Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

歴史暦:古今東西 03/31 今日の出來事

follow us in feedly  

Today, on March 31st,
In 1596 René Descartes 159650 was born,
In 1685 Johann Sebastian Bach 168550 was born,
It is the day that Isaac Newton 164227 died in 1727.
In 1814, it was the day Paris fell into the army of the anti-French European Union and Napoléon Bonaparte 176921 was caught. Oh, and then, in 1889 the Eiffel Tower was completed.

0250/0331:Constantius Chlorus 025006、誕生

(Κωνστάντιος Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306.
He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty.

0627/0331:アラブvsユダヤ「Battle of the Trench」
 Muhammad undergoes a 14-day siege at Medina (Saudi Arabia) by Meccan forces under Abu Sufyan.

also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Arabic: غزوة الاحزاب, Ghazwah al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000.

 Sa volonté de mener à bien la deuxième croisade Après un sermon Bernard de König Ludwig VII Clairvauxs de la France a expliqué à Vezelay.

Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade.
Bernard of Clairvaux 109053カトリック教會の聖人で、死後、教皇 Pius XII から Doctor Mellifluus(甘蜜博士 ?)と称号される。

Decreto de Alhambra que provoca la expulsión de judíos del Reino de Castilla y León.

Queen Isabella of Castile issues the Alhambra Decree, ordering her 150,000 Jewish and Muslim subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion.

Formazione della Lega di Venezia che mira a incitare Carlo VIII ad abbandonare Napoli.

Pope Alexander VI brings the Holy League of Venice, largely supported by the Roman-German King Maximilian I, against Louis XII of France. It includes the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Milan and the Republic of Venice. The purported goal is resistance to the Ottoman Empire.

1519/0331:フランス王 Henri II 155947、誕生

Henri II est roi de France de 1547 à sa mort.
Le second fils de François Ier et de la reine Claude de France (la princesse de Louis XII). Catherine de Médicis de la famille Médicis était reine.

1536/0331:日本、室町將軍13 足利義輝153665、誕生

Ashikaga Yoshiteru was the 13th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1546 to 1565 during the late Muromachi period of Japan.
He was the eldest son of the 12th shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshiharu 12足利義晴152146.

1549/0331:日本[戰國時代]大名 筒井順慶154984、誕生

Tsutsui Junkei、son of Tsutsui Junshō, and a daimyō 大名 of the province of Yamato 大和國.
Early in his career, Matsunaga Hisahide 松永久秀151077, one of the most powerful warriors of the region, defeated Junkei and took Tsutsui Castle.
By joining the forces of Oda Nobunaga 織田信長153482, Junkei defeated Hisahide at Mount Shigi in 1577.

1596/0331:フランス 思想家 René Descartes 159650、誕生

un mathématicien, physicien et philosophe français.
Il est considéré comme l’un des fondateurs de la philosophie moderne.
Il reste célèbre pour avoir exprimé dans son Discours de la méthode le cogiton — « Je pense, donc je suis » — fondant ainsi le système des sciences sur le sujet connaissant face au monde qu'il se représente.
En physique, il a apporté une contribution à l’optique et est considéré comme l'un des fondateurs du mécanisme.
En mathématiques, il est à l’origine de la géométrie analytique.
Certaines de ses théories ont par la suite été contestées (théorie de l’animal-machine) ou abandonnées (théorie des tourbillons ou des esprits animaux).
Sa pensée a pu être rapprochée de la peinture de Nicolas Poussin3 pour son caractère clair et ordonné. Le cogito marque la naissance de la subjectivité moderne.


1631/0331:イギリス 詩人 John Donne 157231、死去

an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.
He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets.
His works are noted for their strong, sensual style and include sonnets, love poems, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs, satires and sermons.

≫ no man is an island

1685/0331:ドイツ 作曲家 Johann Sebastian Bach 168550、誕生

Johann Sebastian Bach, deutscher Komponist, Orgel- und Klaviervirtuose des Barock
ein deutscher Komponist, Kantor sowie Orgel- und Cembalovirtuose des Barocks.
In seiner Hauptschaffensperiode war er Thomaskantor zu Leipzig. Er ist der prominenteste Vertreter der Musikerfamilie Bach und gilt heute als einer der bekanntesten und bedeutendsten Musiker überhaupt.
Insbesondere von Berufsmusikern wird er oft als der größte Komponist der Musikgeschichte angesehen.
Seine Werke beeinflussten nachfolgende Komponistengenerationen und inspirierten Musikschaffende zu zahllosen Bearbeitungen.

A sermon on "The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ" by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provokes the Bangorian Controversy.

1732/0331:オストリ 作曲家 Franz Joseph Haydn 173209、誕生

ein österreichischer Komponist zur Zeit der Wiener Klassik. Er war Bruder des Komponisten Michael Haydn und des Tenors Johann Evangelist Haydn.

première de Platée comédie lyrique de Jean-Philippe Rameau à la Grande Écurie de Versailles.

