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歴史暦:古今東西 04/19 今日の出來事

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The freedman Milichus betrays Piso's plot to kill the Emperor Nero and all the conspirators are arrested.

0531/0419:ビザンチンvsペルシア「Battle of Callinicum
 A Byzantine army under Belisarius is defeated by the Persians at Raqqa (northern Syria).

Empress Irene organizes a conspiracy against her son, the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI. He is deposed and blinded. Shortly after, Constantine dies of his wounds; Irene proclaims herself basileus.

Gold solidus of Irene, 797–802, Constantinople.

Martyrdom of Ælfheah in Greenwich, England.





Auf dem Reichstag zu Speyer treten sechs Fürsten und 14 Reichsstädte als Vertreter der protestantischen Minderheit gegen die Verhängung der Reichsacht gegen Martin Luther sowie der Ächtung seiner Schriften und Lehre auf, was als Protestation zu Speyer bezeichnet wird.

Beginning of the Protestant Reformation: After the Second Diet of Speyer bans Lutheranism, a group of rulers (Fürst) and independent cities protests the reinstatement of the Edict of Worms.

Charles V and Protestants signs Treaty of Frankfurt.

1573/0419:徳川幕府大老 土井利勝157344、誕生

Doi Toshikatsu was a top-ranking official in Japan's Tokugawa shogunate during its early decades, and one of the chief advisors to the second Tokugawa shogun, Hidetada 徳川秀忠157932.


1578/0419:戰國大名の雄 上杉謙信153078、死去

Uesugi Kenshin was a daimyō who was born as Nagao Kagetora, and after the adoption into the Uesugi clan, ruled Echigo Province in the Sengoku period of Japan.
He was one of the most powerful daimyōs of the Sengoku 戰國 period.
While chiefly remembered for his prowess on the battlefield, Kenshin is also regarded as an extremely skillful administrator who fostered the growth of local industries and trade; his rule saw a marked rise in the standard of living of Echigo 越後.



Uesugi Kagetora was the seventh son of Hōjō Ujiyasu; he was adopted by Uesugi Kenshin, and was meant to be Kenshin's heir.
However, in 1578, he was attacked in his castle at Ōtate by 上杉景勝155623 Uesugi Kagekatsu—Kagetora's respective brother-in-law—and was subsequently defeated. Kagetora committed suicide the following year.


The Englishman Sir Francis Drake "scorched the beard of the Spanish king" Philip II: unexpected by the Spaniards, he attacks with his ships the armada in the port of Cádiz and destroys most of the ships without great losses , The city is plundered for two days.

1588/0419:Paul Véronèse 152888、死去

Paolo Caliari, detto il Veronese, è stato un pittore italiano attivo a Venezia e in altre località del Veneto.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/Paolo_Veronese_-_Lamentation_over_the_Dead_Christ_-_WGA24758.jpg/1280px-Paolo_Veronese_-_Lamentation_over_the_Dead_Christ_-_WGA24758.jpg Lamentazione su Cristo morto, 1548
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Banquet_in_the_House_of_Levi_by_Paolo_Veronese_-_Accademia_-_Venice_2016_%282%29.jpg/1280px-Banquet_in_the_House_of_Levi_by_Paolo_Veronese_-_Accademia_-_Venice_2016_%282%29.jpg The Feast in the House of Levi (1573) featured people and animals that the Inquisition perceived as heretical. The Inquisitors' investigation found no heresy, yet ordered Paolo Veronese to re-title the painting something other than The Last Supper, the original title.


Rokkaku Yoshikata was a samurai head of the Rokkaku clan during Japan's Sengoku period.
He was shugo (governor) and later daimyō of an area of southern Ōmi province, he served as castellan of Kannonji Castle. He later became a Buddhist monk, under the name Shōtei.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Rokkaku_Sh%C5%8Dtei.jpg/800px-Rokkaku_Sh%C5%8Dtei.jpg 後世の想像圖


Kuroda Yoshitaka, also known as Kuroda Kanbei (黒田 官兵衛), was a Japanese daimyō of the late Sengoku through early Edo periods.
Renowned as a man of great ambition, he was a chief strategist and adviser to Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Kuroda became a Christian when he was 38, and received "Simeon Josui" as a baptismal name (rekishijin). His quick wit, bravery, and loyalty were respected by his warriors

1608/0419:In Ireland:
 O'Doherty's Rebellion is launched by the Burning of Derry


Kagekatsu Uesugi was an active daimyo during the Sengoku period and the beginning of the Edo period in Japan.
He was a son of Nagao Masakage. He was a nephew and adopted son of Uhesugi Kenshin, therefore a member of the powerful Uesugi clan.
After Kenshin's death in 1578, Kagekatsu attacked Kagetora Uesugi and defeated him as head of the clan.


