Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World
0161の今日、ロウマ皇帝となった Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 012180

歴史暦:古今東西 03/08 今日の出來事

To the 16th Emperor of the Roman Empire, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 012180 and Lucius Verus 013069 ascend.


Ferdowsi completes his epic poem Shahnameh.

Ferdowsi フェルドウスィー completes his epic poem Shahnameh シャーナーメ.

Abu ʾl-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi 094020:a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh  ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Iran and the Greater Iran.

The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (Persian: شاهنامه pronounced [ʃɒːhnɒːˈme], "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
Consisting of some 50,000 "distichs" or couplets (two-line verses), the Shahnameh is the world's longest epic poem written by a single poet.
It tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical past of the Persian Empire from the creation of the world until the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century.
Modern Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan and the greater region influenced by the Persian culture (such as Georgia, Armenia, Turkey and Dagestan) celebrate this national epic.

Alfonso VII a été proclamé roi de Castille et Léon, après la mort de sa mère Urraca.

Following the death of his mother Urraca, Alfonso VII is proclaimed king of Castile and León.

1262/0308:Battle of Hausbergen
 between bourgeois militias and the army of the bishop of Strasbourg.

This Battle marks the freeing of the city of Strasbourg from episcopal authority. The bourgeois of the town defeated the army of knights of the Bishop of Strasbourg, Walter of Geroldseck.

1293/0308:日本の歴史思想家 北畠親房129354、誕生

Kitabatake Chikafusa was a Japanese court noble and writer of the 14th century who supported the Southern Court 南朝 in the Nanboku-cho period 南北朝時代, serving as advisor to five Emperors.:67–68 Some of his greatest and most famous work was performed during the reign of Emperor Go-Daigo 096後醍醐尊治128839, under whom he proposed a series of reforms, amounting to a revival or restoration of political and economic systems of several centuries earlier.
In addition to authoring a history of Japan and a number of works defending the right of Go-Daigo's line to the throne, Kitabatake fought in defense of the Southern Court as a member of the Murakami 村上 branch of the Minamoto 源氏 clan.

In 1339, he wrote Jinnō Shōtōki『神皇正統記』, which related the history of Japan through analysis of the Imperial reigns, from the earliest legendary semi-mythical emperors down to GoDaigō and his successor GoMurakami. It was intended largely as a guide to the young Murakami, and as a treatise defending the Southern Court's legitimacy. It was largely written on the road, and recompiled and edited in 1343.

Signature d'un traité de paix entre la France (Jean le bon) et l'Angleterre (Édouard III) pour mettre fin à la guerre de Cent Ans (provisoirement car la guerre reprend 9 ans plus tard).

Signing of a peace treaty between France (John the Good) and England (Edward III) to end the Hundred Years War (provisionally because the war resumed 9 years later).

1566/0308:イタリアの作曲家 Carlo Gesualdo 156613、誕生

Carlo Gesualdo, noto come Gesualdo da Venosa è stato un compositore italiano, cittadino del Regno di Napoli.


Il castello di Gesualdo, residenza del principe

Spanish explorer Diego García de Palacio first sights the ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Copán.

Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion.

John Casor becomes the first legally-recognized slave in England's North American colonies where a crime was not committed.

1658/0308:Treaty of Roskilde
 After a devastating defeat in the Northern Wars (1655~61), Frederick III, the King of Denmark–Norway is forced to give up nearly half his territory to Sweden to save the rest.

L'eruzione dell'Etna in Sicilia è scoppiata. Circa 10.000 persone sono morte a causa del flusso di lava.

The eruption of Etna in Sicily is erupted. About 10,000 people died due to lava flow.

1702/0308:Queen Anne
 becomes Queen regnant of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

1722/0308:at the Battle of Gulnabad,
 The Safavid Empire of Iran is defeated by an army from Afghanistan pushing Iran into anarchy.

Nader Shah, founder of the Afsharid dynasty, is crowned Shah of Iran.

After the ascended to his throne Abbas III from the family of the Safavids already died in childhood, Nadir himself crowned the Shah of Persia. He founded the dynasty of the Afsharids.

le Parlement de Paris condamne pour la seconde fois l’Encyclopédie d'Alembert.

An anonymous writer, thought by some to be Thomas Paine, publishes "African Slavery in America", the first article in the American colonies calling for the emancipation of slaves and the abolition of slavery.

In the Pennsylvania Journal and the Weekly Advertiser, Thomas Paine's essay, African Slavery in America, appears, the first printed plea for the release of slaves in the country.

Regiments from Ansbach and Bayreuth, sent to support Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War, mutiny in the town of Ochsenfurt.

1782/0308:Gnadenhutten massacre
 96 Native Americans in Gnadenhutten, Ohio, who had converted to Christianity are killed by Pennsylvania militiamen in retaliation for raids carried out by other Indian tribes.

In Ohio's Gnadenhütten massacre, American soldiers slaughtered 96 Christian Indians who were caught between the fronts of the American Revolutionary War.

1801/0308:War of the Second Coalition
 At the Battle of Abukir, a British force under Sir Ralph Abercromby lands in Egypt with the aim of ending the French campaign in Egypt and Syria.

The New York Stock Exchange is founded.

The New York Stock Exchange adopts stock exchange regulations and establishes a formal business organization.

King Oscar I ascends to the thrones of Sweden and Norway.

With the death of Karl XIV Johann, his son Oskar I becomes king of Sweden and Norway.

Japan: Signature of a provisional treaty between Americans and Japanese (it will be ratified in January and February 1855 by the United States, then by Japan).


1862/0308:American Civil War
 The Naval Battle of Hampton Roads begins.

In the Battle of Pea Ridge in the American Civil War, the southern states under General Earl Van Dorn of the northern states under General Samuel Ryan Curtis in Arkansas are beaten.

Sakai incident: Japanese samurai kill 11 French sailors in the port of Sakai, Osaka.

是日、午後三時頃、フランス軍コルベット鑑 Dupleix  (1864の下關砲撃に參加したこともある)は日本滯在中のフランス要人を迎へるべく堺に入港し、また港内の測量などをおこなった。





殺害された水兵十一名の葬儀は、神戸居留地の外人墓地で、駐日公使 Léon Roches 180901・駐日英公使 Harry Parkes 182885 の他にオランダ公使など在阪の外交官が立ち会って埋葬された。ロッシュは悲痛な調子で早朝に弔文を読み上げ、そこに復讐を誓ふ文言を撒き散らした。ちなみに、この二人「パークスとロッシュはお互いに憎みあい、二人の女のように嫉妬しあっていた」さうな。

{つい後十年前には、街中でのギロチン斷頭や Robert-François Damiens 171557の八つ裂きの刑を見物してお祭り氣分になってゐたフランス人がこれしきのことで動揺したとも思はれぬが、この中止要請についてはいろいろと理由を付けて「弁解」してゐる。


「今度泉州沖で、土佐の攘夷が、大あたり、よか、敵は仏蘭西、よっ程 ゑじゃないか、よふか、よか、よか、よか、」






# どれだけ多くの一次資料を集めて読み込んでも、語り部の数だけ「歴史」が存在する以上、必ずはっきりしない「藪の中」というものが残る。そして、そこを埋め合わせる想像において初めて「当事者達が何を考えたか」、という仮説が立てられ検証されるのだが、その仮説の置き方において初めて「小説家」の能力が発揮される。ただ、それは最後の最後まで控えておき、可能な限り一次資料を積み上げて、まずはどこまでもぼんやりとした「史実」を掴むことに第一の優先順位を置く。このような「歴史的情報の処理」(大岡「歴史小説の方法」)

1869/0308:Hector Berlioz 180369、死去

un compositeur, chef d'orchestre, critique musical et homme de lettres français
Reprenant, immédiatement après Beethoven, la forme symphonique créée par Haydn, Berlioz la renouvelle en profondeur par le biais de la musique à programme (Symphonie fantastique), de la symphonie concertante (Harold en Italie) et en créant la « symphonie dramatique » (Roméo et Juliette).
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Hector_Berlioz_fusain.JPG/800px-Hector_Berlioz_fusain.JPG Lithographie de Charles Baugniet (1851)
「ベルリオズは Victor Hugo 180285 と Eugène Delacroix 179863 とともにフランスロマン主義藝術の三位一体をなしてゐた」Théophile Gautier 181172

1879/0308:核分裂發見 Otto Hahn 187968、誕生

Otto Emil Hahn war ein deutscher Chemiker und ein Pionier der Radiochemie.
Zwischen 1905 und 1921 entdeckte er zahlreiche Isotope (heute Nuklide genannt), 1909 den radioaktiven Rückstoß, 1917 das Element Protactinium und 1921 die Kernisomerie beim „Uran Z“. Für die Entdeckung und den radiochemischen Nachweis der Kernspaltung des Urans (Ende 1938) und des Thoriums (Anfang 1939) wurde ihm 1945 der Nobelpreis für Chemie des Jahres 1944 verliehen.

He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery and the radiochemical proof of nuclear fission, while later it became clear that this was at the exclusion of his colleague Lise Meitner.

Lise Meitner 187868 との

1886/0308:日本初の新劇女優 松井須磨子188619、誕生

Matsui Sumako est une actrice et chanteuse japonaise.

1911、Henrik Ibsen 182806 の『人形の家』のヒロインを演じて注目を集め、二年後、愛人の島村抱月187118とともに藝術座を旗揚げして Lev Tolstoï 182810 の『復活』でカチュウシャを演じ、かつその主題歌(抱月作詞、中山晋平作曲)が空前の大ヒットとなり、日本新劇界を代表する女優となった。



Début des 13 jours du procès du scandale de Panamá.

Die Uraufführung der Tondichtung Don Quixote von Richard Strauss erfolgt im Kölner Gürzenich mit dem Dirigenten Franz Wüllner.

Sie basiert auf dem Roman Don Quijote de la Mancha des spanischen Autors Miguel de Cervantes und ist in Form einer Sinfonia Concertante komponiert, mit einem Solocello, das die Figur des Don Quijote repräsentiert, sowie Bratschen-, Tenortuben- und Bassklarinetten-Solisten, die Sancho Pansa darstellen.

Le guide de voyage français "Guide Michelin" a été lancé.

Die Sinfonie Nr. 2 in D-Dur von Jean Sibelius wird mit dem Komponisten am Dirigentenpult in Helsinki uraufgeführt.

Demonstration seeking women's suffocation right in New York. Later this day will be International Women's Day.

Over a part of the Great Salt Lake, a railway line is opened, with a railway embankment resting on planks, which has no example anywhere in the world.

 the Landtag decide to establish the general and compulsory vote.


In addition to the metric system and scale scale law up to that date, the revised metrological law promulgating the yard / pound law was promulgated.

French aviator Raymonde de Laroche becomes the first woman to receive a pilot's license.


For the first time, fingerprints serve as a tool for police in the detection of crime, while an individual suspected of theft is indicted in New York.

First flights (for the Royal Thai Air Force) at Don Mueang International Airport in Bangkok.

 A British force unsuccessfully attempts to relieve the siege of Kut (present-day Iraq) in the Battle of Dujaila.

1917/0308:飛行船 Ferdinand von Zeppelin 183817、死去

Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August von Zeppelin war ein deutscher württembergischer Graf, General der Kavallerie und der Entwickler und Begründer des Starrluftschiffbaus.

Beerdigung Graf Zeppelins in Stuttgart

1917/0308:International Women's Day protests in St. Petersburg mark the beginning of the February Revolution.


1919/0308:日本の小説家 水上勉191904、誕生

Mizukami Tsutomu、un écrivain japonais populaire et prolifique de romans, romans policiers, des biographies et des pièces de théâtre. Plusieurs de ses histoires ont été adaptées au cinéma.


1920/0308:Arab Kingdom of Syria,
 the first modern Arab state to come into existence, is established.

Fayçal est proclamé roi de Syrie.

Spanish Prime Minister Eduardo Dato Iradier is assassinated while exiting the parliament building in Madrid.

The Spanish Prime Minister Eduardo Dato is murdered by Catalan anarchists leaving the parliament building.

1922/0308:日本の妖怪漫画家 水木しげる192215、誕生

Mizuki Shigeru、a Japanese manga author and historian, best known for his series GeGeGe no Kitarō (Japanese: ゲゲゲの鬼太郎, literally "spooky Kitarō") – originally titled Hakaba Kitarō (Japanese: 墓場鬼太郎, literally "Kitarō of the Graveyard") – Kappa no Sanpei, and Akuma-kun.

1923/0308:理論物理學 Johannes Diderik van der Waals 183717、死去

a Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist famous for his work on an equation of state for gases and liquids.

Van der Waals started his career as a school teacher. He became the first physics professor of the University of Amsterdam when in 1877 the old Athenaeum was upgraded to Municipal University. Van der Waals won the 1910 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.


A mine disaster kills 172 coal miners near Castle Gate, Utah.




いやいや、さうではなかった。現場を見てきたやうに證言する人によれば、主人が亡くなった時ハチは三日三晩、何も食べなかったさうだ。 …… そんな忠犬の話、どこかで讀んだ氣がするが思ひだせない。あ、思ひだした。その一つを、森鴎外186222の事を書いたから、彼の書いた小説の例からあげれば、たしか『阿部一族』に、忠犬の殉死の話が出てくる。そいつも主人の死に物食はぬ状態になってゐた。




主人上野氏の死から十年近く經った 1935(昭和10)/0308(この頃、日本は軍國化を急ぎ次の年には二二六事件が起こります)、午前六時を過ぎた頃、澀谷川にかかる稲荷橋付近、酒店北側路地の所で野垂れ死にしてゐる犬が發見された。ハチであった。

無論、かうしたクソリアリズムの物の見方は偶像破壊が目的の、昨今の學者連中の惡しき傾向であり、相手にするにも及ばないのであるが、唐突ではあるが、今夜の私が取り組む破目になった『堺事件』と『忠犬ハチ公』の事例によって、私の見解を云へば、要するに、人々は物語とすることによってしか歴史を記憶しない/できない、源義經は美男の悲劇でなければならず、反っ齒出っ歯の小男などといふ容姿であっては誰も義經に興味關心を持たない、人々が欲してゐるのは歴史の事實ではなく、眞實(信實)化された物語である …… あゝ私も焼き鳥と酒が欲しくなった。

Daytona Beach and Road Course holds its first oval stock car race.

1937/0308:Spanish Civil War: Battle of Guadalajara
The nationalist troops of the Spanish Civil War open the Battle of Guadalajara to close the siege ring around Madrid. The battle lasts until March 23rd.

The Roman temple treasure of Mauer an der Url is discovered.

1941/0308:USA小説家 Sherwood Anderson 187641、死去

an American novelist and short story writer, known for subjective and self-revealing works.
Self-educated, he rose to become a successful copywriter and business owner in Cleveland and Elyria, Ohio. In 1912, Anderson had a nervous breakdown that led him to abandon his business and family to become a writer. At the time, he moved to Chicago and was eventually married three more times. His most enduring work is the short-story sequence Winesburg, Ohio, which launched his career.
Throughout the 1920s, Anderson published several short story collections, novels, memoirs, books of essays, and a book of poetry. Though his books sold reasonably well, Dark Laughter (1925), a novel inspired by Anderson's time in New Orleans during the 1920s, was the only bestseller of his career.

アンダソンについて William Faulkner 189762 は「我々の世代のすべての作家の父親」と讚へた。

 Imperial Japanese Army forces gave ultimatum to Dutch East Indies Governor General Jonkheer Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer and KNIL Commander in Chief Lieutenant General Hein Ter Poorten, to unconditionally surrender.

the Dutch East Indies colony, present-day Indonesia, capitulates to the offensive of the Japanese army. It is the end of three centuries of Dutch presence on the archipelago.

 Imperial Japanese Army forces captured Rangoon, Burma from British.

Its infrastructure demolished by the English who evacuated, Rangoon, the Burmese capital, is occupied by the Japanese.

urch den Führer-Befehl Nr. 11 erklärt Adolf Hitler 29 Städte entlang der Ostfront zu „Festen Plätzen“, die im Zweiten Weltkrieg besonders hartnäckig verteidigt werden sollen, auch wenn das ihre Einschließung bedeuten sollte.

With the Führer Command No. 11, Adolf Hitler declares 29 cities along the eastern front to be "festive places" which are to be particularly stubbornly defended during the Second World War, even if this meant their inclusion.

The final declaration of the Chapultepec Conference proclaims the principle of equal rights for all men "whatever their race or religion".

1946/0308:Frederick William Lanchester 186846、死去

Frederick William Lanchester was an English polymath and engineer who made important contributions to Automotive engineering and to Aerodynamics, and co-invented the topic of operations research.

1914, during the First World War he got inspiration for Pythagorean theorem and devised two military laws. These became "Lanchester's law" later called "the law of competition". "Ranchester's law" became famous in Japan as a management theory rather than military.

Lanchester’s Power Laws
Lanchester was particularly interested in predicting the outcome of aerial battles. In 1914, before the start of World War I, he published his ideas on aerial warfare in a series of articles in Engineering. They were published in book form in 1916 as Aircraft in Warfare: the Dawn of the Fourth Arm (Lanchester 1916), and included a description of a series of differential equations that are known now as Lanchester's Power Laws. These laws described how two forces would attrit each other in combat, and demonstrated that the ability of modern weapons to operate at long ranges dramatically changed the nature of combat—a force that was twice as large had been twice as powerful in the past, but now it was four times, the square of the quotient. Lanchester's Laws were originally applied practically in the United States to study logistics, where they developed into operations research (OR) (operational research in UK usage). OR techniques are now widely used, perhaps most so for business.


13000 troops of the Republic of China Army arrive in Taiwan after the February 28 Incident and launch crackdowns which kill thousands of people, including many elites.
This turns into a major root of the Taiwan independence movement.


La France reconnaît l'indépendance du Viêt Nam sous l'autorité du Bảo Đại et dans le cadre de l'Union française.

President of France Vincent Auriol and ex-emperor of Annam Bảo Đại sign the Élysée Accords, giving Vietnam greater independence from France and creating the State of Vietnam to oppose Viet Minh-led Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

The Soviet Marshal Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov announces that the Soviet Union has an atomic bomb.


Japan-US mutual defense aid agreement (MSA agreement) signed.

Egypt re-opens the Suez Canal after the Suez Crisis.

The 1957 Georgia Memorial to Congress, which petitions the U.S. Congress to declare the ratification of the 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution null and void, is adopted by the U.S. state of Georgia.

The Ba'ath Party comes to power in Syria in a coup d'état by a clique of quasi-leftist Syrian Army officers calling themselves the National Council of the Revolutionary Command.

3500 US Marines are the first American land combat forces committed during the Vietnam War.

Nelson's Pillar in Dublin, Ireland, destroyed by a bomb.

In Dublin, the IRA blew up the Nelson column erected to the memory of Horatio Nelson.

Sortie dans les salles du film musical Les Demoiselles de Rochefort écrit et réalisé par Jacques Demy.

1971/0308:映画コメディアン Harold Lloyd 189371、死去

Harold Clayton Lloyd Sr. was an American actor, comedian, director, producer, screenwriter, and stunt performer who is best known for his silent comedy films.

Lloyd ranks alongside Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton as one of the most popular and influential film comedians of the silent film era. Lloyd made nearly 200 comedy films, both silent and "talkies", between 1914 and 1947. He is best known for his bespectacled "Glasses" character, a resourceful, success-seeking go-getter who was perfectly in tune with 1920s-era United States.

1974/0308:日本の戰爭画 香月泰男191174、死去

Kazuki Yasuo était un peintre japonais de la période Shōwa dans le style Yōga 西洋畫. Son travail est caractérisé par la captivité en Sibérie シベリア.


Charles de Gaulle Airport opens in Paris, France.

1975/0308:USA映画監督 George Stevens 190475、死去

an American film director, producer, screenwriter and cinematographer.[1]
Among his most notable films are
A Place in the Sun (1951; winner of six Academy Awards including Best Director),
Shane (1953; Oscar nominated),
Giant (1956; Oscar for Best Director), and
The Diary of Anne Frank (1959; nominated for Best Director).

Philips demonstrates the compact disc publicly for the first time.

1983/0308:Cold War
 While addressing a convention of Evangelicals, U.S. President Ronald Reagan labels the Soviet Union an "evil empire".

A supposed failed assassination attempt on Islamic cleric Sayyed Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah in Beirut, Lebanon kills at least 45 and injures 175 others.

1988/0308:Violinist Henryk Szeryng 191888、死去

A violinist naturalized to Mexico, a Jewish Polish.

Johann Sebastian Bach 168550 の無伴奏Violinソナタ&パルティタは(レコウドを買って)この人の演奏で聽き初めた。

1999/0308:MLB Player Joe DiMaggio 191499、死去

Joseph Paul DiMaggio, nicknamed "Joltin' Joe" and "The Yankee Clipper", was an Italian-American baseball center fielder who played his entire 13-year career in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees. He is perhaps best known for his 56-game hitting streak (May 15 – July 16, 1941), a record that still stands.

DiMaggio kisses his bat in 1941, the year he hit safely in 56 consecutive games

DiMaggio is widely known for his marriage and lifelong devotion to Marilyn Monroe.

A new constitution is signed by Iraq's Governing Council.

the volcano of Mount Saint Helens, USA, wakes up and sends ashes to nearly 12,000 m altitude but does not seem to be dangerous, unlike its eruption of May 18, 1980.

Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, carrying a total of 239 people, disappears en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing.

2016/0308:イギリスのプロデュサ George Martin 192616、死去

an English record producer, arranger, composer, conductor, audio engineer, and musician. He was referred to as the "Fifth Beatle", including by Paul McCartney, in reference to his extensive involvement on each of the Beatles' original albums.

Martin produced comedy and novelty records in the early 1950s, working with Peter Sellers, Spike Milligan, and Bernard Cribbins, among others. His career spanned more than six decades of work in music, film, television and live performance. He held a number of senior executive roles at media companies

2017/0308:The Azure Window,
 a natural arch on the Maltese island of Gozo, collapsed in a stormy weather.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

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