Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

1600年の今日、異端裁判で火刑に處せられた Giordano Bruno 154800

歴史暦:古今東西 02/17 今日の出來事

檸檬」は「レモン lemon」と読みます。今日が誕生日の日本の作家、梶井基次郎190132 の有名な小説の題名として私は識りました。

Roman Emperor Jovian dies after a reign of eight months.
 He is found dead in his tent at Tyana (Asia Minor) en route back to Constantinople in suspicious circumstances.

Jovian=Flavius Iovianus Augustus 033164 : Roman Emperor from 363 to 364. Upon the death of emperor Julian the Apostate during his campaign against the Sassanid Empire, Jovian was hastily declared emperor by his soldiers. He sought peace with the Persians on humiliating terms and reestablished Christianity as the state church. His reign lasted only eight months.

0440/0217:アルメニア語のために Mesrop Mashtots 036040、死去

Mesrop Mashtots was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian, statesman and hymnologist.
He is best known for inventing the Armenian alphabet c. 405 AD, which was a fundamental step in strengthening Armenian national identity.
He was also the creator of the Caucasian Albanian and Georgian alphabets, according to a number of scholars and contemporaneous Armenian sources.

by the Venetian painter Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770).

0624/0217:中國史上唯一の女帝 武則天062405、誕生


Wu Zetian (武則天) fut la seule impératrice régnante de toute l'histoire de Chine : le titre et la fonction d'empereur de Chine étaient exclusivement réservés, dans le système impérial, aux hommes, les femmes ne pouvant exercer provisoirement le pouvoir que dans le cadre d'une régence, d'un inter-règne, et assistées le plus souvent d'un conseil de régence, sans avoir le titre d'empereur. Seule, Wu Zetian fonda sa propre dynastie, la dynastie Zhou (周), deuxième de ce nom, dont elle fut, sous le nom d' « empereur Shengshen » (聖神皇帝, Shèngshén huángdì) de 690 à 705, la seule monarque.

The Julian flood, the first recorded storm surge on the German North Sea coast, forms a precursor to the Jade bust, there are 20,000 dead.

Philippe VI émancipe son fils, Jean, héritier du trône, et le fait duc de Normandie.

1370/0217:Northern Crusades:
 Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights meet in the Battle of Rudau.

The Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Winrich von Kniprode, defeats the Lithuanians in the battle of Rudau together with Western European knights on Prussia.

Following the successful campaigns during the Ottoman Interregnum, Musa Çelebi, one of the sons of Bayezid I, becomes Sultan with the support of Mircea I of Wallachia.

Der römisch-deutsche König Friedrich III und der päpstliche Gesandte Carvajal einigen sich auf das Wiener Konkordat.

The Roman-German King Friedrich III and the papal envoy Carvajal agree on the Vienna Concordat.

Duke Friedrich and Duke Johann attempt to subdue the peasantry of Dithmarschen, Denmark, in the Battle of Hemmingstedt.

The devastating defeat of the army of attack in the battle of Hemmingstedt against a far inferior farmer's army under Wulf Isebrand ends the Danish conquest of the Peasant Republic of Dithmarschen.

Turkish Sultan Soliman II makes peace with the Germanic Emperor Maximilian II.

In Adrianople it comes to the peace agreement between Emperor Maximilian II and the Ottoman Sultan Selim II in the Turkish war since the summer of 1566.

le Duc de Guise empêche la prise de Marseille par les Espagnols.

1600/0217:Giordano Bruno 154800、公開處刑(火刑)
Spinto dalla Chiesa come un "eretico impenitente" e consegnato a una corte secolare, Giordano Bruno viene bruciato vivo.

After eight years of imprisonment, the 52-year-old philosopher and former Dominican Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake as a heretic at the Campo de 'Fiori in Rome.


Giordano Bruno 154800:ドミニコ會修道士。宇宙が無限であることを確信し、Nicolaus Copernicus 147343の地動説を支持、宗教裁判で異端の判決を受けるが、自説を撤回せず、火刑に處せられる。このブルノの火刑を識った Galileo Galilei 156242 は自分の宗教裁判で自説を撤回した。そして、「それでも地球は囘ってゐる」と呟くのはほんたうだったのか、作られた物語だったのか。
un filosofo, scrittore e monaco cristiano italiano appartenente all'ordine domenicano vissuto nel XVI secolo.
Il suo pensiero, inquadrabile nel naturalismo rinascimentale, fondeva le più diverse tradizioni filosofiche — materialismo antico, averroismo, copernicanesimo, lullismo, scotismo, neoplatonismo, ermetismo, mnemotecnica, influssi ebraici e cabalistici — ma ruotava intorno a un'unica idea: l'infinito, inteso come l'universo infinito, effetto di un Dio infinito, fatto di infiniti mondi, da amare infinitamente.

{異端裁判により火刑となることで、Giordano Bruno 154800 の生涯は死後、聖別されることになった。異端とされ禁書と烙印されたことで、彼の生涯と業績は或者たちにとっては限りない魅惑を持った物語、傳説となる。
その最後が宗教裁判による火刑だった事が、このイタリアルネサンスの最後の男の行動、生涯かけてヨウロパの各地を歩き囘り、自由思想を撒き散らした行動の事實が、禁忌とされたことで、かへって聖別された輝きを帶びて後世に受け取られることになった。歴史によく見られるパラドクスといふか …… イエスキリスト自身がさうであった。彼の教説よりもその行動が十字架上で終ったといふ事實が彼を聖別した、といふ歴史的事實を當のキリスト教教會は認識できず、その手で數多くの異端者を作りだしていったのだ。思へばなんと多種多樣のイエスキリストをキリスト教會は作りだしたことであらうか。イエスキリストの死後、使徒たちの傳播のうち、ロウマに巻かれた種が根付いて、やがて大きな教會となってヨウロパを支配した後、それを運營する僧職たちは、Hannah Arendt 190675の云ふ「凡庸な惡人」を演じてきたのであった。たゞ教會の定めた規則に遵ひ、與へられた仕事を忠實に、嚴正に實行する。さうした凡庸なる職業人が目の敵にするのは凡庸ならざる奇人變人、の思考空想者であった。さうした歴史を一千數百年も續けて、やうやくヨウロパは enlightenment 光明の時代を切り開いて、科學と技術によるこのモダニズムの時代を獲得していったのだ。なんといふ囘り道であったことか。だが、東洋は東洋で、西洋以上に眠りこけて、科學技術に先鋭化した西洋の齒牙の犠牲となっていく。歴史は、見詰めれば見詰めるほど私を悲觀させ絶望させていく。


Myles Standish is appointed as first military commander of the English Plymouth Colony in North America.

1653/0217:イタリア作曲家 Arcangelo Corelli 165313、誕生

un compositore e violinista italiano del periodo barocco.
Considerato tra i più grandi compositori del periodo barocco, fondamentale fu il suo contributo allo sviluppo della forma della sonata strumentale e del concerto grosso, che portò ad un alto livello di equilibrio e perfezione formale.

Kangxi devient empereur de Chine.


la France signe une alliance défensive avec la Bavière pour une action concertée à la mort de l'un des monarques, Léopold Ier d'Allemagne ou Charles d'Espagne.

France signs a defensive alliance with Bavaria for a concerted action to the death of one of the monarchs, Leopold I of Germany or Charles of Spain.

1673/0217:フランス喜劇作者 Molière162273、死去
Pendant l'exécution de sa pièce Le Malade imaginaire, le dramaturge et acteur français Molière subit une légère attaque et meurt un peu plus tard.

Molière162273(Jean-Baptiste Poquelin)était un dramaturge et acteur français considéré comme l'un des plus grands maîtres de la comédie dans la littérature occidentale.
Molière dans le rôle de César dans La Mort de Pompée

Molière suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, possibly contracted when he was imprisoned for debt as a young man.
One of the most famous moments in Molière's life was his last, which became legend: he collapsed on stage in a fit of coughing and haemorrhaging while performing in the last play he'd written, which had lavish ballets performed to the music of Marc-Antoine Charpentier and which ironically was entitled Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid). Molière insisted on completing his performance. Afterwards he collapsed again with another, larger haemorrhage before being taken home, where he died a few hours later, without receiving the last rites because two priests refused to visit him while a third arrived too late. The superstition that green brings bad luck to actors is said to originate from the colour of the clothing he was wearing at the time of his death.

1740/0217:スヰス自然學者 Horace-Bénédict de Saussure 174099、誕生

un physicien, géologue et naturaliste genevois considéré comme l'un des fondateurs de l’alpinisme. Ses recherches eurent notamment pour cadre les Alpes, et plus particulièrement le massif du Mont-Blanc.

Saussurea pygmaea, from the genus named after Saussure

{その名前から私は当然、Ferdinand de Saussure 185713 の先祖筋の人なんだらうな、と探したら、 His great-grandson Ferdinand de Saussure was an important linguist and semiotician.

In Sweden February 17 is followed by March 1 as the country moves from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar.

1754/0217:フランス探檢家 Nicolas Baudin 175403、誕生

Nicolas Thomas Baudin est un marin, capitaine, cartographe et explorateur français.


Navigator James Cook observes his first aurora borealis in the Indian Ocean.

First publication of historian Edward Gibbon's "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ".

In London, Volume 1 of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by the historian Edward Gibbon appears. His work on the decline and decline of the Roman Empire, conceived in six volumes, has shaped ideas about life in Roman times for many years.

Kaiser Joseph II. erklärt das Wiener Theater nächst der Burg zum Teutschen Nationaltheater.


Symphony No. 93 in D major by Joseph Haydn premieres in London with great success.

1796/0217:Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold 179666、誕生

ein bayerischer Arzt, Japan und Naturforscher, Ethnologe, Botaniker und Sammler. Er lebte von 1823 bis 1829 sowie von 1859 bis 1862 in Japan.
Siebold ist einer der wichtigsten Zeugen des isolierten Japans der späten Edo-Zeit und wird auch im heutigen Japan hochverehrt.
Er gilt als Begründer der internationalen Japanforschung.



After centuries of Spanish rule, the Trinity falls into the hands of the English.

1788/0217:Quentin de La Tour 170488、死去

, pastelliste, portraitiste officiel de Louis XV de France

La marquise de Pompadour 1748-55)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (exposé au Salon de 1753) 

An electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr is resolved when Jefferson is elected President of the United States and Burr, Vice President by the United States House of Representatives.

Thomas Jefferson 174326:03USPresident(180109) 下院の臨時選擧で第三代目のアメリカ合衆國の大統領となることが確定。

la Prusse déclare la guerre à la France.

1814/0217:War of the Sixth Coalition「Battle of Mormant」
La bataille de Mormant se déroule le 17 février 1814 près de Mormant (Seine-et-Marne) et se solde par une victoire des troupes françaises du maréchal Victor et du général Gérard sur les troupes bavaroises et russes, commandées par le général Pahlen.

Karl Drais reçoit le brevet français pour la draisine.


1822/0217:en France,
 l'opposition républicaine et libérale s'organise clandestinement en s'affichant à la Charbonnerie. Le pouvoir découvre des conspirations en province. Ce jour, un complot dans un régiment transféré de Paris à La Rochelle est dévoilé. Ses protagonistes, les « quatre sergents », seront exécutés le 21 septembre.

the republican and liberal opposition organizes itself clandestinely while appearing in Charbonnerie. The power discovers conspiracies in the provinces. This day, a plot in a regiment transferred from Paris to La Rochelle is unveiled. Its protagonists, the "four sergeants", will be executed on September 21st.

1827/0217:スヰスの教育家 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 174627、死去

a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.

He founded several educational institutions both in German- and French-speaking regions of Switzerland and wrote many works explaining his revolutionary modern principles of education. His motto was "Learning by head, hand and heart". Thanks to Pestalozzi, illiteracy in 18th-century Switzerland was overcome almost completely by 1830.

1836/0217:The Sloman shipping company
 opens with the Bark Franklin a scheduled service to New York and thus also the first regular transatlantic transport connection.

1838/0217:Weenen massacre:
 Hundreds of Voortrekkers along the Blaukraans River, Natal are killed by Zulus.

1847/0217:Paul Georg von Möllendorff 184701、誕生

ein deutscher Sprachwissenschaftler und zeitweiliger Diplomat.
Er war in Ostasien tätig als Dolmetscher an deutschen Konsulaten, als höherer Beamter der chinesischen Seezollbehörde und als einflussreicher Vizeminister des Königreichs Korea.

Er diente dem König von Korea, der in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts König von Korea war, als Berater und ist auch für seinen Beitrag zu chinesischen Studien bekannt. Er erdachte Romanisierung in Manchurian

A patent of the King of Sardinia-Piedmont, Karl Albert I grants the Waldensians religious and ecclesiastical freedom and civil equality with the Catholic population.


1850/0217(嘉永03/0106):日本の經世家 佐藤信淵176950、死去

Satō Nobuhiro est un scientifique japonais et partisan précoce de l'occidentalisation du Japon.
Il est considéré comme le créateur du concept de Grande Asie de l'est.

彼は絶対主義的思想家であり、經世家・農學者・農政家、兵學者でもある。 幼少から父の佐藤信季と各地を旅行して見聞を広め、江戸に出て儒学井上仲竜国学平田篤胤神道を吉川原十郎に学び、さらに本草学・蘭学宇田川玄随大槻玄沢に、天文暦数を木村泰蔵に学んだ。

1852/0217:In St. Petersburg,
 the collection of paintings in the Hermitage is opened to the public as a museum.

В Санкт-Петербурге коллекция картин в Эрмитаже открыта для публики как музей.

 suspendue au lendemain du coup d'État, la presse est surveillée et contrôlée plus étroitement que jamais par un ensemble de mesures préventives, d'obligations et de sanctions prévues par le décret de ce jour.