1689/0419:Christina, Queen of Sweden 162889、死去

reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654.
She was the only surviving legitimate child of King Gustav II Adolph and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. At the age of six, Christina succeeded her father on the throne upon his death at the Battle of Lützen, but began ruling when she reached the age of 18.
Christina is remembered as one of the most educated women of the 1600s.
She was fond of books, manuscripts, paintings, and sculptures. With her interest in religion, philosophy, mathematics and alchemy, she attracted many scientists to Stockholm, wanting the city to become the "Athens of the North."
At the age of 28, the "Minerva of the North" relinquished the throne to her cousin and moved to Rome. The Pope described Christina as "a queen without a realm, a Christian without faith, and a woman without shame."


1713/0419:Holy Roman Emperor,
With no living male heirs, Charles VI issues the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 to ensure that Habsburg lands and the Austrian throne would be inherited by his daughter, Maria Theresa (not actually born until 1717).

1749/0419:江戸時代の諷刺家 大田南畝174923、誕生

Ōta Nampo est le nom de plume le plus souvent employé par Ōta Tan, romancier et poète japonais de la fin de l'époque d'Edo.
Il écrit principalement dans les formes comiques kyōshi, dérivée des vers comiques chinois, et kyōka, dérivée de la poésie waka.
Parmi ses autres noms de plume, Yomo no Akara 四方赤良, Yomo Sanjin, Kyōkaen et Shokusanjin (蜀山人).


Captain James Cook, still holding the rank of lieutenant, sights the eastern coast of what is now Australia.

1770/0419:フランス マリ・アントワネット、フランス皇太子の妃に
Marie-Antoinette est mariée à Vienne Augustinerkirche par procurationem avec le Dauphin Louis-Auguste.

Marie Antoinette marries Louis XVI of France in a proxy wedding.

1772/0419:イギリス 経済学 David Ricardo 177223、誕生

a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.


Ricardo's most famous work is his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817). He advanced a labor theory of value:
≫ The value of a commodity, or the quantity of any other commodity for which it will exchange, depends on the relative quantity of labour which is necessary for its production, and not on the greater or less compensation which is paid for that labour.


1775/0419:American Revolutionary War:
 The war begins with an American victory in Concord during the battles of Lexington and Concord.


1776/0419:ロシア海軍人 Vasily Golovnin 177631、誕生

Василий Михайлович Головнин, русский мореплаватель и мемуарист, вице-адмирал, руководитель двух кругосветных экспедиций.
a Russian navigator, Vice Admiral, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1818).
Golovnin was given command of the sloop Diana in 1806, and made his first voyage around the world (1807~9), with the object of conducting a survey of the northern Pacific, and transporting supplies to Okhotsk.

Japanese illustration of the sloop Diana

1807年から1809年にかけて、ディアナ号で世界一周航海に出帆、クリル諸島の測量などを実施。1811年、千島列島の測量を命じられ、ディアナ号で択捉島国後島を踏査。が、国後島にて日本の幕府役人調役の奈佐瀬左衛門に捕縛され、箱館に収監される。そこで彼は間宮林藏177544に会見したり、日本人にロシア語を教へたりした。 ……

John Adams secures the Dutch Republic's recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague, Netherlands becomes the first American embassy.

1795/0419:ドイツのポリマス Gottfried Ehrenberg 179576、誕生

ein deutscher Zoologe, Mikrobiologe, Ökologe und Geologe und zählt zu den bekanntesten und produktivsten Wissenschaftlern seiner Zeit.

1801/0419:ドイツ 心身学者 Gustav Theodor Fechner 180187、誕生

ein deutscher Psychologe, Physiker und Naturphilosoph. Fechner gilt als Begründer der Psychophysik, vertrat in späten Jahren eine Theorie von der Allbeseelung des Universums und ist somit einer der wichtigsten Vertreter einer panpsychistischen Weltanschauung.


≫ 死は生命の一つの過程であり、死は形を変えた誕生、すなわち、物質界への誕生ではなく、霊界への誕生である。

Die von Joseph-Marie Jacquard verbesserte Webmaschine, der so genannte Jacquardwebstuhl, lässt das automatisierte Weben groß gemusterter Stoffe zu.

An Austrian corps is defeated by the forces of the Duchy of Warsaw in the Battle of Raszyn, part of the struggles of the Fifth Coalition.
On the same day the Austrian main army is defeated by a First French Empire Corps led by Louis-Nicolas Davout at the Battle of Teugen-Hausen in Bavaria, part of a four-day campaign that ended in a French victory.

Venezuela achieves home rule: Vicente Emparán, Governor of the Captaincy General is removed by the people of Caracas and a junta is installed.

1824/0419:イギリス ロマンチスト George Gordon Byron 178824、死去

George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron FRS , known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains widely read and influential.
Among his best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage as well as the short lyric poem "She Walks in Beauty".

by Thomas Phillips in 1813.

by Joseph Denis Odevaere (c. 1826).

1825/0419:Treinta y Tres Orientales
The throng of the 33 Orientals crosses Uruguay, under their leader Juan Antonio Lavalleja, to unite in the struggle for Uruguay's independence with the patriots around José Fructuoso Rivera.

1832/0419:スペインのポリマス José Echegaray y Eizaguirre 183216、誕生

un ingeniero, dramaturgo, político y matemático español, hermano del comediógrafo Miguel Echegaray.
Fue un polifacético personaje de la España de finales del siglo XIX, con excelentes resultados en todas las áreas en las que se involucró.


1834/0419:日本、幕末の思想家 橋本左内183459、誕生

Hashimoto Sanai was a Japanese samurai and loyal supporter of the Emperor during the final days of the Tokugawa regime.




1839/0419:Treaty of London
 establishes Belgium as a kingdom and guarantees its neutrality.

1850/0419:In the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty,
 the United Kingdom and the United States agree that none of the two countries should have a single influence on a future channel linking the Atlantic to the Pacific but rather want to protect its neutrality.

1855/0419:明治の日本主義者 杉浦重剛185524、誕生

Sugiura Juugou




1861/0419:American Civil War「Baltimore riot of 1861」
 A pro-Secession mob in Baltimore attacks United States Army troops marching through the city.

1881/0419:イギリス首相 Benjamin Disraeli 180481、死去

a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach.
Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy".
He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the glory and power of the British Empire.
He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish birth.
He was also a novelist, publishing works of fiction even as Prime Minister.

1882/0419:進化論の始祖 Charles Darwin 180982、死去

an English naturalist, geologist and biologist,[6] best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace 182313, introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.

The voyage of the Beagle, 1831–1836
1871 caricature

1883/0419:數學から力學へ Richard von Mises 188353、誕生

ein österreichisch-US-amerikanischer Mathematiker.
Er ist der Bruder des Wirtschaftswissenschaftlers Ludwig von Mises.

1891/0419:フランス女優 Françoise Rosay 189174、誕生

(Françoise Gilberte Bandy de Nalèche, dite), est une actrice française.
Sa carrière cinématographique s'est étendue sur plus de soixante ans, faisant d'elle un personnage légendaire dans le cinéma français.


Charles Duryea claims to have driven the first automobile in the United States, in Springfield, Massachusetts.


1901/0419:日本の數學者 岡潔190178、誕生

Oka Kiyoshi est un mathématicien japonais qui accomplit un travail fondamental dans la théorie des fonctions de plusieurs variables complexes.


1903/0419:アンタッチャブル Eliot Ness 190357、誕生

an American Prohibition agent, famous for his efforts to enforce Prohibition in Chicago, Illinois, bringing down Al Capone, and the leader of a famous team of law enforcement agents from Chicago, nicknamed The Untouchables.
His co-authorship of a popular autobiography, The Untouchables, which was released shortly after his death, launched several television and motion picture portrayals that established Ness' posthumous fame as an incorruptible crime fighter.


1903/0419:ロシア、大規模なユダヤ人迫害= Pogrom
The Kishinev pogrom in Kishinev (Bessarabia) begins, forcing tens of thousands of Jews to later seek refuge in Palestine and the Western world.

The two-day pogrom of Kishinev in the Russian province of Bessarabia begins. At the end of the anti-Semitic murders, 45 dead were counted and large property damage was recorded.

1906/0419:マリキュリの夫 Pierre Curie 185906、死去

un physicien français.
Il est principalement connu pour ses travaux en radioactivité, en magnétisme et en piézoélectricité.
Lui et son épouse, Marie Curie, pionniers de l'étude des radiations, reçurent une moitié du prix Nobel de physique de 1903 (l'autre moitié a été remise à Henri Becquerel) « en reconnaissance des services extraordinaires qu'ils ont rendus par leur effort conjoint de recherches sur les phénomènes des radiations découvertes par le professeur Henri Becquerel».

1912/0419:USA 化学者 Glenn Theodore Seaborg 191299、誕生

an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
His work in this area also led to his development of the actinide concept and the arrangement of the actinide series in the periodic table of the elements.
He participated in the Manhattan Project and was involved in the separation of plutonium used for atomic bombs.

1913/0419:ドイツ 古代中東研究家 Hugo Winckler 186313、死去

ein deutscher Altorientalist.
A student of the languages of the ancient Middle East, he wrote extensively on Assyrian cuneiform and the Old Testament, compiled a history of Babylonia and Assyrian that was published in 1891, and translated both the Code of Hammurabi and the Amarna letters.

1914/0419:プラグマティズム Charles Sanders Peirce 183914、死去

an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
He was educated as a chemist and employed as a scientist for 30 years.
Today he is appreciated largely for his contributions to logic, mathematics, philosophy, scientific methodology, and semiotics, and for his founding of pragmatism.
An innovator in mathematics, statistics, philosophy, research methodology, and various sciences, Peirce considered himself, first and foremost, a logician. He made major contributions to logic, but logic for him encompassed much of that which is now called epistemology and philosophy of science.
He saw logic as the formal branch of semiotics, of which he is a founder, which foreshadowed the debate among logical positivists and proponents of philosophy of language that dominated 20th century Western philosophy; additionally, he defined the concept of abductive reasoning, as well as rigorously formulated mathematical induction and deductive reasoning. As early as 1886 he saw that logical operations could be carried out by electrical switching circuits; the same idea was used decades later to produce digital computers.

1916/0419:ドイツ陸軍人 Colmar von der Goltz、死去

ein preußischer Generalfeldmarschall, Militärhistoriker und -schriftsteller.


1922/0419:ドイツの撃墜王 Erich Hartmann 192293、誕生

Erich Alfred „Bubi“ Hartmann war ein deutscher Jagdflieger und Offizier der Luftwaffe der Wehrmacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg und ab 1956 der Luftwaffe der Bundeswehr.
Mit 352 bestätigten Abschüssen ist er der erfolgreichste Jagdflieger in der Geschichte des Luftkrieges.

メッサーシュミット Bf109Gの機首に黒いチュリップ風のマアクを付けていたため、ソ連空軍から「黒い悪魔」と恐れられた。

Mae West 189380 is sentenced to ten days in jail for obscenity for her play Sex.

Her first starring role on Broadway was in a 1926 play she entitled Sex, which she wrote, produced, and directed. Although conservative critics panned the show, ticket sales were hot. The production did not go over well with city officials, who had received complaints from some religious groups, and the theater was raided, with West arrested along with the cast. She was taken to the Jefferson Market Court House, (now Jefferson Market Library), where she was prosecuted on morals charges, and on April 19, 1927, was sentenced to 10 days for "corrupting the morals of youth. Though West could have paid a fine, and been let off, she chose the jail sentence for the publicity it would garner." While incarcerated on Welfare Island (now known as Roosevelt Island), she dined with the warden and his wife; she told reporters that she had worn her silk panties while serving time, in lieu of the "burlap" the other girls had to wear. West got great mileage from this jail stint. She served eight days with two days off for "good" behavior. Media attention surrounding the incident enhanced her career, by crowning her the darling "bad girl" who "had climbed the ladder of success wrong by wrong."  Wikipedia en

1928/0419:Oxford English Dictionary
Over 70 years after the beginning of the project and 40 years after the release of the first volume, the last volume of the New English Dictionary, now known as the Oxford English Dictionary, is published.


1931/0419:コンピュウタ工學 Fred Brooks 1931--、誕生

an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBM's System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later writing candidly about the process in his seminal book The Mythical Man-Month.

In a 2010 interview by Kevin Kelly for an article in Wired Magazine, Brooks was asked "What do you consider your greatest technological achievement?" Brooks responded "The most important single decision I ever made was to change the IBM 360 series from a 6-bit byte to an 8-bit byte, thereby enabling the use of lowercase letters. That change propagated everywhere."


: Das Violinkonzert von Alban Berg wird nach dem Tod des Komponisten unter der Leitung von Hermann Scherchen auf dem Musikfest im Palau de la Música Catalana in Barcelona uraufgeführt.
https://is.gd/NhYbgt Die Komposition wurde am 23. Juli 1935 im Particell abgeschlossen und die Reinschrift der Partitur am 11. August beendet. Das Violinkonzert ist Bergs letztes vollendetes Werk. Die Uraufführung fand am 19. April 1936 mit Louis Krasner unter der Leitung von Hermann Scherchen auf dem Musikfest im Palau de la Música Catalana in Barcelona statt.

Bertolt Brechts Drama Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder wird am Schauspielhaus Zürich uraufgeführt. Der Stoff des Epischen Theaterstücks stammt aus dem Schelmenroman Trutz Simplex oder Lebensbeschreibung der Ertzbetrügerin und Landstörtzerin Courasche von Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen.

1942/0419:WWⅡ、In Poland,
 the Majdan-Tatarski ghetto is established, situated between the Lublin Ghetto and a Majdanek subcamp.

Organisiert von der ŻOB beginnt im Warschauer Ghetto unter der Leitung von Mordechaj Anielewicz der Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto gegen die Fortsetzung der Deportationen von Juden in Vernichtungslager durch die deutschen Besatzer in Polen.

In Poland, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins, after German troops enter the Warsaw Ghetto to round up the remaining Jews.

Kurt Huber, bis zu seiner Verhaftung Professor für Musikwissenschaften und Psychologie an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, und die Studenten Alexander Schmorell und Willi Graf werden wegen ihrer Mitgliedschaft bei der Widerstandsgruppe Weiße Rose vom Volksgerichtshof unter Roland Freisler zum Tode verurteilt.

The Soviet intelligence service SMERSCH is founded by the NKVD. In addition to his main task of espionage, the service also succeeds in repatriating Soviet soldiers who are suspected of betraying and flagging.

1951/0419:USA、Douglas MacArthur 188064、退役

Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco.

Students in South Korea hold a nationwide pro-democracy protest against president Syngman Rhee, eventually forcing him to resign.


1967/0419:ドイツの政事家 Konrad Adenauer 187667、死去

Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer war von 1949 bis 1963 der erste Bundeskanzler der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und von 1951 bis 1955 zugleich erster Bundesminister des Auswärtigen.

Launch of Salyut 1, the first space station.

Charles Manson is sentenced to death (later commuted to life imprisonment) for conspiracy in the Tate–LaBianca murders.

1973/0419:ドイツ 法學者 Hans Kelsen 188173、死去

Er gilt als einer der bedeutendsten Rechtswissenschaftler des 20. Jahrhunderts.
Er erbrachte insbesondere im Staatsrecht, im Völkerrecht sowie als Rechtstheoretiker herausragende Beiträge.
Er zählte gemeinsam mit Georg Jellinek und dem Ungarn Félix Somló zur Gruppe der österreichischen Rechtspositivisten, deren Denken er mit seinem Hauptwerk, der Reinen Rechtslehre, maßgeblich beeinflusste.
Kelsen gilt als Architekt der österreichischen Bundesverfassung von 1920, die großteils bis heute in Kraft steht, und wird neben H. L. A. Hart als der einflussreichste Vertreter des Rechtspositivismus im 20. Jahrhundert angesehen.

Advance Australia Fair is proclaimed as Australia's national anthem, and green and gold as the national colours.

Two hundred ATF and FBI agents lay siege to the compound of the white supremacist survivalist group The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord in Arkansas; the CSA surrenders two days later.

1989/0419:Rebecca原作者 Daphne du Maurier 190789、死去

an English author and playwright.
Although she is classed as a romantic novelist, her stories seldom feature a conventional happy ending and have been described as "moody and resonant" with overtones of the paranormal.
These bestselling works were not at first taken seriously by critics, but have since earned an enduring reputation for storytelling craft. Many have been successfully adapted into films, including the novels Rebecca, My Cousin Rachel, and Jamaica Inn, and the short stories "The Birds" and "Don't Look Now/Not After Midnight".


1998/0419:Octavio Paz 191498、死去

Octavio Irineo Paz Lozano fue un poeta, ensayista y diplomático mexicano, premio nobel de literatura en 1990.
Se le considera uno de los más influyentes escritores del siglo XX y uno de los grandes poetas hispanos de todos los tiempos.

There can be no society without poetry, but society can never be realized as poetry, it is never poetic. Sometimes the two terms seek to break apart. They cannot.



Katsura died of heart failure on April 19, 1999, after a failed suicide attempt at his home in Suita, Osaka.

Crest of the Katsura school of rakugo


上杉謙信153078が死んで、Charles Darwin 180982 死んで、Charles Sanders Peirce 183914 が死んで、Octavio Paz 191498 が死んで、と見ていって、最後に來て、枝雀の名があった。二代目桂枝雀193999。
落語家の、といふかピエロの悲哀を味合はされる。そして、 ……


この古典落語のなかでも上出來の噺はすべての落語家が挑戰するもので、文樂も志ん生圓生も、志ん生の息子で落語家のすべての天性を持って生まれてきた志ん朝も演じてゐるが、主人公の旦那(その相手となる手代)にたいする解釋と造形において枝雀のものがダントツだと私は思ふ。ま、一聽あれ ―― 今日は枝雀の命日だ。私もこれから聽く。 

2004/0419:進化生物學 John Maynard Smith 192004、死去

a British theoretical and mathematical evolutionary biologist and geneticist.
Originally an aeronautical engineer during the Second World War, he took a second degree in genetics under the well-known biologist J. B. S. Haldane.
Maynard Smith was instrumental in the application of game theory to evolution and theorised on other problems such as the evolution of sex and signalling theory.

二十世紀の生物学で最も影響力を持った研究者の一人。生物学の分野にゲーム理論などの数学的手法を導入した先駆的存在で、進化生物学の第一人者となり「血縁淘汰」や「進化的に安定な戦略」 (ESS) などの概念と理論により、性、行動、老化などの進化生物学に業績を残した。

数学的な貢献は特に、George R. Price 192275 とともに数学的分析のロジックとしてのゲーム理論における新しい均衡である「進化的に安定な戦略」 (ESS) を考案し、ESSを多用する進化ゲーム理論を立脚させた

2005/0419:Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen 194605、死

, Danish bassist and composer

{死んでたのか。全然識らなかった。ジャズをあまりきかなくなってからもう大分經った。 …… スラムスチュアトとか、ポウルチェンバァスとか、スコットラファロとか、ゲイリイピィコックとか、このニイルスヘニングエルステドペデルセンとかミロルラスヴィトウスとか、ジャズのベイシストにはカッコウのいい名前が多いとふと思ったものであった。

2009/0419:NewScienceFiction James Graham Ballard 193009、死去

an English novelist, short story writer, and essayist who first became associated with the New Wave of science fiction with his post-apocalyptic novels such as The Wind from Nowhere (1961) and The Drowned World (1962).
In the late 1960s, he produced a variety of experimental short stories (or "condensed novels"), such as those collected in the controversial The Atrocity Exhibition (1970).
In the mid 1970s, Ballard published several novels, among them the highly controversial Crash (1973), a story about symphorophilia and car crash fetishism, and High-Rise (1975), a depiction of a luxury apartment building's descent into violent chaos.

The up-and-coming gold price in the New York Mercantile Exchange exceeds the 1,500 US dollar per ounce fine mark for the first time.

Boston Marathon bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar is later captured hiding in a boat inside a backyard in the suburb of Watertown.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World