his early work, he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic based on analyses of intentionality. In his mature work, he sought to develop a systematic foundational science based on the so-called phenomenological reduction. Arguing that transcendental consciousness sets the limits of all possible knowledge, Husserl re-defined phenomenology as a transcendental-idealist philosophy. Husserl's thought profoundly influenced the landscape of twentieth-century philosophy, and he remains a notable figure in contemporary philosophy and beyond.

Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler ordnet die Errichtung eines „Quarantänelagers“ für 10.000 Insassen in der Nähe der polnischen Kleinstadt Oświęcim an, aus dem später das KZ Auschwitz hervorgeht.

Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler ordered the construction of a "Quarantänelager" for 10,000 inmates near the Polish small town of Oświęcim, which later became Auschwitz concentration camp.

1940/0427:WWⅡ ゲリンク、Zeppelinの製造中止を命
Mit dem Abschluss der Abwrackung der letzten beiden Zeppeline LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin und LZ 130 Graf Zeppelin II auf Befehl Hermann Görings endet die Ära der Großluftschifffahrt mit Starrluftschiffen.

With the completion of the demolition of the last two zeppelins LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin and LZ 130 Graf Zeppelin II by order of Hermann Görings the era of the large-air shipping with starlit ships ends.

Die deutsche Wehrmacht erobert während des Balkanfeldzugs im Zweiten Weltkrieg die griechische Hauptstadt Athen.

Der Konzentrationslagerkomplex Kaufering bei Landsberg am Lech, der größte Konzentrationslagerkomplex des Deutschen Reichs mit dem Status eines Außenlager des KZ Dachau, wird durch die US-Armee befreit.

The concentration camp complex Kaufering at Landsberg am Lech, the largest concentration camp complex of the German Reich with the status of an outer camp of the Dachau concentration camp, is freed by the US army.

Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting escape disguised as a German soldier.

衆院不当財産取引委員会で、昭和電工への復金融資をめぐる贈収賄が問題化、昭電疑獄へと ――

The Belgian entrepreneur Gérard Blitz founded the Méditerranée club as a non-profit organization and realized his idea of a holiday all-inclusive for travelers in the same year.

1950/0427:南アフリカ、Apartheid、Group Areas Act
In South Africa, the Group Areas Act formally segregating races is passed.


1953/0427:朝鮮戦争 Korea War「Operation Moolah
Offers $50,000 to any pilot who defected with a fully mission-capable Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 to South Korea. The first pilot was to receive $100,000.


Mao Zedong resigned as President of the People in the People's Republic of China, Liu Shi-Oi to succeed.


Republic of Korea, President Lee resigned after intensified demo demanding to withdraw.


1966/0427:玄米食提唱者 二木謙三187366、死去

Futaki Kenzō was a Japanese doctor who studied infectious diseases. He was a leader in the medical community in Japan and he had a strong understanding of traditional Japanese folk remedies.

Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.

The city of Pripyat as well as the surrounding areas are evacuated due to Chernobyl disaster.

1989/0427:日本の経営の神樣 松下幸之助189489、死去

Matsushita Kōnosuke was an industrialist and philosopher of Japanese business, the founder of Panasonic. He is nicknamed in Japan "the god of management" for his leadership qualities and his economic thinking




The April 27 demonstrations, student-led protests responding to the April 26 Editorial, during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

1992/0427:フランス 作曲家 Olivier Messiaen 190892、死去

un compositeur, organiste, pianiste français.
Son œuvre trouve ses sources dans une profonde ferveur catholique, un goût prononcé pour le plain-chant médiéval, les rythmes hindous ainsi que grecs. L'Ascension (1933), le Quatuor pour la fin du Temps (1940), les Vingt Regards sur l'Enfant-Jésus (1944), la Turangalîla-Symphonie (1946-48), Saint François d'Assise et la Messe de la Pentecôte, entre autres œuvres majeures, ont contribué à faire d'Olivier Messiaen l'un des compositeurs les plus influents de la musique contemporaine de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle.

赤ん坊が Olivier Messiaen 190892 で、お母さんが詩人だった Cécile Sauvage 188327 で オリヴィエを出産する頃、わが子の事をおもった詩を多く作ってゐます。私にとって一番大事な『聖母子』像です。
à l'âge de 5 ans avec sa mère Cécile Sauvage et son frère Alain.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) is formed by the merger of the Yugoslav republics of Serbia and Montenegro.

South African general election: The first democratic general election in South Africa, in which black citizens could vote. The Interim Constitution comes into force.


1998/0427:何者だったんだ? Carlos Castaneda 192598、死去

Peruvian-American anthropologist
Starting with The Teachings of Don Juan in 1968, Castaneda wrote a series of books that describe his training in shamanism, particularly with a group whose lineage descended from the Toltecs.


Construction begins on the Freedom Tower (later renamed One World Trade Center) in New York City.

2007/0427:ソ連 チェリスト Mstislav Rostropovich 192707、死去

советский и российский виолончелист, пианист и дирижёр, общественный деятель, педагог.
He is considered to be one of the greatest cellists of the 20th century. In addition to his interpretations and technique, he was well known for both inspiring and commissioning new works, which enlarged the cello repertoire more than any cellist before or since.

18 September 1959


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World