La comédie de ballet Platée de Jean-Philippe Rameau est créée au Grand Marstall de Versailles. L'occasion de la première est la célébration du mariage de Louis Ferdinand de Bourbon, du Dauphin de Viennois, fils du roi Louis XV, et de l'infante Maria Theresa Rafaela d'Espagne.

1727/0331:イギリス 科學者 Isaac Newton 164227、死去

an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made pathbreaking contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus.

Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller

Isaac Newton は科學技術の近代を切り開いた文化英雄の一人に祭りあげられてゐるが、實際の彼は科學的精神をそなへた近代人といふよりは、多分に前時代的な(たとへば錬金術に凝るとか)の知性であった、といふことを明らかにしたのは、ニュウトンの自筆書類などを蒐集して研究した、あの高名な經濟學者、John Maynard Keynes 188346 であった。

これがニュウトンの紋章だって ―― まるで犬の骨じゃないか。こんなにケッサクな紋章はみたことがない。

1774/0331:American Revolutionary War:
 The Kingdom of Great Britain orders the port of Boston, Massachusetts closed pursuant to the Boston Port Act.

1811/0331:ドイツ 化學者 Robert Wilhelm Bunsen 181199、誕生

ein deutscher Chemiker.
Er entwickelte zusammen mit Gustav Robert Kirchhoff die Spektralanalyse, mit deren Hilfe chemische Elemente hochspezifisch nachgewiesen werden können. Er perfektionierte den nach ihm benannten Bunsenbrenner und erfand das Bunsenelement und das Bunsen-Fotometer.

Together with Gustav Kirchhof, cesium was discovered in 1860 by spectroscopic method, rubidium was found in 1861

Les troupes de la Sixième Coalition entrent dans Paris.

The Russian Tsar Alexander I and Prussia's King Friedrich Wilhelm III move in as winners of the liberation wars against Napoleon Bonaparte in Paris.



 Le duc de Richelieu rétablit la censure sur la presse en France.

Duke of Richelieu restores censorship on the press in France.

1821/0331:日本の思想家 山片蟠桃174821、死去

un résident bien connu d'Osaka, .
Il est clerc de la bourse d'échange des marchands Masuya.
Il étudie le confucianisme auprès de Nakai Chikuzan et de son frère Nakai Riken, et l'astronomie auprès d'Asada Gōryū de l'école Kaitokudō du temps de son âge d'or.
En dépit de sa mauvaise vue, il consacre 18 ans de sa vie à écrire l'ouvrage intitulé Yumenoshiro 夢の代 qui ne comporte pas moins de 12 volumes. Dans ce livre, il soutient la théorie héliocentrique, critique l'âge des dieux et plaide en faveur de l'athéisme.
Il joue un rôle de pionnier dans l'émergence de la pensée moderne au Japon.

The massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following an attempted rebellion, depicted by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.

The Massacre at Chios (1824) by Eugène Delacroix

1837/0331:イギリス 画家 John Constable 177637、死去

an English Romantic painter. He is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home — now known as "Constable Country" — which he invested with an intensity of affection.
"I should paint my own places best", he wrote to his friend John Fisher in 1821, "painting is but another word for feeling".

Am Leipziger Gewandhaus wird Robert Schumanns 1. Sinfonie, die Frühlingssinfonie uraufgeführt. Dirigent des Gewandhausorchesters ist Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, das Werk wird vom Publikum sehr gut aufgenommen.

 Saxon flood reaches its peak in Dresden.


1850/0331:USA 古代生物學 Charles Walcott 185027、誕生

an American paleontologist, administrator of the Smithsonian Institution from 1907 to 1927, and geologist.
He is famous for his discovery in 1909 of well-preserved fossils in the Burgess Shale of British Columbia, Canada.
He was described by Stephen Jay Gould as "the finest symbol that I have ever encountered for the embodiment of conventional beliefs."

1854/0331(嘉永07/0303):日本[幕末] 黒船來航、日米和親条約、締結

The Commander of the "Black Ships" Matthew Calbraith Perry closes with the Japanese Shogun the convention of Kanagawa. The associated opening of the Japanese ports Shimoda and Hakodate for trade with the United States heralds the end of the Edo period in Japan.


1855/0331:イギリス 小説家 Charlotte Brontë 181655、死去

an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature. She first published her works (including her best known novel, Jane Eyre) under the pen name Currer Bell.

la Armada española bombardea la ciudad portuaria de Valparaíso en Chile en la Guerra Hispano-Sudamericana, causando daños severos a la ciudad.

1872/0331:ロシア バレエ興行師 Sergei Diaghilev 187229、誕生

un organisateur de spectacles, critique d'art, protecteur des artistes, impresario de ballet.
Créateur et impresario de génie, il fonde les Ballets russes d'où sont issus maints danseurs et chorégraphes qui ont fait l'art de la danse du XXe siècle.

1877/0331:フランス 經濟學 Antoine-Augustin Cournot 180177、死去

un mathématicien et philosophe français qui s'est intéressé notamment à la formalisation des théories économiques. Il est ainsi un des premiers à avoir formulé un modèle de l'offre et de la demande.


1838年 『富の理論の数学的原理に関する研究』("Recherches sur les principes mathématiques de la théorie des richesses")を出版

Shortly before the outbreak of the Russo-Ottoman War, the European powers sign the London Protocol.

1878/0331:USA ボクサー Jack Johnson 187846、誕生

an American boxer who, at the height of the Jim Crow era, became the first African American world heavyweight boxing champion (1908~15).
Among the period's most dominant champions, Johnson remains a boxing legend, with his 1910 fight against James J. Jeffries dubbed the "fight of the century."

1885/0331:ブルガリア生の画家 Jules Pascin 188530、誕生

「ジュウル パスキン」un peintre et dessinateur américain d'origine bulgare.

Portrait de Mimi Laurent (1927-1928)

1889/0331:A Paris, la Tour Eiffel,
 construite et baptisée du nom de Gustave Eiffel, est inaugurée à l'occasion de l'Exposition Universelle. La plus haute tour en treillis d'acier de l'époque, perçue par les habitants de Paris comme une «tache», serait restée stationnaire pendant seulement 20 ans.



 capital of the First Philippine Republic, is captured by American forces.

 Am Prager Nationaltheater wird Dvořáks auf slawischen Volksmythen basierende Märchenoper Rusalka uraufgeführt.


Beginn der Tangier-Krise.

1906/0331:日本の理論物理學者 朝永振一郎190679、誕生

Tomonaga Shin'ichirō was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics, work for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger.

 The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States is established to set rules for college sports in the United States.

1908/0331:日本、 強姦殺人事件の容疑者として

 In Belfast, the keel laying of the RMS Titanic takes place. After the RMS Olympic is the second ship of the Olympic class, which goes under construction.

Titanic vor dem Stapellauf 1911

Serbia accepts Austrian control over Bosnia and Herzegovina.

After the German Reich demonstratively stood behind Austria-Hungary, Serbia recognizes the Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian annexation crisis is considered an important milestone on the way to the First World War.

Beim Bau der Lötschberglinie durch die Bern-Lötschberg-Simplon-Bahn erfolgt in den Berner Alpen der Lötschbergtunnel-Durchstich.

1913/0331:ウインで、Skandalkonzert oder Watschenkonzert:
 bei einer Aufführung von Werken zeitgenössischer Komponisten mit Arnold Schönberg als Dirigent im Wiener Musikvereinssaal kommt es zu Tumulten, so dass das Konzert vorzeitig abgebrochen werden muss.

The Vienna Concert Society rioted during a performance of modernist music by Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Alexander von Zemlinsky, and Anton von Webern, causing a premature end to the concert due to violence; this concert became known as the Skandalkonzert.

1914/0331:メキシコ 文藝評論家 Octavio Paz 191498、誕生

Octavio Irineo Paz Lozano fue un poeta, ensayista y diplomático mexicano, premio nobel de literatura en 1990.
Se le considera uno de los más influyentes escritores del siglo XX y uno de los grandes poetas hispanos de todos los tiempos.

1944年にアメリカに留学、翌年にはパリに(この時、André Breton 189666 らの知遇を得る)。

1915/0331:日本の兵士 横井庄一191597、誕生

Yokoi Shōichi was a Japanese sergeant in the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during the Second World War.
He was among the last three Japanese holdouts to be found after the end of hostilities in 1945, discovered in the jungles of Guam on 24 January 1972, almost 28 years after U.S. forces had regained control of the island in 1944.

The United States takes possession of the Danish West Indies after paying $25 million to Denmark, and renames the territory the United States Virgin Islands.

1918/0331:Massacre of ethnic Azerbaijanis
 is committed by allied armed groups of Armenian Revolutionary Federation and Bolsheviks. Nearly 12,000 Azerbaijani Muslims are killed.

1926/0331:イギリス 作家 John Robert Fowles 192605、誕生

an English novelist of international stature, critically positioned between modernism and postmodernism.

After leaving Oxford University, Fowles taught English at a school on the Greek island of Spetses, a sojourn that inspired The Magus, an instant best-seller that was directly in tune with 1960s "hippie" anarchism and experimental philosophy.
This was followed by The French Lieutenant's Woman (1969), a Victorian-era romance with a postmodern twist that was set in Lyme Regis, Dorset, where Fowles lived for much of his life. Later fictional works include The Ebony Tower, Daniel Martin, Mantissa, and A Maggot.

