Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World
東大寺 戒壇院 四天王

歴史暦:古今東西 03/17 今日の出來事

-045/0317:ロウマ共和政の軍人 Titus Labienus -10045、敗死
 Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger in the Battle of Munda.

Titus Labienus -10045、a professional Roman soldier in the late Roman Republic.
He served as Tribune of the Plebs in 63 BC. Although remembered as one of Julius Caesar's lieutenants in Gaul, mentioned frequently in the accounts of his military campaigns, Labienus chose to oppose him during the Civil War and was killed at Munda. He was the father of Quintus Labienus.

:-048/0710、Battaglia di Dyrrhachium 元老院派の勝利
:/0809、Battaglia di Farsalo ロウマ内戰中最大の激戰 カエサルの勝利

0180/0317:Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 012180、崩去
Marcus Aurelius mortuus est plaga in Pannonia. Commodo principe incepta reliquerunt relicti pacem belli.

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 012180 was Roman emperor from 161 to 180, ruling jointly with Lucius Verus until Verus' death in 169 and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177. He was the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors.

Un giovane Marco Aurelio (Musei Capitolini, Roma) 
:0138、叔父の 15R皇帝 Antonius Augustus Pius 008661 の娘 Faustina と婚約して、後繼者に指名される。
:0161、皇帝に卽位(共同皇帝として Lucius Verus 013069)
:0171、元老院から稱號 Dacianicus を授與される
:0172、元老院から稱號 Germanicus を授與される
:0175、Gaius Avidius Cassius 013075 の反亂。カシウスはマルクス・アウレリウスのもとで軍功をあげ元老院議員の地位を得た。この年、カシウスはMA逝去の報にロウマ皇帝への卽位を宣言したが、これは誤報であった。が、誤報と識ったあとでもMAへの反亂を止めなかった。当時、MAはマルコマンニ戰爭に從軍してゐたが、カシウスの行動については内密に解決しようとしたが一般の識るところとなり、元老院はカシウスを「國家の敵」と決議した。カシウスは擧兵してR帝國の頭部を制壓したが、周邊の支持を得られなかった。結局、カシウスは自軍の Centurio(百人隊長)により殺害された。カシアスの首はマルクス・アウレリウスのもとに送られたが、首實檢を斷り、埋葬を命じた。
:0180/0317、陣中で病に沒した。遺骸はその場で荼毘に付され、遺灰はロウマに運ばれ、ハドリアヌス廟に納められた。元老院は神として祀ることを認めた。帝位は生前に禪讓されてゐた息子の Lucius Commodus 016192 の繼承が認められた。


Petronius Maximus becomes emperor of the Western Roman Empire with support of the Roman Senate.

0461/0317:アイルランドの聖人 Patricius038761、逝去

Saint Patrick (Latin: Patricius; Irish: Pádraig; Welsh: Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.

Known as the "Apostle of Ireland", he is the primary patron saint of Ireland, along with saints Brigit of Kildare and Columba. He is also venerated in the Anglican Communion, the Old Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church as equal-to-the-apostles and Enlightener of Ireland.

Yelv APA called the emperor, the country Khitan.

1008/0317:日本 065天皇 花山096808崩御

Emperor Kazan、the 65th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Kazan's reign spanned the years from 984 through 986.


1025/0317:日本[平安朝] 武人 渡邊綱095325、死去

Watanabe no Tsuna est un samouraï japonais, obligé de Minamoto no Yorimitsu (aussi connu sous le nom Raikō), un des plus anciens samouraï réputé pour ses exploits militaires.


sculpteur Otoman, circa 1830, ivoire, hauteur 72 mm

Mongolia enacted the innovative words of Pasbah.

1337/0317:Duke of Cornwall、イングランド初の公爵位

Edward, the Black Prince is made Duke of Cornwall, the first Duchy in England.
Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost thirteen years old


The English Queen Isabella recognizes the independence of Scotland under Robert the Bruce "eternally" for her underage son Edward III in the agreement of Edinburgh and Northampton. This ends the first Scottish War of Independence.

1406/0317:中世イスラム思想家 Ibn Khaldoun 133206、死去

( أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي, Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī), est un historien, sociologue, économiste, géographe, démographe, et homme d'État d'origine Arabe.
He is best known for his book, the Muqaddimah or Prolegomena ("Introduction"). The book influenced 17th-century Ottoman historians like Kâtip Çelebi, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha and Mustafa Naima who used the theories in the book to analyze the growth and decline of the Ottoman Empire. 19th-century European scholars also acknowledged the significance of the book and considered Ibn Khaldun as one of the greatest philosophers of the Middle Ages

1452/0317:Battle of Los Alporchones
 is fought in the context of the Spanish Reconquista between the Emirate of Granada and the combined forces of the Kingdom of Castile and Murcia resulting in a Christian victory.

Le roi François Ier est libéré par les Espagnols qui le retenaient prisonnier.


Toyotomi Hideyoshi is the second of Japan's three unifiers during the Sengoku period: Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Daimyō, he lived during the Muromachi (室町時代 1336~73) and Azuchi Momoyama (安土桃山時代 1573~00) periods.

He had his own story written while alive until 1592. From modest origins, he attained absolute power over the whole of Japan by unifying and trying to pacify it.

Exécution des participants de la conjuration d'Amboise.

Huguenots and dissatisfied nobles dare the decisive blow in Amboise's conspiracy. However, the storm on the castle Amboise to bring the French King Francis II in their power, fails, hundreds of conspirators die in the following days.

Fort Coligny on Villegagnon Island in Rio de Janeiro is attacked and destroyed during the Portuguese campaign against France Antarctique.

1595/0317:日本[戰國時代]武將大名 蒲生氏郷155695、死去

Warrant from the Warring States Period to the Azuchi Momoyama 安土桃山 Period. Originally Omi 近江 Hino 日野 castle, then Ise 伊勢 Matsusaka 松阪 castle owner, Finally Mutsu 陸奥 Kurokawa 黒河 castle owner.

1677/0317:フランスvsオランダ、during the Franco-Dutch War,
the Siege of Valenciennes ends with France's taking of the city.

François-Henri de Montmorency-Luxembourg conquiert avec ses troupes dans la guerre hollandaise la ville assiégée de Valenciennes pour la France.

1680/0317:警句家 François de La Rochefoucauld 161380、死去

François VI, duc de La Rochefoucauld, prince de Marcillac1, est un écrivain, moraliste et mémorialiste français, surtout connu pour ses Maximes. Bien qu'il n'ait publié officiellement que ses Mémoires et ses Maximes, sa production littéraire est dense.

Il fréquente dès lors les salons des « honnêtes gens » et se lie d'amitié avec la marquise de Sévigné, la marquise de Sablé et plus particulièrement avec la comtesse de La Fayette. Ses réflexions successives l'amèneront à publier un ouvrage inédit en 1665 : les Réflexions ou sentences et maximes morales (communément nommé « Maximes »), ponctué d'aphorismes philosophiques.



1741/0317:イギリス科學者 William Withering 174199、誕生

an English botanist, geologist, chemist, physician and the discoverer of digitalis.


1754/0317:フランス革命の華 Manon Roland 175493、誕生

une salonnière et personnalité politique française.
Elle fut une des figures de la Révolution française et joua un rôle majeur au sein du parti girondin. Elle poussa son mari, Jean-Marie Roland de La Platière, au premier plan de la vie politique de 1791 à 1793.

1793/1108  ギロチンによる死をまへにして
Ô Liberté, que de crimes on commet en ton nom ! 「自由よ、汝の名によっていかに多くの罪が犯されたことか」と言ひ殘した。二日後、逃亡先でその死を知った夫は自殺した。

1766/0317:Evacuation Day,
 the Continental Army under the command of General Washington, forces British forces to evacuate Boston.


1773/0317:幕末の國學者 伴信友177346、誕生

Ban Nobutomo. He was a samurai of the Edo period, a follower of the Kokugaku intellectual current, due to its importance in this, he received the posthumous Buddhist name of Zentake'in Dōrin Shin'yū Koji. He was a vassal of Obama's fiefdom, which belonged at the time to Sakai Tadakatsu.


1776/0317:American Revolution:
 British forces evacuate Boston, ending the Siege of Boston, after George Washington and Henry Knox place artillery in positions overlooking the city.

British troops begin to clear Boston by sea. In the American Revolutionary War, units under the orders of George Washington and Henry Knox managed to position their artillery in convenient positions that could sweep the city. The opposing commander William Howe therefore orders an evacuation of the beleaguered city.

By signing a treaty of friendship and commerce with the young United States, France recognizes the new state.

1780/0317:American Revolution:
 George Washington grants the Continental Army a holiday "as an act of solidarity with the Irish in their fight for independence".

1782/0317:スヰス数学者 Daniel Bernoulli 170082、死去

a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics.
His name is commemorated in the Bernoulli's principle, a particular example of the conservation of energy, which describes the mathematics of the mechanism underlying the operation of two important technologies of the 20th century: the carburetor and the airplane wing.

Im Deutschhaus Mainz tritt der am 24. Februar gewählte Rheinisch-Deutsche Nationalkonvent der Mainzer Republik zusammen.
Es ist das erste nach demokratischen Prinzipien gewählte Parlament auf deutschem Boden.

The Rheinisch-German National Convention of the Mainz Republic, which was elected on 24 February, meets at the Deutschhaus Mainz. It is the first Parliament to be elected on German soil in accordance with democratic principles.

lo scienziato italiano Alessandro Volta prova con successo la prima batteria elettrica.

Der Dichter und Dramatiker Friedrich von Schiller präsentiert Wilhelm Tell, ein Drama in fünf Akten, inspiriert von der Schweizer Chronik von Gilg Tschudi.


 La République italienne est érigée en royaume d'Italie, dont Napoléon est le souverain.
 Royaume héréditaire, l'Italie restera toutefois indépendante. Couronné à Milan le 28 mai, il nomme son beau-fils Eugène de Beauharnais, vice-roi.

The Italian Republic, with Napoleon as president, becomes the Kingdom of Italy, with Napoleon as King.

 Création du baccalauréat par Napoléon Ier.

1810/0317:ドイツ演劇、クライスト『Käthchen von Heilbronn』上演

Das Drama Das Käthchen von Heilbronn von Heinrich von Kleist wird am Theater an der Wien uraufgeführt und erreicht bald einen hohen Bekanntheitsgrad.

Friedrich Wilhelm III. Von Preußen erklärt Frankreich den Krieg.

The call to my people by King Friedrich Wilhelm III marks for Prussia the beginning of the liberation wars against Napoleon Bonaparte. At the same time the Landwehr is introduced.

The first steamboat crosses the English Channel. The Élise goes from Newhaven to Le Havre, where it is to serve passenger traffic in France.

 The Malay archipelago splits into two domains after the Anglo-Dutch Treaty is signed in London.
 As a result, the Malay Peninsula is dominated by the British, while Sumatra and Java and surrounding areas are dominated by the Dutch.

La parte española de la isla de Santo Domingo proclama su independencia bajo el nombre de República Dominicana.

1830/0317:ナポレオンの將軍 Laurent de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr 176430、死去

Laurent Gouvion, marquis de Saint-Cyr dit Gouvion Saint-Cyr, est un maréchal d'Empire et homme politique français. Abandonné très tôt par sa mère, il se spécialise tout d'abord dans le dessin mais la Révolution française ayant débuté, il s'engage dans l'armée en septembre 1792 et connaît une ascension fulgurante.
Promu général de division en juin 1794, il combat les Autrichiens en Allemagne et en Italie sous les ordres des généraux Moreau et Jourdan.
Après avoir travaillé dans l'administration, il est nommé colonel général des cuirassiers en 1804.
En premier lieu commandant en chef du camp de Boulogne en 1806, il passe en Espagne avant de prendre la tête du 6e corps de la Grande Armée pendant la campagne de Russie, où il obtient son bâton de maréchal.
Il sert lors de la campagne d'Allemagne et est fait prisonnier lors de la capitulation de Dresde (novembre 1813).
Revenu en France en juin 1814, il reste passif durant les Cent-Jours et devient ministre de la Guerre puis de la Marine et des Colonies. Il meurt le 17 mars 1830 des suites d'une attaque d'apoplexie.

Frédéric Chopin donne son premier concert.

Frédéric Chopin gibt sein erstes eigenes Konzert im Nationaltheater von Warschau, bei dem das von ihm komponierte Konzert für Klavier und Orchester F-Moll op. 21 uraufgeführt wird.

The Relief Society of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is formed;

Briton Stephen Perry receives a patent for the rubber band invented by him.

1846/0317:イギリス挿絵家 Kate Greenaway 184601、誕生

a Victorian children's book illustrator and writer whose work influenced the children's style of the day. The only daughter of a successful draftsman and wood engraver, she studied graphic design and art between 1858 and 1869.

Polly from The Queen of the Pirate Isle,

the Pied Piper leading the children out of Hamelin, to Robert Browning's version of the tale.

1847/0317:フランス風刺画家 Grandville 180347、死去

Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard generally known by the pseudonym of Jean-Jacques or J. J. Grandville, was a French caricaturist.
21歳、パリに出てリトグラフ集『Les Tribulations de la petite proprieté』出版。その後『Les Métamorphoses du jour』1828で名声を確立。

Un Autre Monde

Unter dem Eindruck der Märzrevolution in Deutschland schreibt der Dichter Ferdinand Freiligrath in London das später vertonte Gedicht Schwarz-Rot-Gold.

Under the impression of the March Revolution in Germany, the poet Ferdinand Freiligrath in London writes the poem "Schwarz-Rot-Gold" later set to music.


una rivolta contro gli austriaci scoppiò a Venezia, su invito di Daniele Manin.

Annibale de Gasparis découvre Psyché, un des plus gros astéroïdes jamais observé avec 250 kilomètres de diamètre.

Annibale de Gasparis discovers Psyche, one of the largest asteroids ever observed with 250 kilometers in diameter.

1853/0317:ドプラ效果發見 Christian Doppler 180353、死去

ein österreichischer Mathematiker und Physiker. Er ist durch den nach ihm benannten Doppler-Effekt und die Dopplertemperatur bekannt geworden.

1856/0317:ロシア画家 Mikhaïl Vroubel 185610、誕生

(Михаил Александрович Врубель) est un peintre russe,

Il s'est illustré dans le symbolisme et l'Art nouveau et il est souvent considéré comme le plus grand représentant de ce dernier mouvement en Russie.
En réalité, artiste solitaire, il se tint à distance des principaux courants de son époque et il fut assez critiqué par ses contemporains. La genèse de son style original est peut-être à chercher du côté des écoles byzantines tardives ou de la première Renaissance. Il est aussi parfois surnommé le Cézanne russe2.

Demon Seated, 1890.

Séraphin à trois paires d'ailes (Azraël).


The First Taranaki War begins in Taranaki, New Zealand, a major phase of the New Zealand land wars.

1861/0317:Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed
in seguito all'accordo tra Giuseppe Garibaldi e Camillo Benso di Cavour, Torino annuncia il nuovo regno d'Italia sotto il re Vittorio Emanuele II, che emerse come parte del Risorgimento del Regno di Sardegna-Piemonte. Il conte Cavour diventa il primo Primo Ministro italiano.



Mint established in Osaka

Tentative de récupération des canons de la milice civile parisienne, postés sur la butte Montmartre par Adolphe Thiers et son gouvernement. Cet événement, et l'émeute qu'il entraîne, marque le début de la Commune de Paris.

Attempt to recover the guns of the Parisian civil militia, posted on the hill Montmartre by Adolphe Thiers and his government. This event, and the riot it brings, marks the beginning of the Paris Commune.

1883/0317:ロンドンで、Karl Marx の葬儀
(London): Obsect of Karl Marx.

Signed the Sino-BritishTibetan-Indian Treaty.

SS Utopia collides with HMS Anson in the Bay of Gibraltar and sinks, killing 562 of the 880 passengers on board.


1895/0317:明治維新の法吏 井上毅184495、死去

Inoue Kowashi、a Japanese statesman in Meiji period Japan.

la cathédrale Notre-Dame de Grâce de Cambrai (Nord) est érigée en basilique mineure par le pape Léon XIII.

1898/0317:日本の作家 横光利一189847、誕生

Yokomitsu Riichi、un écrivain japonais appartenant au courant moderniste expérimental.


1900/0317:映画音樂の大家 Alfred Newman 190070、誕生

n American composer, arranger, and conductor of film music. From his start as a music prodigy, he came to be regarded as a respected figure in the history of film music. He won nine Academy Awards and was nominated forty-three times.

Exposition de peinture de Vincent van Gogh à Paris. Bien que cela corresponde à la onzième année après la mort, cela appelle une grande réaction.

ゴッホ死後十一年目の1891/02、ブリュッセルの二十人展で遺作の油絵8点と素描7点が展示された。同年三月、パリのアンデパンダン展ではゴッホの油絵は10点が展示された。これを見たフランスの作家、Octave Mirbeau 184817 は「かくも素晴らしい天分に恵まれ、直情と幻視の画家がもはやこの世にいないと思えば、大きな悲しみに襲われる。」とゴッホを賞賛する文章を書いた。以後、次第にゴッホの評価はヨウロパ中であがっていった。 ……

1902/0317:USAの球聖 Bobby Jones 190271、誕生

Robert Tyre Jones Jr. was an American amateur golfer who was one of the most influential figures in the history of the sport; he was also a lawyer by profession.
Jones founded and helped design the Augusta National Golf Club, and co-founded the Masters Tournament. The innovations that he introduced at the Masters have been copied by virtually every professional golf tournament in the world.


Im „Annus mirabilis“ der Physik reicht Albert Einstein die erste von vier bahnbrechenden Arbeiten bei den Annalen der Physik ein: In Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt erklärt er den photoelektrischen Effekt.
 Hierfür wurde ihm im November 1922 der Nobelpreis für Physik für 1921 verliehen.

In "Annus mirabilis" of physics, Albert Einstein submits the first of four pioneering works in the annals of physics: In a heuristic viewpoint concerning the generation and transformation of light, he explains the photoelectric effect. For this purpose, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1921 in November 1922.

1908/0317:In England,
 the first arrest of a criminal with the help of video telegraphy succeeds.
 A French jewel robber is arrested after the Daily Mirror has printed a mug shot of a recent transfer from Paris to London.

1914/0317:日本の弁護士 平出修187814、死去

Hiraide Shū、un romancier, poète et avocat japonais de la fin de l'ère Meiji.
En tant qu'avocat, il est connu pour avoir défendu les accusés de l'incident Kōtoku.


1917/0317:ドイツの思想家 Franz Brentano 183017、死去

ein deutscher Philosoph, Psychologe und Begründer der Aktpsychologie.
Ursprünglich katholischer Priester, verließ Brentano aus Protest gegen die Verkündigung des Dogmas von der Unfehlbarkeit des Papstes die Kirche und hat dann als konfessionsloser Professor in Wien auf die junge Philosophengeneration (Edmund Husserl, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk und Sigmund Freud) nachhaltig eingewirkt.

彼はドイツ観念論特有の思弁による概念構成の哲学を退け、経験的立場からの哲学を主張した。現象を心的現象と物的現象とに分け、この心的現象の根本的な特徴としての概念「Intentionalität 志向性」を導入して、「対象への関係」への意識の働きに注目した。この意識の志向性の概念が現象学や心理学へ大きな影響を及ぼした。

1919/0317:USA歌手 Nat King Cole 191965、誕生

Nathaniel Adams Coles was an American jazz pianist and vocalist.
He recorded over one hundred songs that became hits on the pop charts. His trio was the model for small jazz ensembles that followed.

In Berlin bricht der Kapp-Putsch gegen die Regierung der Weimarer Republik zusammen.
 Den Putschisten Wolfgang Kapp und Walther von Lüttwitz gelingt jedoch die Flucht ins Ausland. Die am Putsch maßgeblich beteiligte Brigade Ehrhardt wird von Reichswehrminister Gustav Noske als Ordnungsmacht in Berlin belassen.

In Berlin, the Kapp Putsch collapses against the government of the Weimar Republic. However, the putschists Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz manage to escape abroad. The Ehrhardt brigade, which is decisively involved in the coup, will be left in Berlin by Reichswehr Minister Gustav Noske as an authority.

Gambling is legalized in Nevada, USA.

1934/0317:In the Rome Protocols,
 Italy, Austria and Hungary agree on closer economic cooperation.

1938/0317:ロシアの舞踏家 Rudolf Noureev 193893、誕生

(Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев)、a Soviet ballet dancer and choreographer. He was director of the Paris Opera Ballet from 1983 to 1989 and its chief choreographer until October 1992.


Under the leadership of Ningchou Okamura, the Japanese army launched an attack on the Chinese garrison in Nanchang, and the Nanchang battle began.
Second Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Nanchang between the Kuomintang and Japan begins,

1941/0317:USA、In Washington, D.C.,
 the National Gallery of Art is officially opened by President Franklin Roosevelt.

1942/0317:日本の諜報員 谷豊191142、死去

Tani Yutaka, was a bandit who was active in Malaya.
He was born in Minami-ku, Fukuoka, and moved to Malaya with his family where he became a bandit known as Harimau (Malay word for "Tiger").
Before World War II, he became a Secret Agent for the Imperial Japanese Army.
He died in Singapore where he is buried at the Old Malay Cemetery in Kampong Glam.
His life story has been depicted in novels and in the films Marai no Tora and Harimau.

 The first Jews from the Lvov Ghetto are gassed at the Belzec death camp in what is today eastern Poland.

Within the scope of the "Aktion Reinhardt" systematic assassination of the Polish Jews by the National Socialists, the first train transport arrives in the extermination camp Belzec.


Die Ludendorff-Brücke zwischen Remagen und Erpel, zu dieser Zeit die einzige noch intakte Rheinbrücke, stürzt 10 Tage nach ihrer Einnahme durch die Alliierten im Zweiten Weltkrieg ein. Dabei kommen 32 US-amerikanische Pioniere ums Leben.
The Ludendorff Bridge in Remagen, Germany, collapses, ten days after its capture.


Mainland Air Raid: Air raid in Kobe City

First flight of the B-45 Tornado strategic bomber.

1948/0317:SF作家 William Gibson 1948--、誕生

William Ford Gibson is a Canadian-American speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk.
Beginning his writing career in the late 1970s, his early works were noir, near-future stories that explored the effects of technology, cybernetics, and computer networks on humans—a "combination of lowlife and high tech"—and helped to create an iconography for the information age before the ubiquity of the Internet in the 1990s.
Gibson notably coined the term "cyberspace" in his short story "Burning Chrome" (1982) and later popularized the concept in his acclaimed debut novel Neuromancer (1984). These early works have been credited with "renovating" science fiction literature after it had fallen largely into insignificance in the 1970s.

1948/0317:Brussels Pact,
 the forerunner of the Western European Union (WEU), is signed by Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru advocated non-aligned diplomacy not belonging to either side of the US & Soviet Union.

インドの首相 Jawaharlal Nehru 188964 が、米ソどちらの陣営に属さない非同盟外交を主唱。

Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley announce the creation of element 98, which they name "californium".

At the University of California, Berkeley, nuclear physicists Albert Ghiorso and Glenn T. Seaborg announce the successful production of a transuran, which they call californium.

Sortie de Touchez pas au grisbi, film français de Jacques Becker avec Jean Gabin, Lino Ventura et Jeanne Moreau.

{フランス映画界の至寶、ジャンギャバンが主演し、新人のリノヴァンチュラが敵役、同じく多分新人のジャンヌモロウが花を添へ、この後のフランス映画の一つのジャンルとなる FilmNoire の魁にして古典的な名作。騙されたと思って觀てみな。

A plane crash in Cebu, Philippines kills Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay and 24 others.

The United States launches the Vanguard 1 satellite.


Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, flees Tibet for India.
the Dalai Lama, spiritual leader of Tibet, leaves Lhasa following an anti-Chinese uprising, before taking refuge a little later in India.




 President Dwight Eisenhower signs the National Security Council directive on the anti-Cuban covert action program that will ultimately lead to the Bay of Pigs Invasion.

Mount Agung erupted on Bali killing more than 1,100 people.

Off the coast of Spain in the Mediterranean, the DSV Alvin submarine finds a missing American hydrogen bomb.

The Croatian cultural association Matica hrvatska publishes together with other associations the declaration on the designation and position of the Croatian written language, thus triggering the Croatian spring in Yugoslavia.

 The Western Central Banks formally lift their commitment that the national currency must be primarily gold-backed. The gold standard is abandoned.

As a result of nerve gas testing in Skull Valley, Utah, over 6,000 sheep are found dead.

Golda Meir becomes the first female Prime Minister of Israel.

à Jérusalem, Golda Meir est assermentée comme Premier ministre ; elle est la première femme à accéder au poste de chef de gouvernement en Israël.

 The Pentagon charges 14 officers, including 2 generals, for failing to provide superior authorities with information about the massacre of Mỹ Lai in Vietnam.
 The main accused is Major General Samuel Koster, Superintendent of the West Point Military Academy.

A Cambodian air force officer steals a plane and attacks the presidential palace in Phnom Penh: Marshal Lon Nol, head of state, is unharmed, but about twenty people are killed.

1974/0317:USA建築家 Louis Kahn 190174、死去

Louis Isadore Kahn (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) was an American architect, based in Philadelphia.
He founded his own atelier in 1935. While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957.
Kahn created a style that was monumental and monolithic; his heavy buildings for the most part do not hide their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Famous for his meticulously-built works, his provocative proposals that remained unbuilt, and his teaching, Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century.

Play of light inside Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban

Stairwell in Yale University Art Gallery (1951–53)

1976/0317:イタリア映画監督 Luchino Visconti 190676、死去

Luchino Visconti di Modrone, conte di Lonate Pozzolo è stato un regista e sceneggiatore italiano.
Per la sua attività di regista cinematografico e teatrale e per le sue sceneggiature, è considerato uno dei più importanti artisti e uomini di cultura del XX secolo. È ritenuto uno dei padri del neorealismo italiano, ha diretto numerosi film a carattere storico, dove l'estrema cura delle ambientazioni e le ricostruzioni sceniche sono state ammirate e imitate da intere generazioni di registi.

1977/0317:Angolan troops
 enter Zaire and occupy the important mining center of Kolwezi.

A Tupolev 104 aircraft of the Aeroflot crashes in Moscow and kills 59 passengers and crew.

The Penmanshiel Tunnel collapses during engineering works, killing two workers.

an earthquake of 6.6 hits Chile. This is the third of five major earthquakes that hit the country that year.

1985/0317:USA、Serial killer
 Richard Ramirez, aka the "Night Stalker", commits the first two murders in his Los Angeles murder spree.

Jean-Marc Boivin enchaîne en vingt heures les quatre faces nord du massif du Mont-Blanc : La Verte, Les Droites, Les Courtes et les Grandes Jorasses.

A Colombian Boeing 727 jetliner, Avianca Flight 410, crashes into a mountainside near the Venezuelan border killing 143.

1988/0317:Eritrean War of Independence:
 The Nadew Command, an Ethiopian army corps in Eritrea, is attacked on three sides by military units of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front in the opening action of the Battle of Afabet.

Inauguration ceremony of Tokyo Dome.

1990/0317:フランスの女優 Capucine 192890、死去

Capucine, nom de scène de Germaine Hélène Irène Lefèbvre, est un mannequin et une actrice française.

En 1990, seule11 et se sachant gravement malade, elle se suicide par défenestration à Lausanne.

Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires: Car bomb attack kills 29 and injures 242.

A referendum to end apartheid in South Africa is passed 68.7% to 31.2%.

1996/0317:フランス映画監督 René Clément 191396、死去

un cinéaste français, réalisateur et parfois coscénariste,
Il est seul réalisateur français à avoir remporté deux fois l'oscar du meilleur film en langue étrangère, pour Au-delà des grilles puis pour Jeux interdits.


2000/0317:In Uganda,
 over 500 followers of the Movement to Restore the Ten Commandments by sect leader Joseph Kibwetteere are imprisoned and burned alive in a church in Kanungu after reclaiming their property from the prophesied doomsday on December 31, 1999 ,

2001/0317:日本の女優 新珠三千代193001、死去

Aratama Michiyo est une actrice japonaise.

Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Robin Cook, resigns from the British Cabinet in disagreement with government plans for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

2004/0317:Unrest in Kosovo:
 More than 22 are killed and 200 wounded. Thirty-five Serbian Orthodox shrines in Kosovo and two mosques in Serbia are destroyed.

2005/0317:USAの政略家 George Frost Kennan 190405、死去

an American diplomat and historian.
He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself.
He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States. He was also one of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men".



Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

よろしければ、Click おねがひいたします: