Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

歴史暦:古今東西 04/21 今日の出來事

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Natale di Roma: secondo la leggenda, in questo giorno Romolo fonda la città di Roma. (traditional date).

Secondo la leggenda della Origo gentis Romanae Romolo fondata sui sette colli, la città di Roma. Il leggendario romana Regno comincia.

-043/0421:ロウマ共和政「Battle of Mutina」
: Mark Antony is again defeated in battle by Aulus Hirtius, who is killed. Antony fails to capture Mutina and Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly after.




The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (the earliest known written document found in what is now the Philippines):


The Diocese of Pisa is elevated to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese by Pope Urban II

1109/0421:スコラ神學の父 Anselm of Canterbury 103309、死去

Anselm of Canterbury, also called Anselm of Aosta (Italian: Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec (French: Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint; his feast day is 21 April.


1142/0421:フランス 神學者だが、Pierre Abélard 107942、死去

Abélard, Abailard, ou encore Abeilard (Abaelardus en latin), Pierre alias Petrus en religionnote 1 , au prieuré Saint-Marcel près de Chalon-sur-Saône) est un philosophe, dialecticien et théologien chrétien, père de la scolastique et inventeur du conceptualisme.

ジャン ヴィニョによる(1819年)

1488/0421:ドイツ 宗教改革者 Ulrich von Hutten 148823、誕生

ein deutscher Renaissance-Humanist, Dichter und Publizist. Er wird auch als erster Reichsritter bezeichnet.
a German scholar, poet, satirist and reformer. He was an outspoken critic of the Roman Catholic Church and a bridge between the Renaissance humanists and the Lutheran Reformation. He was a leader of the Imperial Knights of the Holy Roman Empire.

The three-day Lisbon Massacre comes to an end with the slaughter of over 1,900 suspected Jews by Portuguese Catholics.

1509/0421:イングランド王 Henry VII 145709、崩去

Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, and the first monarch of the House of Tudor.

Henry won the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. Henry was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. He cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war, and after a reign of nearly 24 years, he was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.

Henry VII (centre), with his advisors Sir Richard Empson and Sir Edmund Dudley

Scene at deathbed of Henry VII at Richmond Palace, 1509.

Henry VIII ascends the throne of England on the death of his father, Henry VII.

{そして、はるか415年後の今日 、女帝 Elizabeth II となる女子が誕生した。 奇しき偶然と云ふべきか{ま、 1/365 の確率なのだから、さう騷ぎ立てることもないか。

El conquistador español Hernán Cortés desembarcó en la costa de México en San Juan de Ulúa, cerca de la actual ciudad de Veracruz, donde comienza con la conquista de México y el imperio azteca.


The last ruler of the Lodi dynasty, Ibrahim Lodi is defeated and killed by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat.


Sen no Rikyū est un maître de thé japonais de l'école wabi (わび).
Sen no Rikyū is considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on Chanoyu 茶の湯, the Japanese "Way of Tea", particularly the tradition of wabi-cha 侘茶.
He was also the first to emphasize several key aspects of the ceremony, including rustic simplicity, directness of approach and honesty of self. Originating from the Sengoku period and the Azuchi–Momoyama period, these aspects of the tea ceremony persist.
Rikyū is known by many names; for convenience this article will refer to him as Rikyū throughout.

1583天正11 古渓宗陳賛



≫ 人生七十 力囲希咄 吾這寶剣 祖佛共殺 堤る我得具足の一太刀 今此時ぞ天に抛 
(じんせいしちじゅう りきいきとつ)(わがこのほうけん そぶつともにころす)(ひっさぐルわがえぐそくのひとツたち)(いまこのときぞてんになげうつ)
 Welcome to thee, O sword of eternity! Through Buddha And through Daruma alike Thou hast cleft thy way.

