Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

歴史暦:古今東西 04/03 今日の出來事

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-503/0403:According to the Fasti Triumphales,
 Roman consul Publius Postumius Tubertus celebrated an ovation for a military victory over the Sabines.

Segment XX of the Fasti triumphales, a portion recording triumphs during the First Punic War

0013/0403:Roman Emperor Augustus
 concludes his will and adds the accountability report Res gestae divi Augusti for desired inscriptions.

 king Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ahk' assumes the crown of Calakmul.

0700/0403:日本[飛鳥時代] 佛僧 道昭062900、入滅

Dōshō est un moine japonais de la période Asuka crédité pour avoir joué un rôle déterminant dans la création du Bouddhisme au Japon




Le roi Louis le Pieux capture Barcelone des Maures après un siège de plusieurs mois.

Louis le Pieux 077814  Charlemagne 074214 の子

Charlemagne et son fils Louis le Pieux.

Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England.

Abdication de l'empereur byzantin Michel VII Doukas.

L'Empire byzantin sous le règne de Michel VII Doukas

 de Mathilde d'Angleterre avec Geoffroy V d'Anjou.

16 giorni dopo Chiara d'Assisi ha preso i voti, Agnese di Assisi seguendo l'esempio della sorella e vive come una suora in base alle regole del convento delle Clarisse a San Damiano.

16 days later, Chiara of Assisi took her vows, Agnese di Assisi following her sister's example and lives like a nun according to the rules of the Clarisse convent in San Damiano.

Santa Chiara d'Assisi 119453


キアラは San Francesco d'Assisi 118226 の死を看取った。

1253/0809。教皇の教書 Solet annure がキアラ會則を承認した。その二日後、キアラは逝去した。

The Bohemian King Ottokar II Přemysl and the Hungarian King Béla IV agreed on the division of the duchy of Austria and the duchy of Styria in the peace of Ofen.

1367/0403:スペイン「Battle of Nájera
Bataille de Nájera, victoire de Pierre le Cruel et du Prince Noir sur Henri de Trastamare.


Apparition du tir sportif en France. En pleine guerre de Cent Ans, le roi Charles V promulgue une ordonnance qui interdit à ses sujets tous les jeux « qui n'ont point d'utilité pour exercer nos dits sujets au maniement des armes », sous peine d'une amende de quarante sous. En revanche, Charles V encourage la pratique du tir à l'arc ou à l'arbalète.

1559/0403: The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis
 ends the Spanish-French War between Henry II of France and Philip II of Spain for the prelude in Europe. France must abandon all its war aims.


Battle of Tenmokuzan in Japan is regarded as the last stand of the Takeda clan. This was the final attempt by Takeda Katsuyori to resist the combined forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康154316 and Oda Nobunaga 織田信長153482, who had been campaigning against him for some time.
In his bid to hide from his pursuers, Katsuyori burned his castle at Shinpu Castle and fled into the mountains, to another Takeda stronghold, called Iwadono, and held by Oyamada Nobushige, an old Takeda retainer. Katsuyori was denied entry by Oyamada, and committed suicide while his army held off their pursuers.


Takeda Katsuyori was a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku period, who was famed as the head of the Takeda clan and the successor to the legendary warlord Takeda Shingen 武田信玄152173.
He was the son of Shingen by the daughter of Suwa Yorishige (posthumous name:Suwa-goryōnin (諏訪御料人, real name, Koihime)).
Katsuyori's children included Takeda Nobukatsu and Katsuchika.[2]
He defeated Hojo Tsunashige in the 1569 Siege of Kanbara and successfully took a Tokugawa clan possession in the 1572 Siege of Futamata, participated in the Battle of Mikatagahara, and initiated the Battle of Omosu in 1580.


Takeda Nobukatsu was the son of Takeda Katsuyori.


Atobe Katsusuke was a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period, who served the Takeda clan.

1663/0403:武田流軍學者 小幡景憲157263、死去

Obata Kagenori also known as Obata Kanbē (小幡勘兵衛), was a Confucian scholar and samurai retainer of the Takeda clan during Japan's Sengoku period.
He is perhaps most well known for his completion of the Kōyō Gunkan『甲陽軍鑑』, the chronicle of the Takeda clan's military campaigns begun by Kōsaka Masanobu, and for founding the Kōshū-ryū Gungaku, a school for studying the arts of war.

1682/0403:スペイン画家 Bartolomé Esteban Murillo 161882、死去

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo fue un pintor barroco español.
Formado en el naturalismo tardío, evolucionó hacia fórmulas propias del barroco pleno con una sensibilidad que a veces anticipa el Rococó en algunas de sus más peculiares e imitadas creaciones iconográficas como la Inmaculada Concepción o el Buen Pastor en figura infantil.
Formed in late naturalism, he evolved into formulas typical of the full baroque with a sensitivity that Rococo sometimes anticipates in some of his most peculiar and imitated iconographic creations such as the Immaculate Conception or the Good Shepherd in infantile figure.



1783/0403:USA 作家 Washington Irving 178359、誕生

an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century.
He is best known for his short stories "Rip Van Winkle" (1819) and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (1820), both of which appear in his collection, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.
His historical works include biographies of Oliver Goldsmith, Muhammad, and George Washington, as well as several histories of 15th-century Spain dealing with subjects such as Alhambra, Christopher Columbus, and the Moors.


le Sénat vote la déchéance de Napoléon Ier.

1827/0403:ドイツ科學者 Friedrich Chladni 175627、死去

ein deutscher Physiker und Astronom.
Während sie zu dem Gebiet der Akustik beitrug, erwähnte sie zuerst die Theorie, dass der Meteorit von der Erde stammte


End of the battle of Jhansi (revolt of the Sepoys).


1860/0403:USA「Pony Express」開業
The first successful United States Pony Express run from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, begins.

On the initiative of William Hepburn Russell, the pony express takes over to the post office in the USA. The company is a financial disaster, but develops into a national myth.

1863/0403:ベルギイ 建築家 Henry Van de Velde 186357、誕生

Henry Clemens Van de Velde was a Belgian painter, architect and interior designer.
Together with Victor Horta and Paul Hankar he could be considered as one of the main founders and representatives of Art Nouveau in Belgium.
He spent the most important part of his career in Germany and had a decisive influence on German architecture and design at the beginning of the 20th century.

home of the art faculty of the Bauhaus-University


1865/0403:American Civil War:
 Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America.


1878/0403:日本の弁護士 平出修187814、誕生

Hiraide Shū、un romancier, poète et avocat japonais de la fin de l'ère Meiji.
En tant qu'avocat, il est connu pour avoir défendu les accusés de l'incident Kōtoku.

1879/0403:日本の詩人&小説家 長塚節187915、誕生

Il est surtout connu pour son roman « La Terre » (土 Tshuchi), publié en 151 épisodes de feuilleton entre juin et novembre 1910 dans le Asahi Shinbun.
Le roman sera publié dans son intégralité en 1912.

1880/0403:革命的思想家 Otto Weininger 188003、誕生

ein österreichischer Philosoph.
Er wurde durch sein Werk Geschlecht und Charakter bekannt, das sich durch extreme Theorien auszeichnet, sowie durch seinen Suizid in Ludwig van Beethovens Sterbehaus in Wien.

He was known for his work Sex and Character, which is characterized by extreme theories, as well as by his suicide in Ludwig van Beethoven's deathhouse in Vienna.
His ideas are misogynistic and antisemitic and parts of his rhetoric were used by the Nazi regime (while at the same time denouncing him).[3] Weininger was a large influence on the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and the writer August Strindberg (see discussion below).
{人間は男性的形質と女性的形質を併せ持っていると主張 キリスト教は男性的で、ユダヤ教は女性的とする。そして ……

1882/0403:USA アウトロウ Jesse James 184782、射殺
American Old West: Jesse James is killed by Robert Ford.

On April 3, 1882, after eating breakfast, the Fords and James went into the living room before traveling to Platte City. By reading the daily newspaper, James had just learned of gang member Liddil's confession for participating in Hite's murder and grew increasingly suspicious of the Fords for never reporting this matter to him.
According to Robert Ford, it became clear to him that James had realized they were there to betray him. However, instead of scolding the Fords, James walked across the living room to lay his revolvers on a sofa. He turned around and noticed a dusty picture above the mantle, and stood on a chair in order to clean it. Robert Ford drew his weapon and shot the unarmed James in the back of the head. James' wife Zerelda Mimms ran into the room and screamed, "You've killed him". Robert Ford's immediate response was, "I swear to God I didn't."

Edward Capehart O'Kelley shot to death Robert Ford
On June 8, 1892, while Ford was preparing to open his saloon, O'Kelley walked into the tent with a shotgun. Ford was turned away from the front entrance. O'Kelley called out, "Hello Bob." As Ford turned around to see who spoke, O'Kelley fired his shotgun, hitting Ford in the neck and killing him instantly.

1883/0403:日本の革命的思想家 北一輝188337、誕生

a Japanese author, intellectual and political philosopher who was active in early-Shōwa period Japan.
A harsh critic of the Emperor system and the Meiji Constitution, he asserted that the Japanese were not the emperor's people, rather the Emperor was the "people's emperor".
He advocated a complete reconstruction of Japan through a form of statist, right-wing socialism. Kita was in contact with many people on the extreme right of Japanese politics, and wrote pamphlets and books expounding his ideas. The government saw Kita's ideas as disruptive and dangerous; in 1937 he was implicated, although not directly involved, in a failed coup attempt and executed. He is still widely read in academic circles in Japan.
Il participa à la tentative de coup d'État connue sous le nom d'Incident du 26 février, fut arrêté par la Kempeitai, jugé par une cour martiale et exécuté.


Gottlieb Daimler erhält ein deutsches Patent für sein Motordesign.

The first of eleven unsolved brutal murders of women committed in or near the impoverished Whitechapel district in the East End of London, occurs.

The Whitechapel murders were committed in or near the impoverished Whitechapel district in the East End of London between 3 April 1888 and 13 February 1891. At various points some or all of these eleven unsolved murders of women have been ascribed to the notorious unidentified serial killer known as Jack the Ripper.


The trial in the libel case brought by Oscar Wilde begins, eventually resulting in his imprisonment on charges of homosexuality.

Wilde in the dock, from The Illustrated Police News, 4 May 1895

Wilde's cell in Reading Gaol as it appears today

1897/0403:ドイツロマン派 Johannes Brahms 183397、死去

ein deutscher Komponist, Pianist und Dirigent.
Seine Kompositionen werden vorwiegend der Hochromantik zugeordnet; durch die Einbeziehung barocker und klassischer Formen gehen sie aber über diese hinaus. Brahms gilt als einer der bedeutendsten Komponisten der Musikgeschichte.

Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil, Josef Engelhart, Ernst Stöhr, Wilhelm List und weitere Künstler gründen die Wiener Secession als Abspaltung vom Wiener Künstlerhaus. Sie wenden sich damit gegen den dort herrschenden Konservatismus und traditionellen Kunstbegriff.

They founded the Vienna Secession as a spin-off from the Vienna Künstlerhaus. They are thus turning against the prevailing conservatism and traditional concept of art.

1899/0403:日本の洋画家 関根正二189919、誕生

Sekine Shōji était un peintre japonais des Yōga 洋画 de la période Taishō.

自画像 1918

三星 1919


En 1918, quand il avait 19 ans, "Tristesse du progrès 進攻の悲しみ" qui a été exposé dans "NikaTen 二科展" a été choisi comme un prix. Cependant, il a été débilité avec le corps physique et mental à partir de ce moment, et est mort l'année suivante à cause de la tuberculose. Il avait vingt ans.

1903/0403:ドイツ 思想家 Joachim Ritter 190174、誕生

ein deutscher Philosoph und Begründer der nach ihm benannten Ritter-Schule.
Ritter's philosophical work focuses on a theory of modernity.
In a liberal interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, he developed the view that "bifurcation" is the constitutive structure of the modern world and a necessary precondition for the universal realization of individual freedom.
According to Ritter's theory of culture as compensation, arts and humanities have the function of balancing the disenchanted, ahistorical condition of modern society

1903/0403:ハンガリのピアニスト Lili Kraus 190386、誕生

Elle a eu pour maîtres Zoltán Kodály, Béla Bartók à l'Université de musique Franz-Liszt de Budapest, Eduard Steuermann à Vienne et Artur Schnabel à Berlin.

1909/0403:ポウランド 核物理学 Stanislaw Ulam 190984、誕生

a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.
He participated in the Manhattan Project, originated the Teller–Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons, discovered the concept of cellular automaton, invented the Monte Carlo method of computation, and suggested nuclear pulse propulsion.
In pure and applied mathematics, he proved some theorems and proposed several conjectures.
Monte Carlo method


1922/0403:USA 歌手&俳優 Doris Day 1922--、誕生

an American actress, singer, and animal welfare activist.
After she began her career as a big band singer in 1939, her popularity increased with her first hit recording "Sentimental Journey" (1945).

Joseph Stalin becomes the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Избрание Иосифа Сталина генеральным секретарём ЦК РКП(б).

1924/0403:USA 男優 Marlon Brando 192404、誕生

an American actor, film director, and activist.
He is credited with bringing realism to film acting, helping to popularize the Stanislavski system of acting, studying with Stella Adler in the 1940s. Regarded for his cultural influence on 20th century film, Brando's Academy Award-winning performances include that of Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront (1954) and Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather (1972).
Brando was an activist for many causes, notably the civil rights movement and various Native American movements.



Das lange Zeit als unspielbar geltende Schauspiel Die Schwärmer, für das der Autor Robert Musil schon 1923 mit dem Kleist-Preis geehrt worden ist, wird in Berlin uraufgeführt. Das Stück wird dabei vom Regisseur so gekürzt, dass sich Musil selbst davon distanziert.

For a long time, the play Schwärmer, for which the author Robert Musil was honored with the Kleist Prize in 1923, will be premiered in Berlin. The piece is shortened by the director so that Musil distances himself from it.

1932/0403:ドイツ 科學者 Wilhelm Ostwald 185332、死去

ein deutsch-baltischer Chemiker und Philosoph.
Er gilt als einer der Begründer der Physikalischen Chemie und lehrte an der Universität Leipzig.
1909 erhielt Ostwald den Nobelpreis für Chemie für seine Arbeiten über die Katalyse sowie seine Untersuchungen über Gleichgewichtsverhältnisse und Reaktionsgeschwindigkeiten.

1932/0403:日本の女優 有馬稲子1932--、誕生

1948年、友人から薦められて受けた宝塚音楽学校に入学。養母がかつて宝塚歌劇団に在籍てゐた時の藝名を讓り受けて二代目有馬稲子を藝名。この名が、百人一首大弐三位の「有馬山 猪名の笹原 風吹けば いでそよ人を 忘れやはする」に由来すると聞いて、この藝名が好きになったといふ。

First flight over Mount Everest, a British expedition, led by the Marquis of Clydesdale, and funded by Lucy, Lady Houston.

1936/0403:Jazzベイシスト Scott LaFaro 193661、誕生

an American jazz double bassist known for his work with the Bill Evans Trio.

Bill Evans said of LaFaro's Prescott bass: "It had a marvelous sustaining and resonating quality. He would be playing in the hotel room and hit a quadruple stop that was a harmonious sound, and then set the bass on its side and it seemed the sound just rang and rang for so long.

1936/0403:USA、リンドバグJr 誘拐殺人の犯人、処刑
Bruno Richard Hauptmann is executed for the kidnapping and death of Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., the baby son of pilot Charles Lindbergh.

On the orders of the Politbureau of the CPSU units of the Soviet Ministry of Interior NKVD begin after the Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland with the assassination of thousands of Polish officers and intellectuals. The massacre in Katyn and other cities lasts until May 22nd.

1941/0403:相撲横綱 太刀山峯右エ門187741、死去

Tachiyama Mineemon was a sumo wrestler from Toyama City, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. He was the sport's 22nd yokozuna.

 Japanese forces begin an assault on the United States and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula.

1946/0403:陸軍中將 本間雅晴188746、処刑(銃殺)
Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Philippines for leading the Bataan Death March.

Homma Masaharu was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
Homma commanded the Japanese 14th Army which invaded the Philippines and perpetrated the Bataan Death March.
After the war, Homma was convicted of war crimes relating to the actions of troops under his direct command and executed by firing squad on April 3, 1946.


「戦友眠る バタンの山を眺めつつ マニラの土となるもまたよし」
「甦る 皇御國の祭壇に 生贄として命捧げむ」
「栄えゆく 御國の末疑わず こころゆたかに宿ゆるわれはも」
「かねてより 捧げし命いまここに 死所を得たりと微笑みてゆく」
「恥多き 世とはなりたりもののふの 死ぬべき時を思ひ定めぬ」

The Security Council places under the auspices of the United States the Pacific Islands previously under Japanese mandate in Resolution No. 21.

United States President Harry Truman signs the Marshall Plan, authorizing $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.

1948/0403:South Korea「Jeju uprising」
In Jeju Province, a civil-war-like period of violence and human rights abuses begins.

1950/0403:三文オペラ作曲者 Kurt Weill 190050、死去

ein aus Deutschland stammender, US-amerikanischer Komponist.
Er erlangte zunächst Bekanntheit durch die Zusammenarbeit mit Bertolt Brecht (Die Dreigroschenoper 1928, Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny 1930, Die sieben Todsünden 1933 uraufgeführt am Pariser Théâtre des Champs-Élysées).

1928年、Bertolt Brecht 189856との共作でオペレッタ三文オペラ』の音楽を担当して名を上げ、1920年代後半より1930年にかけては彼の音樂は大流行し、また同時代の作曲家、ベルク、ツェムリンスキー、ミヨ、ストラヴィンスキからも評價された。

1953/0403:フランス 映像作家 Jean Epstein 189753、死去

Jean Alfred Epstein est un réalisateur, essayiste et romancier français.

The American Civil Liberties Union announces it will defend Allen Ginsberg's book Howl against obscenity charges.

1956/0403:USA、Hudsonville–Standale tornado:
 The western half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is struck by a deadly F5 tornado.


Kobayashi Kokei est un peintre néoclassique.
À l'âge de seize ans, il vient à Tokyo et entre dans l'atelier du peintre Kajita Hanko 梶田半古 et, dès 1912, il expose au Salon du Ministère de l'Éducation (Bunten 文展).
En 1922, il fait un voyage en Europe.

『髪』 1931


1957/0403:Samuel Beckett's play
 Endspiel is premiered in his original French version at the Royal Court Theater in London.

1961/0403:イタリアの鳥人 Angelo d'Arrigo 1961、誕生

un aviatore e deltaplanista italiano. Detiene vari primati mondiali di volo sportivo.

1966/0403:イタリア自動車設計 Battista Farina 189366、死去

Giovanni Battista Farina, dal 1961 Giovanni Battista Pininfarina , è stato un imprenditore e carrozziere italiano, fondatore della Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina.

Duetto by Battista Pininfarina

With the Soviet space probe Luna 10, a satellite orbits for the first time in an orbit around the moon.
The Soviet Union thus still has a lead over the USA in the "race into space".

1968/0403:USA、Martin Luther King Jr.
 delivers his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech.

King spoke on April 3, 1968, at the Mason Temple (Church of God in Christ Headquarters) in Memphis, Tennessee.
On the following day, King was assassinated.

1969/0403:Vietnam War
United States Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announces that the United States will start to "Vietnamize" the war effort.

1971/0403:USA ギャング Joseph Valachi 1909371、死去

Joseph Michael "Joe Cargo" Valachi was an American gangster, notable as the first member of the Italian-American Mafia to publicly acknowledge its existence, and credited with popularization of the term cosa nostra.
In 1963, Valachi testified before a committee of the United States Senate, known as the Valachi hearings, disclosing previously unknown information about the Italian-American Mafia including its structure, operations, rituals and membership. ……

1974/0403:「1974 Super Outbreak」occurs,
the second biggest tornado outbreak in recorded history (after the 2011 Super Outbreak). The death toll is 315, with nearly 5,500 injured.

Bobby Fischer refuses to play in a chess match against Anatoly Karpov, giving Karpov the title of World Champion by default.




1990/0403:Jazz 歌手 Sarah Vaughan 192490、死去

She was Jazz Singer who had a beautiful vibrato singing ability and rich voice quality in the vocal range from soprano to contralto. She used to have singing skills that took bold fake and scat. In the history of jazz vocals, alongside Billy Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, ……

1991/0403:イギリス 作家 Graham Greene 190491、死去

an English novelist regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.[3][4] Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquired a reputation early in his lifetime as a major writer, both of serious Catholic novels, and of thrillers (or "entertainments" as he termed them).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 is adopted.

2000/0403:United States v. Microsoft Corp.
Microsoft is ruled to have violated United States antitrust law by keeping "an oppressive thumb" on its competitors.

2010/0403:Apple Inc. released the first generation iPad, a tablet computer.

2016/0403:The Panama Papers,
 a leak of legal documents, reveals information on 214,488 offshore companies.


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