Suspended in the aftermath of the coup d'etat, the press is monitored and controlled more closely than ever by a series of preventive measures, obligations and sanctions provided for by the decree of today.

Das Klavierkonzert Nr. 1 Es-Dur von Franz Liszt wird mit Hector Berlioz als Dirigent und Liszt als Solist uraufgeführt.

1859/0217:Viêt Nam
 une flotte française remonte la rivière de Saigon, détruisant les forts qui la bordent, et pénètre dans Gia Dinh.

Vietnam: A French fleet goes up the Saigon river, destroying the forts that border it, and enters Gia Dinh.

1854/0217:The United Kingdom recognizes
 the independence of the Orange Free State.

1856/0217:ドイツの詩人 Heinrich Heine 179756、死去

Christian Johann Heinrich Heine war einer der bedeutendsten deutschen Dichter, Schriftsteller und Journalisten des 19. Jahrhunderts.

1859/0217:Cochinchina Campaign:
 The French Navy captured the Citadel of Saigon, a fortress that was manned by 1,000 Nguyễn dynasty soldiers, en route to conquering Saigon and other regions of southern Viet Nam.

1862/0217(文久02/0119):日本の文人 森鴎外186222、誕生

Mori Ōgai war ein japanischer Militärarzt, Dichter und Übersetzer.
Ōgai („Möwenfern“) ist sein Schriftstellername, den er mit Unterbrechungen in den Jahren 1885 bis 1913 gebrauchte. Sein Familienname ist Mori, sein persönlicher Name Rintarō (林太郎).


1859/0217:L'opera Un ballo
 in maschera di Giuseppe Verdi viene rappresentata per la prima volta con successo trionfale nel Teatro Apollo di Roma. V.E.R.D.I. diventa successivamente l'abbreviazione per la lotta per la libertà degli italiani.

The opera Un ballo in maschera (A Masked Ball) by Giuseppe Verdi is premiered with triumphant success in the Apollo Theater in Rome. V.E.R.D.I. becomes subsequently the abbreviation for the freedom fight of the Italians.

1863/0217:A group of citizens of Geneva
 founded an International Committee for Relief to the Wounded, which later became known as the International Committee of the Red Cross.

Profondément indigné par le spectacle des trente-six mille blessés de la bataille de Solférino (24 juin 1859), le Suisse Henri Dunant réunit à Genève une conférence afin de fonder un comité international destiné à secourir impartialement les blessés de guerre.

1864/0217:American Civil War:
 The H. L. Hunley becomes the first submarine to engage and sink a warship, the USS Housatonic.

the Unionist battleship USS Housatonic is sunk outside the port of Charleston, South Carolina by the Confederate submarine CSS H.L. Hunley, which is sunk itself.
The Confederate submarine Hunley is the first submarine in the American Civil War to sink an enemy ship, Housatonic, with a spear torpedo. In the action, however, the Hunley lost himself.

1865/0217:ドイツの宗教学者 Ernst Troeltsch 186523、誕生

ein deutscher protestantischer Theologe, Kulturphilosoph und liberaler Politiker.
Sein Denken umfasste die Bereiche Theologie, Philosophie und Geschichte.

Theologie wurde von Albrecht Benjamin Ritschl 182289 beeinflusst, Philosophie von Wilhelm Windelband 184815 und Heinrich Rickert 186336 und in der Geschichtskultur wurde von Wilhelm Diltheyi183311 beeinflusst

Er verfolgte das Wesen der westlichen Moderne, das durch die Renaissance und die religiöse Reform von einem theologischen und historischen Standpunkt her entstanden ist. Außerdem bestritt er die absolute Natur des Christentums und verursachte viele Argumente.

1865/0217:American Civil War:
 Columbia, South Carolina, is burned as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces.

Union troops under General William T. Sherman conquer Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. Since this state is mainly blamed for the Civil War, the soldiers are razing the city to the ground.

The first ship passes through the Suez Canal.

ロシアの化學者、メンデレエフ=Дмитрий Иванович Менделеев 183407、元素の周期律表を作る。その周期表によって、未發見の元素の存在を豫言。

この日、元素の原史料とその化學的特性との關係を思ひ考へてゐるうちに彼はいつしか睡ってゐた。その居睡りのなかで彼は ―― すべての元素が原子量の順番に列んでゐる表を ―― を見た。ハッとして目覺めた彼は、その夢に見た表を書きとめた。そして、その表から元素の周期律表を作りだした。

The victorious Prussian Army parades through Paris, France, after the end of the Siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War.

1872/0217:Gombras incident
 In the Philippines, three Filipino Fathers were executed as incentives of labor riots.

1874/0217:フランスの統計學者 Adolphe Quetelet 179674、死去

Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet est un mathématicien, astronome, naturaliste et statisticien belge, précurseur de l'étude démographique et fondateur de l'observatoire royal de Belgique.



le même groupe révolutionnaire place une charge d'explosif dans les sous-sols du palais, au-dessous de la salle à manger. Alexandre II étant en retard par rapport au service échappa à l'attentat qui fit de nombreuses victimes (morts et blessés) parmi les soldats de la garde impériale ;


La Symphonie en ré mineur, la seule symphonie du compositeur belge César Franck, est présentée en première mondiale au Conservatoire de Paris avec Jules Garcin au podium du chef d'orchestre.

The Symphony in D minor, the only symphony by the Belgian composer César Franck, has its world premiere at the Conservatoire de Paris with Jules Garcin at the conductor's podium.

1890/0217:イギリスの優生學者 Ronald Fisher 189062、誕生

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher was a British statistician and geneticist.
For his work in statistics, he has been described as "a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science" and "the single most important figure in 20th century statistics".
In genetics, his work used mathematics to combine Mendelian genetics and natural selection; this contributed to the revival of Darwinism in the early 20th century revision of the theory of evolution known as the modern synthesis. Fisher also did experimental agricultural research, which has saved millions from starvation.


The Navy Navy NUCN was annihilated. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894 ended in a complete failure of the Qing Dynasty.

Rudolf Diesel testet seinen Motor in Augsburg: schlüssiger Test.

After a thorough examination, the Technical University of Munich takes the 10 hp engine developed by Rudolf Diesel at the Augsburg machine factory, the first experimental diesel engine.

1901/0217:日本の短編作家 梶井基次郎190132、誕生

Kajii Motojirō est un écrivain japonais de l'Ère Shōwa.
 Kajii fut peu connu pendant sa courte vie, mais ses œuvres furent louées par Kawabata 川端康成189972 et sont aujourd'hui très connues et appréciées des Japonais, particulièrement les nouvelles Le Citron 檸檬, Sous les cerisiers 櫻の木の下には, et Jours d'hiver 冬の日.


1902/0217:日本の歌舞伎&映画俳優 二代目中村鴈治郎190283、誕生

Acteur Kabuki japonais. Un important détenteur de biens culturels immatériels (trésor national humain).
Il a hérité de la tradition du haut Kabuki, revendiqué un large éventail de divertissement allant du chessman à la femelle, mais en particulier il a démontré son principe dans le deuxième rôle de la première génération de Kajiro du père.
Il est également apparu dans de nombreux films.


1902/0217:日本の 白洲次郎190285、誕生

Shirasu Jirō was a Japanese bureaucrat and businessman.
During the Occupation he was a member of Shigeru Yoshida's government. He is particularly remembered in Japan for an incident in Christmas 1945 where he delivered a present from Hirohito, Emperor of Japan to General Douglas MacArthur. When MacArthur told him to place it on the floor, he demanded a table to show respect.


1904/0217:ドイツの政事理論家 Hans Morgenthau 190480、誕生

Hans Joachim Morgenthau war ein US-amerikanischer Politikwissenschaftler und Jurist deutsch-jüdischer Abstammung.
Er gilt als Begründer eines systematischen realistischen Erklärungsansatzes in den Internationalen Beziehungen.

He is a representative of the realist school who regard international politics as a power struggle. He raised a national interest as "a profit defined by (power)" as a behavior rule of diplomacy and criticized the Vietnam War by the United States in relation to this "national interest".

Prima di Madame Butterfly, opera in tre atti, di Giacomo Puccini che è un fiasco e viene immediatamente arrestato.

La versione originale in due atti dell'opera Madama Butterfly di Giacomo Puccini basata sulla storia di Madame Chrysanthème di Pierre Loti sarà presentata in anteprima al Teatro alla Scala di Milano. Il libretto è di Giuseppe Giacosa e Luigi Illica.


長崎を舞台に、没落藩士令嬢の蝶々さんとアメリカ海軍士官ピンカートンとの恋愛の悲劇を描く。物語は、アメリカ合衆国ペンシルベニア州フィラデルフィアの弁護士ジョンLロングが1898年にアメリカの雜誌に発表した短編小説(Madame Butterfly)」を原作にアメリカの劇作家Dベラスコが制作した戯曲を歌劇台本化したもの。1904年2月17日、ミラノスカラ座で初演されたそれは大失敗だったが、同年5月28日ブレシアで上演された改訂版の成功以来、代表的なオペラ作品となっている。

1905/0217:Serge Alexandrovitch de Russie 185705、暗殺

Assassination of Grand Duke Serge, Tsar's uncle and governor of Moscow.
Убийство великого князя Сержа, царя-дяди и губернатора Москвы.
The Social Revolutionary Ivan Platonovich Kalyayev attacks the Governor of Moscow, Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov, as the nobleman approaches the Kremlin in his carriage. The Grand Duke dies immediately in the bomb blast.
, membre de la famille impériale de Russie, grand-duc de Russie


1909/0217:アメリカの先住民族 Geronimo 182909、死去

a prominent leader and medicine man from the Bedonkohe band of the Chiricahua Apache tribe.
From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo joined with members of three other Chiricahua Apache bands—the Tchihende, the Tsokanende and the Nednhi—to carry out numerous raids as well as resistance to US and Mexican military campaigns in the northern Mexico states of Chihuahua and Sonora, and in the southwestern American territories of New Mexico and Arizona.
Geronimo's raids and related combat actions were a part of the prolonged period of the Apache–United States conflict, which started with American settlement in Apache lands following the end of the war with Mexico in 1848.

1913/0217:Premiere exposition d'art moderne à New York :
The Armory Show opens in New York City, displaying works of artists who are to become some of the most influential painters of the early 20th century.

Organized by painter Robert Henri, the Armory Show opens in New York City. The exhibition of modern art can be seen until 15 March.

Das Schauspiel Der Bogen des Odysseus von Gerhart Hauptmann wird in Berlin uraufgeführt.

French and British troops occupy the German colony of Cameroon.

The Ukrainian People's Republic asks Entente and the US for help fighting the Bolsheviks.

Howard Carter discovered the royal tomb of King Tutankhamen in the Valley of the royal family in Egypt.

Haward Carter 187439、エジプトの『王家の谷』でツタンカアメン王の墓を發見。

イギリス貴族を中心にした遺跡發掘の資金援助を受け、1916から カアナヴォン伯爵= George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon 186623 の援助を受けた Carter は、エジプトの『王家の谷』の發掘調査に着手、その援助契約が切れる1922、つひに Tutankhamun https://is.gd/54JatPの墓を發見した。

1928/0217:日本の言語學者 大槻文彦184728、死去

Ōtsuki Fumihiko est un lexicographe, linguiste et historien japonais.
Il est surtout connu pour deux dictionnaires en japonais qu'il a édités, Genkai (言海, littéralement « mer de mots, » 1891) et sa suite Daigenkai (大言海, littéralement « grande mer de mots, » 1932 - 1937), et pour ses études de la grammaire japonaise.

# 1891-0623 紅葉館で催された『言海』完成祝賀會には時の総理伊藤博文182109をはじめ、山田顯義184492大木喬任183299榎本武揚183608谷干城183711勝海舟182399土方久元183318加藤弘之183616津田眞道182903陸羯南185707矢野龍渓185131ら當時の錚々たる面々が出席した。が、福澤諭吉183501は「次第書」で自分の名が伊藤の下にあったのを見て「私は伊藤の尾につくのは嫌だ。學者の立場から政治家と伍をなすのを好まぬ」と欠席した。

Veröffentlichung des Films M. Der Fluch von Fritz Lang im Ursulinenstudio in Paris.

Newsweek magazine is first published.

Einführung des 8-Stunden-Tages in Deutschland.

With the cartoon character Phantom a superhero appears for the first time as the main character of a Daily strips.


John Baird, already inventor of the mechanical television, organizes the first experimental demonstration of color television.

joué par lui-même est entendu à Paris Église de la Sainte-Trinité pour la première fois Jean Alains orgue d'œuvres Litanies.

Ferdinand Porsche präsentiert den Volkswagen .

 The Battle of Eniwetok begins: The battle ends in an American victory on February 22.

 Operation Hailstone begins: U.S. naval air, surface, and submarine attack against Truk Lagoon, Japan's main base in the central Pacific, in support of the Eniwetok invasion.

US forces attack the Japanese garrison at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.

 the Soviets hunt the Nazis from the Peenemünde site, on the Baltic shore, from where the V-2 missiles were launched; engineer Wernher von Braun will be recruited by the Americans.


1947/0217:Voice of America,
 the official US foreign broadcasting station subordinate to the International Broadcasting Bureau, begins broadcasting programs for the Soviet Union.


During uprisings in Yemen, the imam Sayia Abd Allah Al-Wazir, head of state, is assassinated.

1952/0217:à Paris,
 première au théâtre de l'Atelier, de La tête des autres de Marcel Aymé.

in Paris, first at the Theater of the Atelier, The head of others by Marcel Aymé.

1955/0217:日本の雑文家 坂口安吾190655、死去

Romancier japonais, critique, essayiste.
Un des auteurs représentant la littérature japonaise moderne qui était active dans la période Showa avant et après la guerre


1959/0217:Project Vanguard:
 Vanguard 2: The first weather satellite is launched to measure cloud-cover distribution.

Congolese Patrice Rumumba former prime minister is assassinated by opponents.


1962/0217:Bruno Walter 187662、死去

deutsch-österreichisch-amerikanischer Dirigent, Pianist und Komponist. Er zählt zu den bedeutendsten Dirigenten des 20. Jahrhunderts.

In der Folgezeit begann seine internationale Karriere, er hatte Gastdirigate in Prag, London und Rom. Nach Mahlers Tod dirigierte er die Uraufführungen zweier seiner bedeutenden Spätwerke: Das Lied von der Erde 1911 in München und die 9. Sinfonie 1912 in Wien.

Walter (links) 1931 mit Yehudi Menuhin

1963/0217:USAバスケ選手 Michael Jordan 1963--、誕生

Michael Jeffrey Jordan, also known by his initials, MJ, is an American retired professional basketball player, businessman, and principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Jordan played 15 seasons in the NBA for the Chicago Bulls and Washington Wizards.

In Wesberry Sanders the Supreme Court of the United States rules that congressional districts have to be approximately equal in population.

1964/0217:Gabonese president Léon M'ba
 is toppled by a coup and his rival, Jean-Hilaire Aubame, is installed in his place.

1965/0217:Project Ranger:
 The Ranger 8 probe launches on its mission to photograph the Mare Tranquillitatis region of the Moon in preparation for the manned Apollo missions. Mare Tranquillitatis or the "Sea of Tranquility" would become the site chosen for the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

1966/0217:GM社長 Alfred Pritchard Sloan 187566、死去

Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr. was an American business executive in the automotive industry.
He was a long-time president, chairman and CEO of General Motors Corporation.
Sloan, first as a senior executive and later as the head of the organization, helped GM grow from the 1920s through the 1950s, decades when concepts such as the annual model change, brand architecture, industrial engineer, automotive design (styling), and planned obsolescence transformed the industry, and when the industry changed lifestyles and the built environment in America and throughout the world.

He expanded GM by introducing marketing methods such as sophistication of mass production system, introduction of accounting method to raise profit margin, model change, etc., and had a big influence on the management of other companies.
He established a marketing method to remodel an existing model each year

1970/0217:映画音樂作曲者 Alfred Newman 9070、死去

an American composer, arranger, and conductor of film music.
From his start as a music prodigy, he came to be regarded as a respected figure in the history of film music. He won nine Academy Awards and was nominated forty-three times.

Meeting of Henry Kissinger and Mao Zedong for the normalization of relations between the United States and China.





Richard Nixon begins the first visit of an American president to communist China.


Cumulative sales of the Volkswagen Beetle exceed those of the Ford Model T.

1974/0217:In the United States,
 the authors of Patricia Hearst's abduction want ransom to be used to purchase food for the old and needy in California.

Robert Preston, a disgruntled U.S. Army private, buzzes the White House in a stolen helicopter.

Miloš Forman wins 5 Oscars with Flight over a cuckoo's nest.

1978/0217:The Troubles:
 The Provisional IRA detonates an incendiary bomb at the La Mon restaurant, near Belfast, killing 12 and seriously injuring 30 others, all Protestants.



Début du conflit armé sino-vietnamien : des troupes chinoises, soutenues par l'aviation et des blindés, pénètrent au Viêt Nam.


First winter ascent of Mount Everest by Krzysztof Wielicki and Leszek Cichy.

1982/0217:ジャズピアニスト Thelonious Monk 191782、死去

an American jazz pianist and composer. He had a unique improvisational style and made numerous contributions to the standard jazz repertoire, including "'Round Midnight," "Blue Monk," "Straight, No Chaser," "Ruby, My Dear," "In Walked Bud," and "Well, You Needn't."

Monk's compositions and improvisations feature dissonances and angular melodic twists and are consistent with his unorthodox approach to the piano, which combined a highly percussive attack with abrupt, dramatic use of switched key releases, silences, and hesitations. His style was not universally appreciated; the poet and jazz critic Philip Larkin dismissing him as 'the elephant on the keyboard'

1982/0217:Actor's Studio Lee Strasberg 190182、死去

a Polish-born American actor, director, and theatre practitioner.
n 1951, he became director of the nonprofit Actors Studio in New York City, considered "the nation's most prestigious acting school", and in 1966, was involved in the creation of Actors Studio West in Los Angeles.

From his base in New York, he trained several generations of theatre and film notables, including Anne Bancroft, Dustin Hoffman, Montgomery Clift, James Dean, Marilyn Monroe, Jane Fonda, Julie Harris, Paul Newman, Ellen Burstyn, Al Pacino, Geraldine Page, Eli Wallach, and directors Frank Perry and Elia Kazan.

1982/0217:in Syria,
 the Alouite power savagely represses the insurrection of Hama. The city is bombed and destroyed. There are 10,000 dead.

1982/0217:in Poland,
 3,500 people are arrested in 48 hours, for non-compliance with martial law.

Violent fighting continues between Iraqi and Iranian forces 160 km east of Baghdad, where the battle killed more than 4,000 people in two days.

1986/0217:インドの神祕思想家 Jiddu Krishnamurti 189586、死去

a philosopher, speaker and writer.
In his early life he was groomed to be the new World Teacher but later rejected this mantle and withdrew from the Theosophy organization behind it. His subject matter included psychological revolution, the nature of mind, meditation, inquiry, human relationships, and bringing about radical change in society. He constantly stressed the need for a revolution in the psyche of every human being and emphasised that such revolution cannot be brought about by any external entity, be it religious, political, or social.

1992/0217:Nagorno-Karabakh War:
 Armenian troops massacre more than 20 Azerbaijani civilians during the Capture of Garadaghly.

Started on October 30, 1992 from Honolulu, Kenichi Horie arrives in Noha, Japan, pedal boat: 7,500 km of walk.


1995/0217:The Cenepa War
 between Peru and Ecuador ends on a ceasefire brokered by the UN.

1996/0217:In Philadelphia,
 world champion Garry Kasparov beats the Deep Blue supercomputer in a chess match.

1996/0217:NASA's Discovery Program
 begins as the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft lifts off on the first mission ever to orbit and land on an asteroid, 433 Eros.

The 8.2 Mw Biak earthquake shakes the Papua province of eastern Indonesia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe).
A large tsunami followed, leaving one-hundred sixty-six people dead or missing and 423 injured.

1997/0217:日本の藝者 市丸190697、死去

Ichimaru est une geisha et chanteuse de musique populaire japonaise.
Sa rivalité avec une autre célèbre geisha chanteuse, Katsutarō Kouta, est à l'origine de ce qui est appelé l'« ère Katsu-Ichi » dans l'histoire de la musique populaire japonaise.


1998/0217:ドイツの思想家 Ernst Jünger 189598、死去

ein deutscher Schriftsteller, Offizier, Dandy und Insektenkundler.
Er ist vor allem durch seine Kriegserlebnisbücher wie In Stahlgewittern, phantastische Romane und Erzählungen und verschiedene Essays bekannt.
In seinem elitären, antibürgerlichen und nationalistischen Frühwerk, das der sogenannten Konservativen Revolution zugerechnet wird, bekämpfte Jünger die Weimarer Republik entschieden.
Obwohl er der NSDAP nicht beitrat und deren rassistische Ideologie ablehnte, galt er nach 1945 als intellektueller Wegbereiter des Nationalsozialismus und gehört zu den umstrittensten Autoren Deutschlands.

2000/0217:In Seattle, Microsoft
 launches its new Windows 2000 operating system.


A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126.

A landslide destroys parts of the Philippine community of Saint Bernard in Southern Leyte province, claiming 1,126 deaths.

Kosovo declares independence as the Republic of Kosovo.

Al Qaeda suicide bombing in Kandahar, Afghanistan: 80 dead.

2007/0217:フランスのナチ協力者 Maurice Papon 191007、死去

un haut fonctionnaire et un homme politique français.
Il est condamné en 1998 pour complicité de crimes contre l'humanité concernant des actes d'arrestation et de séquestration, lors de l'organisation de la déportation des Juifs de la région bordelaise vers le camp de Drancy, d'où ils sont ensuite acheminés vers le camp d'extermination d'Auschwitz, commis quand il était secrétaire général de la préfecture de Gironde, entre 1942 et 1944, sous l'occupation de la France par les forces armées du Troisième Reich.
Mais, le tribunal estimant qu'il n'existait pas de preuve que Papon avait connaissance de l'extermination des Juifs à l'époque des faits, il est acquitté pour toutes les charges de « complicité d'assassinat » et des « tentatives de complicité d'assassinat ».


2011/0217:Libyan protests begin.
 In Bahrain, security forces launched a deadly pre-dawn raid on protesters in Pearl Roundabout in Manama, the day is locally known as Bloody Thursday.

Eighteen people are killed and 78 injured in a stampede at a Mardi Gras parade in Haiti.

en Turquie un attentat fait 28 morts et 61 blessés

Military vehicles explode outside a Turkish Armed Forces barracks in Ankara, Turkey, killing at least 29 people and injuring 61 others.


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