1608/0421:江戸期の儒學者 中江藤樹160848、誕生

a Japanese Confucian philosopher known as "the sage of Ōmi(近江聖人)".
Nakae was a feudal retainer who lived during the Tokugawa shogunate.
He taught that the highest virtue was filial piety (考 kō), and acted upon this, giving up his official post in 1634 in order to return to his home in Takashima 高島, Ōmi 近江 to care of his mother.
He distinguished, however, between sho-kō 小考 and dai-kō 大考: lesser and greater filial piety. Sho-kō involves the normal care owed by children to their parents; dai-kō involves the notion that our human parents are themselves the children of the divine parents — thus, if one's parents are wrong, then one should encourage them to return to virtue.
Nakae originally followed the teachings of the Chinese neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi 朱熹113000, but eventually became more influenced by Wang Yangming 王陽明147228, who argued for the primacy of human intuition or conscience over intellect: moral improvement arises out of conscience-based action (compare Aristotle's ethics).
Nakae added a more religious aspect to Wang's "School of Intuition of Mind", calling the human conscience the "divine light of heaven".
Nakae's works also supplied his followers (such as Kumazawa Banzan 熊澤蕃山161991) with "the moral foundation for political action".

1612/0421:江戸期の武士 岡本大八??1612、刑死

1609慶長14年、九州の大名、有馬晴信156712が長崎港外で「マドレ デ デウス」号を攻撃した時、彼は晴信の監視役を務めた。

1650/0421:柳生新陰流 柳生十兵衛三厳160750、死去

Yagyū Jūbei Mitsuyoshi was one of the most famous and romanticized of the samurai in Japan's feudal era.

1671/0421:経済學者 John Law 167129、誕生

a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade.
He was appointed Controller General of Finances of France under the Duke of Orleans, regent for the youthful king, Louis XV.

Law was a gambler and a brilliant mental calculator. He was known to win card games by mentally calculating the odds.
He originated economic ideas such as the scarcity theory of value and the real bills doctrine. Law held that money creation will stimulate the economy, that paper money is preferable to metallic money, and that shares are a superior form of money since they pay dividends.[

1682/0421:江戸期の刀匠 津田越前守助廣163782、死去


1699/0421:フランス 劇作家 Jean Racine 163999、死去

un dramaturge et poète français.
Consacré par la critique comme l'un des plus grands auteurs français de tragédies, il est l'un des trois dramaturges majeurs, avec Pierre Corneille 160684 et Molière162273, de la période classique en France.




Asano Naganori was the daimyō of the Akō Domain in Japan (1675–1701).
His title was Takumi no Kami (内匠頭). He is known as the person who triggered a series of incidents retold in a story known as Chūshingura 忠臣蔵, one of the favourite themes of kabuki 歌舞伎, jōruri 淨璢璃, and Japanese books and films.






1734/0421:デンマクの農夫、Gold Horn を發見
: The farmer Erich Lassen discovers the shorter of the two gold horns of Gallehus. They are the most famous archaeological finds in Denmark. The longer one was also accidentally found in 1639.

1774/0421:フランス 科学者 Jean-Baptiste Biot 177462、誕生

un physicien, astronome et mathématicien français, pionnier de l'utilisation de la lumière polarisée pour l'étude des solutions.


1782/0421:幼児教育の父 Friedrich Fröbel 178252、誕生

Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel war ein deutscher Pädagoge und Schüler Pestalozzis.
Sein besonderes Verdienst besteht darin, die Bedeutung der frühen Kindheit nicht nur erkannt, sondern durch die Schaffung eines Systems von Liedern, Beschäftigungen und „Spielgaben“ die Realisierung dieser Erkenntnisse vorangetrieben zu haben. Er ist der Begründer des „Kindergartens“, der erste entstand im Jahre 1840 in Bad Blankenburg.
Dieser unterschied sich von den damals bereits existierenden „Kinderbewahranstalten“ durch die pädagogische Konzeption. Damit verbunden war die Erweiterung des Aufgabenspektrums von der Betreuung zur Trias von Bildung, Erziehung und Betreuung.

The city of Rattanakosin, now known internationally as Bangkok, is founded on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya River by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke.

Tiradentes, a revolutionary leading a movement for Brazil's independence, is hanged, drawn and quartered.

Twelve thousand Wahhabis under Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, invaded city of Karbala, killed over three thousand inhabitants, and sacked the city.

Two Austrian army corps are driven from Landshut by a First French Empire army led by Napoleon as two French corps to the north hold off the main Austrian army on the first day of the Battle of Eckmühl.

: Preußen bestimmt im Landsturm-Edikt, dass alle Männer vom vollendeten 17. bis zum 60. Lebensjahr, sofern sie weder der Armee noch der Landwehr angehören, künftig einem Aufgebot zur Landesverteidigung Folge zu leisten haben.

1816/0421:Jane Eyre の作者 Charlotte Brontë 181655、誕生

an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature.
She first published her works (including her best known novel, Jane Eyre) under the pen name Currer Bell.

Benderli Ali Pasha arrives in Constantinople as the new Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire; he remains in power for only nine days before being sent into exile.

1828/0421:フランス 思想家 Hippolyte Taine 182893、誕生

un philosophe et historien français issu de l'École normale supérieure.

In Bremen wird die als Serienmörderin verurteilte Gesche Gottfried durch Enthauptung hingerichtet.

In Bremen the Gesche Gottfried was condemned as a serial murderer. she was executed by beheading.

1834/0421:吾祕密の生涯 Henry Spencer Ashbee 183400、誕生

Henry Spencer Ashbee was a book collector, writer, and bibliographer.
He is notable for his massive, clandestine three-volume bibliography of erotic literature published under the pseudonym of Pisanus Fraxi

Texas Revolution: The Battle of San Jacinto: Republic of Texas forces under Sam Houston defeat troops under Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.

With the battle cry "Remember the Alamo!" The Texans under Sam Houston defeated the troops of the Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna in the battle of San Jacinto. The Republic of Texas has won the independence of Mexico after 18 months in the Texas Revolution.

: Auf dem Gendarmenmarkt und dem Molkenmarkt in Berlin kommt es zur „Kartoffelrevolution“, handgreiflichen Auseinandersetzungen wegen sprunghaft erhöhter Preise für Kartoffeln.

1856/0421:Australian labour movement:
 Stonemasons and building workers on building sites around Melbourne march from the University of Melbourne to Parliament House to achieve an eight-hour day.

1858/0421:江戸期の農學者 大原幽學179758、死去

Ohohara Yuugaku、Agricultural scholars and farmers' leaders in the late Edo period.


Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, declares his mission as "He whom God shall make manifest".

1864/0421:社会学Max Weber 186420、誕生

ein deutscher Soziologe und Nationalökonom.
Er gilt als einer der Klassiker der Soziologie sowie der gesamten Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften.
Mit seinen Theorien und Begriffsprägungen hatte er großen Einfluss insbesondere auf die Wirtschafts-, die Herrschafts- und die Religionssoziologie.
Mit seinem Namen verknüpft sind die „Protestantismus-Kapitalismus-These“, das Prinzip der „Werturteilsfreiheit“ sowie die Unterscheidung von „Gesinnungs-“ und „Verantwortungsethik“.

Max Weber and his brothers, Alfred and Karl, in 1879

1882/0421:物理學者 Percy Williams Bridgman 188261、誕生

an American physicist who won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures.
He also wrote extensively on the scientific method and on other aspects of the philosophy of science. The Bridgman effect is named for him.


1883/0421:空氣投げの柔道家 三船久蔵188365、誕生

Mifune Kyūzō, has been categorized as one of the greatest exponents of the art of judo after the founder, Kanō Jigorō 嘉納冶五郎186038.
He is considered by many to be the greatest judo technician ever, after Kanō.


1893/0421:ドイツ 地理學者 Walter Christaller 189369、誕生

ein deutscher Geograph und gilt als Begründer der Theorie der zentralen Orte.

Norway formally adopts the Krag–Jørgensen bolt-action rifle as the main arm of its armed forces, a weapon that would remain in service for almost 50 years.

1898/0421:Spanish–American War:
The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports. When the U.S. Congress issued a declaration of war on April 25, it declared that a state of war had existed from this date.

1902/0421:日本の女優 岡田嘉子190292、誕生

Dans les années trente, Yoshiko Okada est une actrice renommée et elle tourne avec les plus grands réalisateurs japonais de son époque : Kenji Mizoguchi, Yasujirō Ozu, Mikio Naruse, Heinosuke Gosho.
Tombée amoureuse du metteur en scène communiste Ryōkichi Sugimoto, le couple prépare sa fuite du Japon impérialiste et militariste pour rejoindre l'URSS où ils espèrent gagner leur liberté artistique et vivre leur amour car tous deux sont mariés. Ils passent la frontière depuis la préfecture de Karafuto sur l'île de Sakhaline le 3 janvier 1938 mais sont vite arrêtés par la police soviétique. Sugimoto est exécuté comme espion le 20 octobre 1939 et Yoshiko Okada est condamnée à dix ans de travaux forcés au goulag.

1904/0421:日本の間諜 横川省三186404、刑死(銃殺)




1910/0421:USA 作家 Mark Twain 183510、死去

Samuel Langhorne Clemens better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Among his novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1875) and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), the latter often called "The Great American Novel".

1914/0421:Ypiranga incident:
A German arms shipment to Mexico is intercepted by the U.S. Navy near Veracruz.

German fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, better known as "The Red Baron", is shot down and killed over Vaux-sur-Somme in France.

1918/0421:Manfred von Richthofen、戰死(撃墜死)

Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen war ein deutscher Jagdflieger im Ersten Weltkrieg.
Er erzielte die höchste Zahl von Luftsiegen, die im Ersten Weltkrieg von einem einzelnen Piloten erreicht wurde. Den bekannten Beinamen „Der Rote Baron“ erhielt von Richthofen, der einen Großteil seiner Einsätze in mehr oder weniger rot gestrichenen Flugzeugen flog, erst nach dem Krieg.

Er geht vermutlich auf ein englisches Nachkriegsbuch zurück, das seinen Titel „Freiherr“, den es im Englischen nicht gibt, mit „Baron“ übersetzte. Im Ersten Weltkrieg wurde Richthofen auf französischer Seite « le petit rouge » (deutsch: „Der kleine Rote“) oder auch « Diable Rouge » (deutsch: „Roter Teufel“) genannt. Seine Autobiographie (1917) trägt den Titel Der rote Kampfflieger.

1915/0421:エコロジスト Garrett Hardin 191503、誕生

an American ecologist and philosopher who warned of the dangers of overpopulation. His exposition of the tragedy of the commons, in a famous 1968 paper in Science, called attention to "the damage that innocent actions by individuals can inflict on the environment".
He is also known for Hardin's First Law of Human Ecology: "We can never do merely one thing. Any intrusion into nature has numerous effects, many of which are unpredictable."


1915/0421:映画男優 Anthony Quinn 191501、誕生

Antonio Rodolfo Oaxaca Quinn , more commonly known as Anthony Quinn, was a Mexican-American actor, painter and writer.
He starred in numerous critically acclaimed and commercially successful films, including La Strada, The Guns of Navarone, Zorba the Greek, Guns for San Sebastian, Lawrence of Arabia, The Shoes of the Fisherman, The Message, Lion of the Desert, Last Action Hero and A Walk in the Clouds. He won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor twice: for Viva Zapata! in 1952 and Lust for Life in 1956.

1920/0421:作曲家 Bruno Maderna 192073、誕生

un compositore e direttore d'orchestra italiano.

1922/0421:最後のカストラト Alessandro Moreschi 185822、死去

l'ultimo cantore evirato noto e documentato della storia.

1922/0421:冒険小説家 Alistair MacLean 192287、誕生

a Scottish novelist who wrote popular thrillers and adventure stories.
His works include The Guns of Navarone, Ice Station Zebra and Where Eagles Dare – all three were made into popular films. He also wrote two novels under the pseudonym Ian Stuart.


The Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals is published in Il Mondo, establishing the political and ideological foundations of Italian Fascism.

1926/0421:Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom、誕生

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

 by Philip de László, 1933

Al-Baqi cemetery, former site of the mausoleum of four Shi'a Imams, is leveled to the ground by Wahhabis.

1927/0421:日本「昭和金融恐慌」 十五銀行が休業

1930/0421:イタリア女優 Silvana Mangano 193089、誕生

un'attrice cinematografica italiana.


The "Surgeon's Photograph", the most famous photo allegedly showing the Loch Ness Monster, is published in the Daily Mail (in 1999, it is revealed to be a hoax).


Hoaxed photo of the Loch Ness monster from 21 April 1934.

1938/0421:パキスタン建國 Muhammad Iqbal 187738、死去

widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
He is called the "Spiritual Father of Pakistan."
He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both Urdu and Persian.



: Furcht und Elend des Dritten Reiches, ein Theaterstück des deutschen Dramatikers Bertolt Brecht, das dieser im Exil in Dänemark geschrieben hat, wird in einigen Szenen in Paris uraufgeführt.

Soviet forces south of Berlin at Zossen attack the German High Command headquarters.


1945/0421: WWⅡ
Bei Bautzen eröffnet die deutsche Wehrmacht gegen die heranrückenden polnischen und russischen Armeen ihre letzte große Panzeroffensive im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Die Schlacht um Bautzen dauert bis zum 26. April.

1946/0421:経済學者 John Maynard Keynes 188346、死去

a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and was one of the most influential economists of the 20th century and the founder of modern macroeconomics theory.
His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, and its various offshoots.

1951/0421:數學者 Michael Freedman 1951--、誕生

an American mathematician.
In 1986, he was awarded a Fields Medal for his work on the 4-dimensional Generalized Poincaré conjecture. Freedman and Robion Kirby showed that an exotic R4 manifold exists.


Brasília, Brazil's capital, is officially inaugurated. At 09:30, the Three Powers of the Republic are simultaneously transferred from the old capital, Rio de Janeiro.

The Seattle World's Fair (Century 21 Exposition) opens. It is the first World's Fair in the United States since World War II.

1963/0421:史上最もネズミを掴まへた猫 Towser 196387、誕生

Towser is a female cat kept at Glenter Turret distillery, Scotland's whiskey distillery.
She gained worldwide reputation by being registered in the Guinness Book as a cat that captured the rat most.

This cat is also famous for being the same birthday as Queen Elizabeth II, and for the birthday card to Queen sent in 1986 as Tauza's name, the queen says "(equivalent to human age) of 161 years old Happy birthday "is said to have returned.


1965/0421:イギリス 科学者 Edward Appleton 189265、死去

an English physicist, Nobel Prize winner (1947) and pioneer in radiophysics. He studied, and was also employed as a lab technician, at Bradford College from 1909 to 1911.


According to a decision of the Japanese lower house under Prime Minister Satō Eisaku, the three principles of arms exports enter into force.

1980/0421:ソ連 生物学者 Alexandre Oparine 189480、死去

советский биолог и биохимик, создавший теорию возникновения жизни на Земле из абиотических компонентов;
Soviet biologist and biochemist, who created the theory of the origin of life on Earth from abiotic components;


The Tamil Tigers are blamed for a car bomb that detonates in the Sri Lankan capital city of Colombo, killing 106 people.

Tiananmen Square protests of 1989: In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.

The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail. They discovered two planets orbiting the pulsar PSR 1257+12.

1998/0421:大きな物語の終り Jean-François Lyotard 192498、死去

un philosophe français associé au post-structuralisme et surtout connu pour son usage critique de la notion de postmoderne.

2003/0421:アウトサイド藝術家 Aleksander Lobanov 192403、死去

советский душевнобольной художник, работавший в стиле ар брют.
a Russian outsider artist known particularly for his detailed self-portraits, noted for their frequent inclusion of guns and for their self-aggrandizing nature.



The World Digital Library opens in Paris. This project of the US National Library Library of Congress and UNESCO provides cultural outstanding documents from all over the world free of charge.

The controversial Kharkiv Pact (Russian Ukrainian Naval Base for Gas Treaty) is signed in Kharkiv, Ukraine, by Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev; it was unilaterally terminated by Russia on March 31, 2014.

2011/0421:日本の歌手&女優 田中好子195611、死去

Tanaka Yoshiko was a Japanese actress.
She was also famous as a member of the pop group Candies. While a member of Candies, Tanaka was known by the nickname "Sue" (スーちゃん Sū-chan). Still at the height of its popularity, the group disbanded in 1978.
Tanaka was also the sister-in-law of the well-known actress Masako Natsume.

2013/0421:フランス 生化学者 François Jacob 192013、死去

un chercheur en biologie français.
En 1965, il est récompensé du prix Nobel de physiologie ou médecine. Il est chancelier de l'Ordre de la Libération de 2007 à 2011.
Jacques Lucien Monod 191076 とともに大腸菌の遺伝子発現調節を研究、mRNAを介した遺伝情報の転移やフィードバックによる発現調節(オペロン説)のモデルを提出し、分子遺伝学の基礎を築いた。

2016/0421:PopMusic の Prince 195816、死去

Prince Rogers Nelson was an American singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, actor, and director.
Prince was known for his electric work, flamboyant stage presence, extravagant fashion sense and use of makeup, and wide vocal range. His innovative music integrated a wide variety of styles, including funk, rock, R&B, new wave, soul, psychedelia, and pop.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World