 The Motion Picture Production Code is instituted, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in film, in the U.S., for the next 38 years.

An earthquake in Nicaragua destroys Managua; killing 2,000.

1932/0331:日本の映画監督 大島渚193213、誕生

Ōshima Nagisa est un cinéaste japonais.
Plusieurs de ses films font scandale au Japon ou en Europe, par leur aspect politique (Nuit et brouillard du Japon, Furyo) ou transgressif (L'Empire des sens).

 The Civilian Conservation Corps is established with the mission of relieving rampant unemployment in the United States.

アメリカで失業対策のための市民保全部隊 (CCC) を創設。

1936/0331:イタリアvsアビシニア「Battle of Mai Ceu」,
 in which the Italians commit war crimes through the massive dropping of mustard gas (Lost), finally decides to end the Italian-Abyssinian War in favor of Italy. Ethiopia becomes part of the colony of Italian East Africa.

 Japanese forces invade Christmas Island, then a British possession.

1943/0331:USA、Musical Oklahoma!
 by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein will be premiered at the New York Saint James Theater. The musical will continue uninterrupted on Broadway until 1948, setting a new record.

1945/0331:ドイツ 化學者 Hans Fischer 188145、死去

ein deutscher Chemiker und Mediziner.
Für seine Arbeiten „über den strukturellen Aufbau der Blut- und Pflanzenfarbstoffe und für die Synthese des Hämins“ wurde Fischer 1930 mit dem Nobelpreis für Chemie geehrt.


 A defecting German pilot delivers a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1, the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft, to the Americans, the first to fall into Allied hands.



Following a referendum last year, the independent state of Dominion Newfoundland becomes Newfoundland and Labrador the youngest province in Canada.

Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau.

1958/0331:In the Canadian federal election,
 the Progressive Conservatives, led by John Diefenbaker, win the largest percentage of seats in Canadian history, with 208 seats of 265.




1959/0331:14th Dalai Lama,
 crosses the border into India and is granted political asylum.




 The Beatles are with five singles in the squares 1-5 of the US hit parade - a previously unprecedented situation.

The Beatles、US-American hit parade で一位から五位までを獨占、無論前例なし。

 Coup d'état in Brazil establishes a military government, under the aegis of general Castelo Branco.

In Brazil, the military, with the support of the United States, is pleading against President João Goulart to prevent a land reform he is planning. General Humberto Castelo Branco becomes President. The military dictatorship in Brazil lasts until 1985.

 The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.


Ministry of Justice announced "the total population of Japan exceeded 100 million people"



Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth's atmosphere after 12 years in orbit.


1976/0331:USA 映像作家 Paul Strand 189076、死去

an American photographer and filmmaker who, along with fellow modernist photographers like Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Weston, helped establish photography as an art form in the 20th century. His diverse body of work, spanning six decades, covers numerous genres and subjects throughout the Americas, Europe, and Africa.

NewYork 1917

Femme 1916

White Fence, by Paul Strand. Published in Camera Work, No 49-50, 1917

15 years after Malta's independence, the last British troops leave the Mediterranean island.

1980/0331:USA アスリイト Jesse Owens 191380、死去

James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens was an American track and field athlete and four-time Olympic gold medalist in the 1936 Games.
Owens specialized in the sprints and the long jump and was recognized in his lifetime as "perhaps the greatest and most famous athlete in track and field history".

1983/0331:日本の映画男優 片岡千恵藏190383、死去

Kataoka Chiezō est un acteur japonais, actif au cinéma et dans le théâtre kabuki.
Il apparaît le plus souvent dans des films de chanbara.

After a fire on board crashes a Boeing 727 of the airline Mexicana de Aviación against a mountain near Mexico City. All 166 passengers die.


Georgian independence referendum, 1991: Nearly 99 percent of the voters support the country's independence from the Soviet Union.

The USS Missouri, the last active United States Navy battleship, is decommissioned in Long Beach, California.

Netscape releases Mozilla source code under an open source license.

 Création du groupe Renault-Nissan par achat réciproque d'actions entre le constructeur automobile français Renault et le japonais Nissan.


Nakamura Utaemon VI was a Japanese kabuki performer and an artistic director of the Kabuki-za in Tokyo.


「Universal Studio Japan」opens.

2004/0331:Iraq War in Anbar Province:
 In Fallujah, Iraq, four American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA, are killed after being ambushed.

2008/0331:USA 映画監督Jules Dassin 191108、死去

an American film director, producer, writer and actor. He was a subject of the Hollywood blacklist in the McCarthy era, and subsequently moved to France, where he revived his career.
Dassin quickly became better known for his noir films Brute Force (1947), The Naked City (1948), and Thieves' Highway (1949), which helped him to become "one of the leading American filmmakers of the postwar era.



Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

よろしければ、Click おねがひいたします: