Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World
今日が誕生日の Franz von Stuck 186328『Sisyphus』1920

歴史暦:古今東西 02/23 今日の出來事


Roman emperor Diocletian orders the destruction of the Christian church in Nicomedia, beginning eight years of Diocletianic Persecution.

In 303, the Emperors Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius issued a series of edicts rescinding the legal rights of Christians and demanding that they comply with traditional Roman religious practices. Later edicts targeted the clergy and ordered all inhabitants to sacrifice to the Roman gods (a policy known as universal sacrifice). The persecution varied in intensity across the empire—weakest in Gaul and Britain, where only the first edict was applied, and strongest in the Eastern provinces. Persecutory laws were nullified by different emperors at different times, but Constantine and Licinius's Edict of Milan (0313) has traditionally marked the end of the persecution.

The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer

0532/0223:Byzantine emperor Justinian I
 orders the building of a new Orthodox Christian basilica in Constantinople the Hagia Sophia.

l'empereur Justinien prend la décision de reconstruire la basilique Sainte-Sophie de Constantinople.

0840/0223:Pietro Tradonico (doge di Venezia) e Lotario I (re d'Italia) firmano un patto, il Pactum Lotharii.

Pietro Tradonico, doge of Venice, and Lothair I, king of Italy, sign a pact, the Pactum Lotharii.

This document was one of the first acts to testify to the separation between the nascent Republic of Venice and the Byzantine Empire: for the first time the Doge, on its own initiative, undertook agreements with the Western world. However, the pact was more symbolic because it reiterated the agreements that had been already made in the past between the two empires. It concerned the rights of land use and administration of justice.



Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western book printed with movable type.

Mapuche forces, under the leadership of Lautaro, score a victory over the Spanish at the Battle of Marihueñu in Chile.

Bay of Arauco, on the right side, the place of the battle

the pacification of Perth puts an end to the fighting in Scotland between the Regent and the followers of Mary Stuart.

James FitzMaurice FitzGerald (died 18 August 1579) was a member of the 16th century ruling Geraldine dynasty in the province of Munster in Ireland. He rebelled against the crown authority of Queen Elizabeth I of England in response to the onset of the Tudor conquest of Ireland. He led the first of the Desmond Rebellions in 1569, spent a period in exile in continental Europe, but returned with an invasion force in 1579. He died shortly after landing. His rebellions were strongly associated with counter-reformation Catholic ideology.

1623/0223:オランダ人がイギリス人を襲ひ「Amboyna massacre」



1646/0223(正保03/0108):徳川05將軍 綱吉164609、誕生

Tokugawa Tsunayoshi was the fifth shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan.
He was the younger brother of Tokugawa Ietsuna 徳川家綱164180, thus making him the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu 徳川家光160451, the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

1685/0223:ドイツ作曲家 Georg Friedrich Händel 168559、誕生

ein deutsch-britischer Komponist des Barock.
Händel, dessen künstlerisches Schaffen sich auf alle musikalischen Genres seiner Zeit erstreckte, war gleichzeitig als Opernunternehmer tätig. Er gilt als einer der bedeutendsten Musiker der Geschichte.

William III of Orange and Mary II become King and Queen of England.


1745/0223:フランス、Mariage du
 dauphin Louis de France avec Marie-Thérèse, infante d'Espagne.

Under the leadership of the house slave Cuffy begins a slave revolt in the Dutch colony Berbice in today's Guyana in South America.

The Regensburg theologian Jacob Christian Schäffer develops a forerunner of the washing machine, the agitator machine, which he praises in his work The convenient and highly advantageous washing machine as progress.

La pièce Précaution inutile ou le Barbier de Séville de Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais est présentée en première mondiale à Paris.
La pièce succombe au public, car elle est surchargée d'allusions politiques et personnelles.

1778/0223:American Revolutionary War:
 Baron von Steuben arrives at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania to help to train the Continental Army.

In the constellation Virgo, Wilhelm Herschel discovers a barred spiral galaxy, listed as NGC 4412 in the star catalog.

Bonaparte signe avec le bey de Tunis Hammouda Pacha un traité d'alliance contre les Britanniques.

Bonaparte signs with the bey of Tunis Hammouda Pasha a treaty of alliance against the British.

1820/0223:イギリスで「Cato Street Conspiracy」
 A plot to murder all the British cabinet ministers is exposed.

1821/0223:イギリス詩人 John Keats 179521、死去

an English Romantic poet.
He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets, along with George Gordon Byron 178824 and Percy Bysshe Shelley 179222, despite his works having been in publication for only four years before his death at age 25 in the year 1821.

1835/0223:In Paris, アレヴィ『ユダヤの女』初演、好評
 the premiere of the opera La Juive by Jacques Fromental Halévy takes place with the libretto by Eugène Scribe. As much appreciated by Giuseppe Verdi as by Richard Wagner, the opera becomes a series success: until 1893 it is performed 550 times at the Paris Opera alone.

1836/0223:アメリカvsメキシコ「Texas Revolution : Siege Alamo」 begins in San Antonio, Texas.

The Mexican army under General Antonio López de Santa Anna begins with the siege of the San Alamo Fort in San Antonio, lasting until March 6, in which insurgent Texans have entrenched themselves.
テキサス獨立戰爭:アラモの砦の戰、始まる。~0306 の籠城鬪爭で全員戰死。

Alamo とはスペイン語で「ポプラ」の意味。
Fort Alamo = The Alamo:元來は、地元のインディアンをキリスト教へ改宗させるための教育設備として、十八世紀にスペイン帝國が建設した。傳道所の役割が放棄された後は一轉して軍事要塞として使用され、テキサス獨立戰爭におけるテキサス共和國とメキシコ軍の爭奪地点として、1836のアラモ砦の戰をはじめ、いくつかの軍爭の場となった。

{私はこの出来事を John Wayneが監督主演した映画`Alamo`で識った。その前にこの映画の主題歌である、Dティオムキンが作曲した The Green Leaves of Summer の、Brothers Four による大ヒットで、この映画のことを識ったはずだ。映画の出來はあんまり評價は高くないらしいが、私は氣に入った。今でも氣に入ってゐる。

フルカラアのワイドスクリンの八〇ミリ、それがまだ客呼び込みの惹句であった頃で、その廣大な大畫面に、この映画の主人公たち、ウェインが演じるデイビクロケット、Rウイドマアクのボウイイ大佐、Lハアベイのトラビス大佐を始めとするアラモ砦に集まったアメリカ人たちに、StraightでStrong な Yankee Spirit を體現したよきアメリカ人を經驗したのであった。彼等の勇氣と獻身は人間のサイズを一囘り越えて見えた。日本のサムラヒよりも素晴らしい男性を思はせるほどに。しかし、この善きアメリカ人の思ひ込みはアメリカ人が一九六〇年代に犯したヴェトナム戰爭で自壞的に壞れていった。その挫折とともに、映画に東上するアメリカ人はスモウルになっていって、一方においては人間性を逸脱した超人と化し、幼稚な英雄像へと退化して、映画は悲劇から喜劇的なものとなり、はてはスペクタクル一邊倒となり、私はアメリカ映画を見なくなった。

1840/0223:ウイン經濟學派 Carl Menger 184021、誕生

ein österreichischer Ökonom.
Er gilt als Schulhaupt der Österreichischen Schule der Nationalökonomie und Begründer der österreichischen Grenznutzenschule und revolutionierte die Wert- und Preistheorie.
Die auf seinem Œuvre basierende Wirtschaftstheorie wurde später von Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Friedrich von Wieser (im technischen und sozialen Bereich), Ludwig von Mises und Friedrich August von Hayek systematisch erweitert.


1842/0223:ドイツ思想家 Eduard von Hartmann 184228、誕生

ein deutscher Philosoph.
Er gilt auch als „der Philosoph des Unbewussten“. Von Hartmann versuchte in seinem Werk Philosophie des Unbewussten zwei verschiedene Denkweisen (Rationalismus und Irrationalismus) zusammenzuführen, indem er die zentrale Rolle des Unbewussten betonte.
Sein Werk hatte Einfluss auf Tiefenpsychologen wie Sigmund Freud und Carl Gustav Jung

彼は、Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 177031 から形而上学的理念を、Arthur Schopenhaue 178860 から盲目的意志をとって総合し、自身の哲学の立場を「無意識者」として掲げた。

1847/0223:Mexican–American War : Battle of Buena Vista:
 In Mexico, American troops under future president General Zachary Taylor defeat Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.

Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico, US troops defeat the army of Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.

La révolution éclate à Paris

The official independence of the Orange Free State is declared.

Britain agrees to evacuate territory north of the Orange River in South Africa, allowing the creation of an Orange Free State.

1855/0223:数学者 Carl Friedrich Gauß 177755、死去

ein deutscher Mathematiker, Astronom, Geodät und Physiker. Wegen seiner überragenden wissenschaftlichen Leistungen galt er bereits zu seinen Lebzeiten als Princeps Mathematicorum („Fürst der Mathematiker; Erster unter den Mathematikern“).

President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington, D.C., after the thwarting of an alleged assassination plot in Baltimore, Maryland.

By referendum, the people of Texas approve of the separation of the state from the United States of America, thus becoming the seventh and last state in the South before the election of Abraham Lincoln, who was elected President, and the beginning of the war of secession from the Union of the month of the Confederate States of America.

1863/0223:ドイツ画家 Franz von Stuck 186328、誕生

ein deutscher Zeichner, Maler und Bildhauer des Jugendstils und des Symbolismus.

Stuck's subject matter was primarily from mythology, inspired by the work of Arnold Böcklin. Large forms dominate most of his paintings and indicate his proclivities for sculpture.
His seductive female nudes are a prime example of popular Symbolist content. Stuck paid much attention to the frames for his paintings and generally designed them himself with such careful use of panels, gilt carving and inscriptions that the frames must be considered as an integral part of the overall piece.

1870/0223:USA「Reconstruction Era」
 Post-U.S. Civil War military control of Mississippi ends and it is readmitted to the Union.


Das in der Königlich Württembergischen Gewehrfabrik in Oberndorf am Neckar produzierte Gewehr Mauser Modell 71 wird als erstes deutsches Reichsgewehr eingeführt.

1873/0223:中國の學士 梁啓超187329、誕生




1879/0223:ロシア画家Kasimir Malevich 187835、誕生

Казимир Северинович Малевич est un des premiers artistes abstraits du XXe siècle. Peintre, dessinateur, sculpteur et théoricien, Malevitch est le créateur d'un courant artistique qu'il dénomma « suprématisme ».

Black Circle, 1915

1883/0223:ドイツ思想家 Karl Jaspers 188369、誕生

ein deutscher Psychiater und Philosoph von internationaler Bedeutung.
Als Arzt hat Jaspers grundlegend zur wissenschaftlichen Entwicklung der Psychiatrie beigetragen. Er gilt auch als herausragender Vertreter der Existenzphilosophie, die er vom Existentialismus Jean-Paul Sartres strikt unterschied. Sein philosophisches Werk wirkt insbesondere in den Bereichen der Religionsphilosophie, Geschichtsphilosophie und der Interkulturellen Philosophie nach.

1884/0223:ポウランド生化学者 Casimir Funk 188467、誕生

Kazimierz Funk waas a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".



1885/0223:Sino-French War:
 French Army gains an important victory in the Battle of Đồng Đăng in the Tonkin region of Vietnam.

Charles Martin Hall produced the first samples of man-made aluminum, after several years of intensive work. He was assisted in this project by his older sister, Julia Brainerd Hall.

La Côte d'Azur est frappée par un fort tremblement de terre qui coûte environ 2 000 vies.

1889/0223:USA映画監督 Victor Fleming 188949、誕生

Victor Lonzo Fleming was an American film director, cinematographer, and producer.
His most popular films were The Wizard of Oz (1939), and Gone with the Wind (1939), for which he won an Academy Award for Best Director

Rudolf Diesel erhält das Patent für den Dieselmotorprozess.

Émile Zola is imprisoned in France after writing "J'accuse", a letter accusing the French government of antisemitism and wrongfully imprisoning Captain Alfred Dreyfus.

à la suite de la publication de J'accuse…!, célèbre lettre dans laquelle il prend la défense du capitaine Alfred Dreyfus, Émile Zola est condamné à un an de prison et 3.000 frs d'amende. La peine ayant été confirmée en appel le 18 juillet suivant, Zola se réfugiera à Londres.

『私は告發する』を書いてドレフュス大佐を辯護した作家の Émile Zola 184002 に、三千フランの罰金と一年の有罪宣告。その後、ロンドンへ亡命。

1899/0223:ドイツ小説家 Erich Kästner 189974、誕生

ein deutscher Schriftsteller, Publizist, Drehbuchautor und Verfasser von Texten für das Kabarett. Bekannt machten ihn vor allem seine Kinderbücher wie Emil und die Detektive, Das doppelte Lottchen und Das fliegende Klassenzimmer sowie seine humoristischen und zeitkritischen Gedichte.


1900/0223:Second Boer War:
 During the Battle of the Tugela Heights, the first British attempt to take Hart's Hill fails.

Cuba elogia la Bahía de Guantánamo en los Estados Unidos "a perpetuidad".

Cuba leases Guantánamo Bay to the United States "in perpetuity".

For 10 million dollars, the United States takes control of the Panama Canal Zone.

1905/0223:USA「Rotary Club」創設
Paul Percy Harris founds the first Rotary club in Chicago.
The now world-wide organization of people from higher social circles is dedicated to charitable and charitable tasks.


The AEA Silver Dart makes the first powered flight in Canada and the British Empire.

AEA Silver Dart, a pioneer aircraft, takes off for the first time in Baddeck on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada, from the ice of Bras d'Or Lake. Pilot is the Canadian John Alexander Douglas McCurdy,

First demonstrations in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The beginning of the February Revolution (March 8 in the Gregorian calendar).

The Red Army recruits its first soldiers. The day is later celebrated in the Soviet Union as the Day of the Red Army.

Красная Армия вербует своих первых солдат. Позднее этот день отмечается в Советском Союзе как День Красной Армии.

Benito Mussolini forme le Parti (Fasci di combattimento) en Italie.

1922/0223:In Berlin, the feature film Othello,
 directed by director Dimitri Buchowetzki after the eponymous play by William Shakespeare, is premiered. The main role is played by Emil Jannings.

1927/0223:USA社会學者 Robert Neelly Bellah 192713、誕生

an American sociologist, and the Elliott Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley.
He was internationally known for his work related to the sociology of religion.



1927/0223:Régine Crespin 192707、誕生

, cantatrice française

U.S. President Calvin Coolidge signs a bill by Congress establishing the Federal Radio Commission (later replaced by the Federal Communications Commission) which was to regulate the use of radio frequencies in the United States.

German theoretical physicist Werner Heisenberg writes a letter to fellow physicist Wolfgang Pauli, in which he describes his uncertainty principle for the first time.

ドイツの理論物理學の ハイゼンベルク、同僚のパウリに手紙で『不確定性原理』について初めて明かす。




{まことに以て、何と評したらいいのか、或種、物の見事な生き樣のやうにも思はれてきて、つひつひ、その一生の軌跡を辿ってしまった。しかし、彼に文筆の技術と才能がなかったのがいかにも惜しまれる。自傳を書けばベストセラアは間違ひなかっただらう。そしたら、得意のお喋りで講演家となればよかったのだ。NameValue を生かしきれず、惜しいことであった。

1930/0223:数学者 志村五郎1930--、誕生

Shimura Gorō is a Japanese mathematician, and currently a professor emeritus of mathematics (former Michael Henry Strater Chair) at Princeton University.
Il est connu d'un plus large public par la conjecture de Shimura-Taniyama-Weil, qui est reliée au dernier théorème de Fermat et qui a été démontrée par Andrew Wiles, après onze ans de travaux, en 1995.

1934/0223:イギリス作曲家 Edward Elgar 185734、死去

an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.
Among his best-known compositions are orchestral works including the Enigma Variations, the Pomp and Circumstance Marches, concertos for violin and cello, and two symphonies. He also composed choral works, including The Dream of Gerontius, chamber music and songs. He was appointed Master of the King's Musick in 1924.


Ikeda Masuo est un peintre, illustrateur, sculpteur, céramiste, imprimeur d'estampes, romancier et réalisateur japonais

End of the congress of Kuo-mintang, which refuses the possibility of joint action with Mao Zedong against the Japanese.


In einem Gespräch mit dem Schweizer Alt-Bundesrat Edmund Schulthess verspricht Adolf Hitler, die schweizerische Neutralität zu respektieren.

In a conversation with the Swiss former Federal Councilor Edmund Schulthess, Adolf Hitler promises to respect Swiss neutrality.


RIKEN established atomic laboratory.


Ichikawa Sadanji、Kabuki actor who tried to modernize Kabuki.

その際、左團次は映画監督の Sergueï Eisenstein 189848 と出會ひ、歌舞伎役者が見得を切るのを初めて見たエイゼンシュテインは「あのようにして観客の注目を一身に集める見得は、映画の技法におけるクロースアップと同じ」という有名な感想を残した。

Plutonium is first produced and isolated by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg.

The radioactive element plutonium is first produced by the physicist Glenn T. Seaborg by bombarding uranium 238U with deuterium in a cyclotron.

 Japanese submarines fire artillery shells at the coastline near Santa Barbara, California.


1943/0223:A fire breaks out
 at Saint Joseph's Orphanage, County Cavan, Ireland, killing 35 children and one adult.

Erupción-nacimiento del volcán Paricutín en México.

1943/0223:Greek Resistance:
 The United Panhellenic Organization of Youth is founded in Greece.

1944/0223:プラスチックの父 Leo Hendrik Baekeland 186344、死去

Leo Henricus Arthur Baekeland was a Belgian-American chemist.
He is best known for the inventions of Velox photographic paper in 1893 and Bakelite in 1907.
He has been called "The Father of the Plastics Industry" for his invention of Bakelite, an inexpensive, nonflammable and versatile plastic, which marked the beginning of the modern plastics industry.

次に彼が目標としたのは、ペンキの原料「セラック」の代用品を見つけることだった。セラックはラックカイガラムシの樹脂様の被覆物質を抽出したもので、有機溶媒に溶かして塗料の原料とされる。それら天然樹脂と繊維の多くが、ポリマーだと認識され始めた頃だった。ベークランドは、フェノールとホルムアルデヒドの反応を研究し、可溶性フェノール・ホルムアルデヒド・セラックを開発し、「ノボラック (Novolak)」として売りに出した


The Soviet Union begins the forced deportation of the Chechen and Ingush people from the North Caucasus to Central Asia.
Joseph Staline abolit la République autonome de Tchétchénie ; un million d'habitants sont exilés.



:問題とされた記事の大見出しは『勝利か滅亡か 戰局は茲まで來た』で、「眦(マナヂリと讀みます)決して見よ 敵の鋏狀進冦」と中見出しを置いて、南方における防衛線の狀況を解説、續けて「竹槍では間に合はぬ。飛行機だ、海洋航空機だ」と書きつけた。この記事は海軍を喜ばせたが、時の首相の東條英機188448は陸相も兼ねてゐて、怒り心頭に發し、ヤカン頭はカンカン沸騰し、大本營報道部長に命じ、即時に毎日新聞の掲載紙を發禁および編集責任者と執筆記者の處分を求めた。毎日新聞社は編集責任者は處分したが、執筆記者の處分はおこなはなかった。すると、その後、その三十七歳の執筆記者のもとに赤紙が舞ひこんだ。



1945/0223:Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy 188345、死去

un écrivain russe puis soviétique, auteur de romans historiques, dont Pierre Le Grand.
Il est notamment connu pour avoir publié en 1936 une adaptation de Pinocchio en russe très célèbre : La Petite Clé d'or ou Les Aventures de Bouratino qui a donné lieu à des adaptations cinématographiques bien connues en Russie et en Europe de l'Est. Il est également l'auteur du roman de science-fiction, Aelita, adapté au cinéma en 1924.


In the battle for the volcanic island of Iwo Jima in the Pacific War, Marines hoisted the US flag - the photo collapsed hours later, Joe Rosenthal's photo Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima becomes an award-winning icon image.


Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, by Joe Rosenthal / the Associated Press

この報道寫眞中でもっとも有名な寫眞をめぐる「眞相」は、Clint Eastwood が 2006に制作した『Flags of Our Fathers:父親たちの星条旗』(日本では大評判になった『Letters from Iwo Jima:硫黄島からの手紙』と對にして作られた)で映画の主題として取り上げれて、みごとに歴史物語化して描いてみせた。私はアメリカ側の戰爭體驗をその内部から見た思ひになった。また、この、太平洋戰爭をアメリカ側からと日本側からと視点を分けて、兩部仕立ての對にして作ったところにも私は感心した。
偶然、激戰終結した硫黄島に、アメリカ國旗を山上に立てることになった兵士たち、その姿を撮した寫眞が全米を狂喜させ、彼等はアメリカの英雄となり、そのために戦争遂行のための軍の催事に利用されることなる。そして、それが彼等を悲劇へと導いていく ……

 The 11th Airborne Division, with Filipino guerrillas, free the captives of the Los Baños internment camp.

 The capital of the Philippines, Manila, is liberated by combined Filipino and American forces.

libération de Manille par les troupes américaines.

 Capitulation of German garrison in Poznań. The city is liberated by Soviet and Polish forces.

Capitulation des forces allemandes à Poznań (Pologne) face aux troupes soviéto-polonaises.

 The German town of Pforzheim is annihilated in a raid by 379 British bombers.



Yamashita Tomoyuki was an Imperial Japanese Army general during World War II. 
At the forefront of the invasion of Malaya and Singapore, his accomplishment of conquering Malaya and Singapore in 70 days led to the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, calling the ignominious fall of Singapore to Japan the "worst disaster" and "largest capitulation" in British military history.
The accomplishment earned Yamashita the sobriquet the Tiger of Malaya. Later in the war, he was assigned to defend the Philippines from the advancing US and Filipino forces. While he was unable to stop the US advance, he was able to hold on to part of Luzon until after the formal Japanese surrender in August 1945.

ISO, the International Organization for Standardization based in Geneva, is starting its operations.

The prototype of the Dassault Mystère, the French aircraft manufacturer Dassault Mystère, the company's first swept-wing aircraft, has its maiden flight.

1951/0223:USA、The film Quo Vadis
 based on the eponymous novel by Henryk Sienkiewicz is premiered in the USA.

The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine begins in Pittsburgh.

1955/0223:フランス文藝家 Paul Claudel 196855、死去

Paul Louis Charles Claudel est un dramaturge, poète, essayiste et diplomate français,
Membre de l'Académie française, il est le frère de la sculptrice Camille Claudel.

姉の Camille Claudel 186443 が作った弟の肖像

『朝日の中の黒い鳥(L'Oiseau noir dans le soleil levant)』(日本印象記)1927
私はこの本の内容を想起しつゝ、フランスに戻った彼が敗戰の日本について云った 「日本人は貧しい、だが高貴だ」を中心に『日本人への遺言』と題してこのブログでも取りあげた。


Southeast Asia Treaty Organization = SEATO, the first meeting, holding.

Nikita Khrouchtchev dénonce le culte de la personnalité de Joseph Staline.

Никита Хрущев осуждает культ личности Иосифа Сталина.

Das Volkstheater in Wien unter Leon Epp ist nach der Schließung der Scala Wien 1956 das erste Wiener Theater, das es wagt, den von Friedrich Torberg und Hans Weigel ausgerufenen Brecht-Boykott zu brechen, indem es Bertolt Brechts Stück Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder aufführt. Regie führt Gustav Manker, die Titelrolle spielt Dorothea Neff.

Coup d'État militaire du parti Baas en Syrie.

In Syria, Ba'ath Party member Salah Jadid leads an intra-party military coup that replaces the previous government of General Amin al-Hafiz, also a Baathist.

1975/0223:ドイツ造形家 Hans Bellmer 190275、死去

ein deutscher Fotograf, Bildhauer, Maler und Autor.
best known for the life-sized pubescent female dolls he produced in the mid-1930s. Historians of art and photography also consider him a Surrealist photographer.

Sketch for the Die Puppe series, 1932

The Symbionese Liberation Army demands $4 million more to release kidnap victim Patty Hearst.

1980/0223:Iran hostage crisis:
 Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini states that Iran's parliament will decide the fate of the American embassy hostages.

1981/0223:In Spain,
 Antonio Tejero attempts a coup d'état by capturing the Spanish Congress of Deputies.

Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero takes as a hostage the deputies of the Spanish Parliament and the government on day 23-F to prevent the election of Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo as prime minister and to end the democratization process in Spain (Transición). At the same time General Milans del Bosch declares state of emergency in Valencia. A televised speech by King Juan Carlos I thwarted the coup attempt.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency announces its intent to buy out and evacuate the dioxin-contaminated community of Times Beach, Missouri.

1984/0223:ドイツ小説家 Uwe Johnson 193484、死去

「ウヴェ ヨンソン」ein deutscher Schriftsteller. Er gehörte der Gruppe 47 an.
In seinem Hauptwerk, dem vierbändigen Roman Jahrestage, formulierte er dem Kritiker Joachim Kaiser zufolge die „tröstliche Utopie“, dass „auch die rücksichtsloseste Diktatur nicht die Seelen ihrer Opfer zu beherrschen“ vermöge.

Addis Ababa accuses Israel of kidnapping thousands of Ethiopian Jews who were flown out of their famine-stricken country.

Supernova 1987a is seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

大マゼラン雲内に超新星SN 1987Aを初観測。カミオカンデでニュトリノを検出。

1991/0223:In Thailand, クウデタ
 General Sunthorn Kongsompong leads a bloodless coup d'état, deposing Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan.



藤田小女姫(小乙姫)kototome193894、九歳の時に「ハワイの狐が憑いて」以來、靈感少女として新聞にも大々的に取りあげられ、サンケイ新聞はそのビルのなかに彼女に一室をあたへて可愛がった。その評判は高く、雜誌やテレビが取りあげ、岸信介189687に福田赳夫190595らの総理經驗者から經營の神樣と呼ばれた松下幸之助189489、黒幕政商小佐野賢治191786 なども彼女の靈感を信じた。


1998/0223:In the United States, 龍卷
tornadoes in central Florida destroy or damage 2,600 structures and kill 42 people.

1997/0223:Jazzドラマ Tony Williams 194597、死去

Anthony Tillmon Williams、an American jazz drummer.
Williams first gained fame in the band of trumpeter Miles Davis and was a pioneer of jazz fusion.

At 17 Williams found considerable fame with Miles Davis, joining a group that was later dubbed Davis's Second Great Quintet. Williams was a vital element of the group, called by Davis in his autobiography "the center that the group's sound revolved around." His inventive playing helped redefine the role of the jazz rhythm section through the use of polyrhythms and metric modulation, moving between mathematically related tempos and/or time signatures.

Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Öcalan is charged with treason in Ankara, Turkey.

2002/0223:Disc of Nebra 盗難事件、解決
In a police action succeeds in Basel, the securing of the originating from the Bronze Age Sky Disc of Nebra, which had been found in the summer of 1999 by robberies.

A train derails on an evening express service near Grayrigg, Cumbria, England, killing one person and injuring 88.
 This results in hundreds of points being checked over the UK after a few similar accidents.

2003/0223:社会學者 Robert King Merton 191003、死去

an American sociologist.

Merton's work on the "role model" first appeared in a study on the socialization of medical students at Columbia University.
The term grew from his theory of the reference group, the group to which individuals compare themselves but to which they do not necessarily belong. Social roles were central to Merton's theory of social groups. Merton emphasized that, rather than a person assuming one role and one status, they have a status set in the social structure that has, attached to it, a whole set of expected behaviors

A United States Air Force B-2 Spirit bomber crashes on Guam, marking the first operational loss of a B-2.

Unknown criminals pour more than 2.5 million liters of diesel oil and other hydrocarbons into the river Lambro, in northern Italy, sparking an environmental disaster.

A series of attacks across Iraq leave at least 83 killed and more than 250 injured.

The Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army captures Al-Bab from ISIL.


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