Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 02/15 今日の出來事


Yuwen feel the establishment of the Northern Zhou Dynasty.

Khosrau II is crowned king of Persia.

Nine days after the fall of his father Hormizd IV., He is crowned king of the Sassanid kingdom. However, he has to flee soon after, because rebels are under army commander Bahram Chobin on the march to the capital Ctesiphon.

Byzantine emperor Justinian II has his predecessors Leontios and Tiberios III publicly executed in the Hippodrome of Constantinople.

Pope Paschal II issues a bill sanctioning the establishment of the Order of Hospitallers.

Pie Postulatio Voluntatis (The Most Pious Request) is a papal bull issued by Pope Paschal II, in which the Pope formally recognized the establishment of the Knights Hospitaller and confirmed its independence and sovereignty. Today, the document is preserved at the National Library of Malta in Valletta, Malta.

The Cistercian Bernardo Paganelli di Montemagno is elected Pope Eugene III. The pupil of Bernard Bernard Clairvaux but must flee a few days later from Rome, as the Senate is hostile to the papal rule.

the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Conrad III dies in Bamberg, without being able to be crowned in Italy, nor to leave the kingdom of Germany to his son.

During the Anglo-French War (1213~4), an English invasion force lands at La Rochelle in France.

1368/0215:神聖ロウマ皇帝 Sigismund (HRR) 136837、誕生

Sigismund of Luxembourg was
Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415,
King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387,
King of Germany from 1411,
King of Bohemia from 1419,
King of Italy from 1431, and
Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxemburg.

Drinking horn of Sigismund of Luxemburg, before 1408
Sigismund was the leader of the last West European Crusade ー the Crusade of Nicopolis of 1396 to liberate Bulgaria and save Constantinople from the Turks.
Afterwards he founded the Dragon Order to fight the Turks.
He was regarded as highly educated, spoke several languages (among them; French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin) and was an outgoing person who also took pleasure in the tournament. Sigismund was one of the driving forces behind the Council of Constance that ended the Papal Schism, but which in the end also led to the Hussite Wars that dominated the later period of Sigismund's life.

While on board the Niña, Christopher Columbus writes an open letter (widely distributed upon his return to Portugal) describing his discoveries and the unexpected items he came across in the New World.

1562/0215(永樂05/0112):日本の大名 前田利長156214、誕生

Maeda Toshinaga was a Japanese daimyō 大名 who was the second head of the Kaga 加賀 Domain.
He was the eldest son of Maeda Toshiie 前田利家153799 and married one of Oda Nobunaga's daughters, Ei-hime.
He supported Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康154316, and, after receiving his brother Toshimasa's lands (Noto, 215,000 koku), controlled a total of 1,250,000 koku, an amount exceeded only by the Shogunate.
Toshinaga built and resided in Kanazawa Castle 金澤城.

1564/0215:近代科學の父の一人 Galileo Galilei 156242、誕生

un fisico, astronomo, filosofo e matematico italiano, considerato il padre della scienza moderna.
Il suo nome è associato a importanti contributi in dinamica e in astronomia (legati al perfezionamento del telescopio, che gli permise importanti osservazioni astronomiche oltre all'introduzione del metodo scientifico (detto spesso metodo galileiano o metodo scientifico sperimentale).
Di primaria importanza fu anche il suo ruolo nella rivoluzione astronomica, con il sostegno al sistema eliocentrico e alla teoria copernicana. È un personaggio chiave della Rivoluzione scientifica.

 du roi de France Henri III avec Louise de Lorraine,  dans la cathédrale de Reims.

1591/0215(天正19/0122):黒田家家老 栗山大膳(利章)159152、誕生


1621/0215:作曲家 Michael Praetorius 157121、死去

deutscher Komponist, Organist, Hofkapellmeister und Gelehrter im Übergang von der Renaissance- zur Barockzeit.


Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

After the death of his father Ferdinand II Ferdinand III (in the middle of the Thirty Years War) becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

La première de la comédie Don Juan ou le Festin de Pierre de Molière se déroule au Théâtre du Palais Royal à Paris.

The King of England Charles II announces the conclusion of an alliance with the United Provinces against France.

Constantin Cantemir, Prince of Moldavia, and the Holy Roman Empire sign a secret treaty in Sibiu, stipulating that Moldavia would support the actions led by the House of Habsburg against the Ottoman Empire.

1710/0215:フランス王 Louis XV 171074、誕生

Louis XV dit le « Bien-Aimé », est un roi de France et de Navarre. Membre de la maison de Bourbon, il règne sur le royaume de France du 1er septembre 1715 au 10 mai 1774. Il fut le seul roi de France à naître et à mourir au château de Versailles.

1712/0215:ロシア、Tsar Peter the Great
 orders in a decree to build a factory in Tula, which as the Tulski Oruscheiny Sawod survives the times with the production of weapons.

Царь Петр Великий распоряжается указом о строительстве в Туле завода, который, как Тульская Орушная Сава, выживает во времена производства оружия.

 Louis XIV force le Parlement à enregistrer la bulle Unigenitus.

The bull Unigenitus or Unigenitus Dei Filius is the bull that Pope Clement XI rages in September 1713 to denounce Jansenism. It is more particularly aimed at the oratorian Pasquier Quesnel and condemns as false and heretical a hundred propositions extracted from Moral Reflections, his work published in 1692 and which continues to establish its success.

1748/0215:社界思想家 Jeremy Bentham 175832、誕生

an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Bentham defined as the "fundamental axiom" of his philosophy the principle that "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong".

He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He advocated for individual and economic freedoms, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts. He called for the abolition of slavery, of the death penalty, and of physical punishment, including that of children. He has also become known as an early advocate of animal rights.[8] Though strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights (both of which are considered "divine" or "God-given" in origin), calling them "nonsense upon stilts". Bentham was also a sharp critic of legal fictions.


Michel Foucault 192684 が『監獄の誕生 監視と処罰』で引用し、それを転用して現代社界の管理システムの象徴としてもゐゐたことでさらに有名になった。

The British liner HMS Ramillies gets stranded after a navigation error at Bolt Head near Plymouth, England.
About 700 crew members die, only 26 men can save themselves. It is one of the worst shipwrecks without war action in English waters.

1763/0215:「Peace of Hubertusburg」
Preußen, Österreich und Sachsen schließen im sächsischen Schloss Hubertusburg den Frieden von Hubertusburg zur Beendigung des Siebenjährigen Krieges in Europa.
Der Status quo vor dem Krieg wird wiederhergestellt und Preußen etabliert sich als europäische Großmacht.

Prussia, Austria and Saxony conclude the peace of Hubertusburg in the Saxon castle of Hubertusburg to end the Seven Years' War in Europe. The status quo before the war will be restored and Prussia will establish itself as a European superpower.

The city of St. Louis is established in Spanish Louisiana (now in Missouri, USA).

In the area of the colony of Louisiana, which at that time is under Spanish control, the city of St. Louis was founded by French fur traders from a former trading post at the confluence of the two Mississippi and Missouri rivers. This is developing into a center of the fur trade.

1781/0215:ドイツ詩人 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 172981、死去

ein bedeutender Dichter der deutschen Aufklärung.
Mit seinen Dramen und seinen theoretischen Schriften, die vor allem dem Toleranzgedanken verpflichtet sind, hat dieser Aufklärer der weiteren Entwicklung des Theaters einen wesentlichen Weg gewiesen und die öffentliche Wirkung von Literatur nachhaltig beeinflusst.
Lessing ist der erste deutsche Dramatiker, dessen Werk bis heute ununterbrochen in den Theatern aufgeführt wird.


晩年には図書館の司書となり、在任中、知人の牧師 Johann Melchior Goeze とドイツ文学史上屈指と云はれる激しい宗教論争をおこなひ、それが彼の劇作の代表作となる『賢者ナタン』を創作させる契機となった。また、

1786/0215:天文、ハアシェル「Cat's Eye Nebula」發見
The astronomer Wilhelm Herschel discovers the Cat's Eye Nebula, a planetary nebula in the constellation Dragon.

le drapeau tricolore devient le drapeau national de la France.

en France, la Convention nationale adopte un pavillon national dessiné par le peintre Louis David. C'est ce dessin qui, en 1812, sera adopté pour tous les drapeaux bleu blanc rouge.

1798/0215:In Rome,
the first Roman Republic is proclaimed, a French subsidiary republic on the territory of the Papal State.

la république est proclamée à Rome, après la prise de la ville par les Français ; le pape Pie VI, qui refuse de renoncer à son pouvoir temporel, est placé par les Français en résidence surveillée à Valence (Drôme).

1804/0215:フランス (革命暦 15 pluviôse)、モロ將軍の逮捕
 le général Moreau est arrêté à la suite de la découverte d'un complot royaliste organisé par Georges Cadoudal et destiné à abattre le Premier consul.
Le général Pichegru, autre comploteur, est arrêté le 28 février et Cadoudal le 9 mars. Moreau sera banni, Pichegru retrouvé étranglé dans sa cellule le 6 avril et Cadoudal exécuté le 28 juin.

1806/0215:L'armée française occupe Naples.
Dans le Traité de Paris négocié entre Napoléon Bonaparte et Christian von Haugwitz, la Prusse s'est engagée à bloquer tous ses ports pour les navires britanniques et à occuper Kurhannover. La Grande-Bretagne déclara alors la guerre à la Prusse.

 Signature du traité de Paris entre la France et la Prusse.
 Cette dernière est contrainte d'accepter la fermeture de ses ports aux marchandises anglaises. L'Angleterre déclare la guerre à la Prusse.

The Congress of Angostura begins, on which, on 17 December, the states of Venezuela and Colombia, which emerged from the former Spanish viceroyalty of New Granada, will unite to form Great Colombia.


1823/0215(道光03/0105):中國[清]忠臣 李鴻章182301、誕生

Li Hung-chang and Tseng Kuo-fan, Tso Tsung-tang and Chang Chih-tung also said they were "the four famous ministers in the late Qing Dynasty."
Because of its loyal auxiliary Qing, only well done. Guan Donggong three divisions, Wen Hua Dian College, Northern Business Secretary, Governor of Zhili, first-class title Su Yi Bo, chasing Taifu, chasing Jin Marquis. The founder and leader of the modern Chinese armed forces in the local armed forces. After the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Nian Army, Westernization Movement, Sino-French War, Sino-Japanese War, the Boxer movement.

With a lecture Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire begins the Paris academy dispute between him and Georges Cuvier, one of the most famous debates in the history of biology.

The first constitutional law in modern Serbia is adopted.

1836/0215(天保06/1229):幕末期の大名 松平容保183693、誕生

Matsudaira Katamori was a samurai who lived in the last days of the Edo period and the early to mid Meiji period. He was the 9th daimyō of the Aizu han and the Military Commissioner of Kyoto during the Bakumatsu period. During the Boshin War, Katamori and the Aizu han fought against the Meiji Government armies, but were severely defeated.

Publication de Jocelyn, poème d'Alphonse de Lamartine.

L'opera Giovanna d'Arco di Giuseppe Verdi presenta al Teatro alla Scala di Milano.
Il libretto di Temistocle Solera è basato sulla tragedia The Maid of Orleans di Friedrich Schiller. La reazione del pubblico è divisa.

The French frigate La Sémillante shatters during a hurricane in the Strait of Bonifacio between Corsica and Sardinia on the reefs of the Lavezzi Islands; No one survives on the 693 sailors and soldiers on board.

1856/0215:ドイツ心理學者 Emil Kraepelin 185626、誕生

ein deutscher Psychiater, auf den bedeutende Entwicklungen in der wissenschaftlichen Psychiatrie zurückgehen.

Kraepelin is specifically credited with the classification of what was previously considered to be a unitary concept of psychosis, into two distinct forms (known as the Kraepelinian dichotomy):
manic depression (now seen as comprising a range of mood disorders such as recurrent major depression and bipolar disorder), and
dementia praecox.

1857/0215:ロシア作曲家 Mikhail Glinka 180457、死去

(Михаил Иванович Глинка)
русский композитор. Сочинения Глинки оказали влияние на крупнейших русских композиторов — А. С. Даргомыжского, М. П. Мусоргского, Н. А. Римского-Корсакова, А. П. Бородина, П. И. Чайковского и других


1861/0215:世界有機論 Alfred North Whitehead 186147、誕生

an English mathematician and philosopher.
He is best known as the defining figure of the philosophical school known as process philosophy, which today has found application to a wide variety of disciplines, including ecology, theology, education, physics, biology, economics, and psychology, among other areas.

In his early career Whitehead wrote primarily on mathematics, logic, and physics. His most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica 1910~13, which he wrote with former student Bertrand Russell 187270. Principia Mathematica is considered one of the twentieth century's most important works in mathematical logic, and placed 23rd in a list of the top 100 English-language nonfiction books of the twentieth century by Modern Library.


 D'où venons-nous ? Que sommes-nous ? Où allons-nous ?

1861/0215:地政學を創始 Halford John Mackinder 186147、誕生

an English geographer, academic, politician, the first Principal of University Extension College, Reading (which became the University of Reading) and Director of the London School of Economics, who is regarded as one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.

A 1904 map from Mackinder's The Geographical Pivot of History.

彼は1900年代初頭の世界地図をユウラシア内陸部を中軸地帯 heartland、内側の三日月地帯、外側の三日月地帯とに分け、「東欧を支配するものがハアトランドを支配し、ハアトランドを支配するものが世界島を支配し、世界島を支配するものが世界を支配する」としたうへで、イギリスを中心とした海軍強国が陸軍強国による世界島支配を阻止すべきだと論じた。


1862/0215:American Civil War:
 General Ulysses Grant attacks Fort Donelson, Tennessee.

Ulysses S. Grant 182285、南北戰爭の北軍の將軍で、その知名度を生かして第十八代の大統領に當選した。が、將軍時代の名聲とは裏腹に、大統領となってからは多くの醜聞と汚職により、アメリカ史上最悪の大統領の一人(といふことは他にも最惡が何人かゐるといふことか、うん、頷ける)とされてゐる。
名前は俳優みたいカッコいいけどね。本名は、Hiram Ulysses Grant だが、彼が陸軍士官學校に入學する時の推薦をした下院議員某氏が誤って、Ulysses S.Grant と書いてしまった。そのまちがひが、本人は氣に入ったらしく、以後、さう署名するやうになった、とか。

Der 22-jährige Gerhard Adriaan Heineken kauft die in Amsterdam ansässige Brauerei De Hooiberg und gründet damit das Unternehmen Heineken, heute eine der größten Brauereien der Welt.

22-year-old Gerhard Adriaan Heineken buys the Amsterdam-based De Hooiberg brewery, founding the company Heineken, today one of the largest breweries in the world.

Der Walzer An der schönen blauen Donau von Johann Strauss (Sohn) wird als Chorwalzer vom Wiener Männergesang-Verein im Saal des Dianabades in Wien uraufgeführt.

『Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald ウインの森の物語』『Kaiser-Walzer 皇帝円舞曲』とともに彼の三大傑作ウインワルツとされる。私は『皇帝圓舞曲』が好きです。
ちなみに、シュトラウスⅡの親しい友人だった Johannes Brahms 183397 も『皇帝圓舞曲』が、簡單な曲ばかり書きやがるシュトラウスの作としては別格に好感を持ってゐたやうで「これは管絃樂法がすばらしいからみごとに鳴るんだ。だが、魅力の祕密なんか解いてみてもしやうがないが」とか云ったさうです。ちなみに(「ちなみにってこんなところでは使はないんじゃないでせうか」といふ枝雀の落語の聲が聞こえたけど)、私はブラウムスも好きです。全體的には Richard Wagner 181383 の音樂よりも。

1869/0215(明治02/0105):幕末の武士 横井小楠180969、暗殺

Yokoi Shōnan was a Bakumatsu and early Meiji period scholar and political reformer in Japan, influential around the fall of the Tokugawa bakufu. His real name was Yokoi Tokiari 時存.


1874/0215:イギリスの探檢家 Ernest Henry Shackleton 187422、誕生

a polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic, and one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration




その日のうちに西郷は辞表を提出、板垣後藤江藤副島は1024に辭表提出。1025 受理。下野した參議らは殉じた同志とともに地元へ歸って行く。不平憤懣の士族らを中心に、不穏な空氣が立ちこめてくる。

明治維新後の對朝鮮(李氏朝鮮)との關係は、1868明治01に李氏朝鮮が日本の維新政府の國書の受取を拒絶したことから問題なって横たはり、その後も関係修復は動きすらなかった。その原因を朝鮮に確認すべく、參議の西郷と板垣・副島らは調査のために1872明治05/0815に池上四郎・武市正幹・彭城中平を清國ロシア朝鮮の探偵として大陸に送りこんだ。また 0827には北村重頼・河野洋與・別府晋介184777を花房外務大丞の随員として、變裝させて釜山に送りこんだ。岩倉や大久保が海外視察に外遊中のことで、彼等との約束を破った西郷らの獨斷行動であった。そして、明治六年の明治政府分裂の騷動への火種となっていく。


1879/0215:USA、Women's rights:
 US President Rutherford Hayes signs a bill allowing female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court of the United States.


The opera Mazeppa by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky after the poem Poltava by Alexander Pushkin is premiered at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow.

Опера «Мазепа» Петра Ильича Чайковского после поэмы Полтавы Александра Пушкина премьера в Большом театре в Москве.

1888/0215:日本の美學者 九鬼周造188841、誕生

un philosophe japonais.
1930 The Structure of "Iki" (「いき」の構造, "Iki" no kōzō)
1933 The Philosophy of Heidegger (「ハイデッガーの哲学, Haideggā no tetsugaku)
1935 The Problem of Contingency (偶然性の問題, Gūzensei no mondai)
1939 Man and Existence (人間と実存, Ningen to jitsuzon)
1941 An Essay on the Fine Arts (文藝論, Bungeiron)

1895/0215:日本の歴史家 平泉澄189584、誕生

Hiraizumi Kiyoshi est un historien japonais. Proche des courants nationalistes avant-guerre, il fourni un cadre académique à leurs idées


In Wien wird Udo Proksch wegen Betrugsverdachts im Zusammenhang mit dem Untergang der Lucona verhaftet.

In Vienna, Udo Proksch is arrested on suspicion of fraud in connection with the sinking of Lucona.

The battleship USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana harbor in Cuba, killing 274. This event leads the United States to declare war on Spain.


1898/0215:日本の小説家 井伏鱒二189893、誕生

Ibuse Masuji est un romancier japonais

1923年 同人誌『世紀』に参加、『幽閉』を発表して小説家として出發。翌年、聚芳社に入社するが、退社と再入社を繰り返した後、佐藤春夫に師事するようになる。
1930年 初の作品集『夜ふけと梅の花』を出版。この年は小林秀雄らの同人誌『作品』の同人となり、太宰治とはじめて会ったりしている。


In Berlin wird die erste Strecke der U-Bahn zwischen den U-Bahn-Stationen Stralauer Tor und Zoologischer Garten eröffnet.

In Berlin, the first section of the subway between the subway stations Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten opens.

The Labor Party committee in England was reorganized into a parliamentary party and the Labor Party was formed.

The Flores Theater fire in Acapulco, Mexico kills 250.

1917/0215:日本の政商 小佐野賢治191786、誕生


1920/0215:日本の圍碁棋士 坂田榮男192010、誕生

Sakata Eio, un joueur de go 碁 professionnel.


Kingdom of Romania establishes its legation in Helsinki.

The Permanent International Court of Justice in The Hague holds its first session chaired by its President Bernard Loder.

Greece becomes the last European country to adopt the Gregorian calendar.

1932/0215:日本の劇画家 白土三平1932--、誕生

Shirato Sanpei is a Japanese manga artist and essayist known for his social criticism as well as his realistic drawing style and the characters in his scenarios.
He is considered a pioneer of gekiga. The son of the Japanese proletarian painter Toki Okamoto, his dream to become an artist equal with his father started when he became a Kamishibai artist.
He is also known for his work published in the early issues of the manga anthology magazine Garo in 1964, which he began publishing so as to serialize his comic Kamui.

Newly elected US President Franklin D. Roosevelt escapes a Miami assassination attempt that kills Anton Cermak, former mayor of Chicago. The facts remain unclear.

In Miami, Giuseppe Zangara attempts to assassinate US President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt, but instead shoots Chicago mayor Anton J. Cermak, who dies of his wounds on March 6, 1933.

1934/0215:Niklaus Wirth 1934--、誕生

a Swiss computer scientist, best known for designing several programming languages, including Pascal, and for pioneering several classic topics in software engineering. In 1984 he won the Turing Award, generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science,[2][3] for developing a sequence of innovative computer languages.

「私の名前 Niklaus Wirthをヨウロパ人はたいがい「ニクラウス ヴィルト」と正しく発音してくれるが、アメリカ人は必ず「ニッケルズ ワース」と発音する。つまり、ヨウロパ人は「名前呼び」をして、アメリカ人は「値呼び」をしているわけだ」(関数の引数の評価戦略についての専門用語、call by name(名前呼び)とcall by value(値呼び)によるダジャレ。一般のアメリカ人の多くは、英語圏以外のヨウロパ名でも英語読みで読むことが多いという事実がある。さらに「ニッケル」は硬貨をアメリカでは意味し、「ワース」=価値、ニッケルくらいの価値といふ皮肉にもかけている。

1935/0215:イギリスの日本学者 Basil Hall Chamberlain 185015、死去

a professor of Japanese at Tokyo Imperial University and one of the foremost British Japanologists active in Japan during the late 19th century. (Others included Ernest Satow and W. G. Aston.)
He also wrote some of the earliest translations of haiku into English.
He is perhaps best remembered for his informal and popular one-volume encyclopedia Things Japanese, which first appeared in 1890 and which he revised several times thereafter.

1873/0529、お雇ひ外國人として来日したチェンバレンは、 ――


君が代は 千代に八千代に さざれ石の 巌となりて 苔のむすまで

A thousand years of happy life be thine!
Live on, my Lord, till what are pebbles now,
By age united, to great rocks shall grow,
Whose venerable sides the moss doth line.

1937/0215:FBIプロファイリスト Robert K Ressler 193713、誕生

an FBI agent and author. He played a significant role in the psychological profiling of violent offenders in the 1970s and is often credited with coining the term "serial killer."[2] After retiring from the FBI, he authored a number of books on serial murders, and often gave lectures on criminology.


 Fall of Singapore. Following an assault by Japanese forces, the British General Arthur Percival surrenders. About 80,000 Indian, United Kingdom and Australian soldiers become prisoners of war, the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history.

Singapore is captured by Japanese troops after a 16-day battle in the Pacific War. Over 80,000 Allied soldiers under British Lieutenant General Arthur Ernest Percival are being captured.

Deutsche Schüler ab 15 Jahren werden ab sofort als Luftwaffenhelfer zum Kriegsdienst herangezogen.

German pupils from the age of 15 are now assigned to serve as air force helpers.

 The assault on Monte Cassino, Italy begins.

The founding monastery of the Benedictines in Montecassino is almost completely destroyed by heavy Allied bombing during the Second World War, although there are only about 800 civilians in the buildings.

 The Narva Offensive begins.

 Third day of bombing in Dresden.

1945/0215:認知科学者 Douglas Hofstadter 1945--、誕生

an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.
Hofstadter's book Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, first published in 1979, won both the Pulitzer Prize for general non-fiction and a National Book Award (at that time called The American Book Award) for Science.

His 2007 book I Am a Strange Loop won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Science and Technology.

A decree of the German Reich Minister of Justice Otto Georg Thierack leads to the formation of tribunals in "enemy-threatened Reich Defense Districts", which may condemn civil and military persons.

 the first electronic general-purpose computer, is formally dedicated at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

Gerald Lankester Harding and Roland de Vaux begin excavations at Cave 1 of the Qumran Caves, where they will eventually discover the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls.

Kurt Mix receives a patent for his sports and training equipment, better known as ergometer.

The physicist Erik Lundblad, employed by the Swedish company ASEA, produces the first synthetic diamonds.

Canada and the United States agree to construct the Distant Early Warning Line, a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic regions of Canada and Alaska.

les Français Houot et Vilmont descendent à 4050 m de profondeur à bord de leur bathyscaphe.


Sabena Flight 548 crashes in Belgium, killing 73, including the entire United States figure skating team along with several of their coaches and family members.

éclipse solaire, visible notamment à Nice.

trois officiers accusés d'avoir monté le dixième complot contre le général de Gaulle sont arrêtés.

1965/0215:USA歌手 Nat King Cole 191965、死去

an American jazz pianist and vocalist. He recorded over one hundred songs that became hits on the pop charts. His trio was the model for small jazz ensembles that followed.

A new red-and-white maple leaf design is adopted as the flag of Canada, replacing the old Canadian Red Ensign banner.

le drapeau officiel du Canada flotte pour la première fois au mât de la tour de la Paix, à Ottawa. L'unifolié avait été adopté aux Communes deux mois plus tôt par 163 voix contre 78, après un débat houleux.

El padre Camilo Torres, que planteó la teología de la liberación en Colombia, murió en batalla con las fuerzas gubernamentales.

Father Camilo Torres who raised theology of liberation in Colombia killed in battle with government forces.

A Dominican Douglas DC-9 crashes into the sea right after launch at Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. All 102 people die on board.

The decimalisation of British coinage is completed on Decimal Day.

On Decimal Day, sterling is converted to the decimal system in the United Kingdom, divided into 100 pence.

1972/0215:USAの中共報道者 Edgar Parks Snow 190572、死去

an American journalist known for his books and articles on Communism in China and the Chinese Communist revolution. He was the first western journalist to give a full account of the history of the Chinese Communist Party following the Long March, and he was also the first western journalist to interview many of its leaders, including Mao Zedong. He is best known for his book, Red Star Over China (1937), an account of the Chinese Communist movement from its foundation until the late 1930s.

1937年に『Red Star Over China 』をロンドンで出版した。これは毛沢東を中心とした中国共産党を好意的に取り上げ、将来の共産党の隆盛を予見するものであった。 彼は毛沢東は政治的改革者であり、1920年代のように軍事的また革命的ではなくなっていると報じた。この本は販売後4週間で12000部が売れ、中国での共産党の初期の運動の入門としてスタンダードになった。
その後、米国が頭の先から爪先に至るまで日本人を憎悪し武力介入で日本をこの世から抹殺する事を目指した政治的な著作『アジアの戦争』を書き上げ、日中戦争における日本を批判的に取り上げた。同書では南京安全区国際委員会の委員長であったジョン・ラーベが示した算定として「南京大虐殺」において「日本軍は南京だけで少なくとも4万2千人を虐殺した」、「10歳から70歳までのものはすべて強姦された」と記し[28]、成都で会ったL・スマイスが編纂した『南京地区における戦争による損害』を引用して「日本軍による暴行」として告発している。さらに、日本軍は「銃を持った首狩り族」であり、日本人は中国人や朝鮮人より知的・肉体的に劣る存在、とも罵倒している。 この『アジアの戦争』は、のち『東京裁判』における検察側冒頭陳述や「南京大虐殺」、更にGHQの占領方針と占領政策の基盤となった。

José María Velasco Ibarra, serving as President of Ecuador for the fifth time, is overthrown by the military for the fourth time.

The Soviet Union conducts an experimental nuclear explosion to determine if this technique can be used for channeling.





1970/0215:A Dominican Douglas DC-9 crashes into the sea right after launch at Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. All 102 people die on board.


Leon Spinks wins his boxing match and heavyweight world title against Muhammad Ali at the Hilton Hotel, Las Vegas, by winning on points.

1981/0215:ドイツの音樂家 Karl Richter 192681、死去

ein deutscher Dirigent, Chorleiter, Organist und Cembalist.

日本劇場が閉館し『日劇ダンシングチーム (NDT)』もが解散。

The drilling rig Ocean Ranger sinks during a storm off the coast of Newfoundland, killing 84 workers.

The world's largest oil rig at the time, Ocean Ranger, sinks on Newfoundland Bank off Newfoundland after being damaged by a monster wave. All 84 crew members are killed.

1988/0215:物理學者 Richard Phillips Feynman 191888、死去

an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965.

Soviet war in Afghanistan: The Soviet Union officially announces that all of its troops have left Afghanistan.

The Soviet government announces that the Soviet Army has withdrawn completely from Afghanistan. The Soviet intervention in Afghanistan ended after more than nine years.

The hackers Dirk-Otto Brezinski (DOB), Hans Heinrich Hübner (Pengo) and Markus Hess (Urmel), who are involved in the KGB hack next to Karl Koch, are sentenced to probation between 14 months and 2 years.

The Visegrád Agreement, establishing cooperation to move toward free-market systems, is signed by the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.

Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is sentenced in Milwaukee to life in prison.

Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer was sentenced in Milwaukee to life in prison.
Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer 196094, also known as the Milwaukee Cannibal, was an American serial killer and sex offender, who committed the rape, murder, and dismemberment of seventeen men and boys between 1978 and 1991. Many of his later murders involved necrophilia, cannibalism, and the permanent preservation of body parts—typically all or part of the skeletal structure. https://is.gd/NzvDWN

1995/0215:Cracker Kevin Mitanick、FBIのセキリュティシステムを破り、逮捕。

1994年12月25日からカリフォルニア大学サンディエゴ校にあるサンディエゴ・スーパーコンピュータ・センターに SYNフラッド攻撃や、シーケンス番号が予測可能な既知の脆弱性を利用して TCP コネクションをジャックし侵入に成功。/.rhostsの改竄にすら至った。捜査機関がケビンの逮捕はもはや無理ではないかと考えるに至った頃、1995年2月15日に同大センター勤務の下村努の協力を得たFBIによって逮捕された。禁固5年・執行猶予4年の有罪判決を受け投獄される。 Wikipedia ja
{この記事に出てくる 下村努 といふ日本人(アメリカ國籍)も、スゴイ。日本の映画プロデュサよ、これを映画に作ったらどうだ。と思ったら、さすが、生き馬の目も拔いてしまふ業界、下村の原作にもとづいてすでに作られてゐた。`Trackdown (米國以外では Takedown、日本では ザハッカー)`2000

The tanker Sea Empress runs after a pilot error on a rock at Milford Haven. 71,800 tonnes of outflowing crude oil cause heavy oil pollution on the Welsh coast.

At the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in China, a Long March 3 rocket, carrying an Intelsat 708, crashes into a rural village after liftoff, killing many people.

The Kurdish leader and chairman of the banned Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), Abdullah Öcalan, is kidnapped by the Turkish secret service Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı and taken to İmralı prison island in Turkey.

Protests against the Iraq war take place in over 600 cities worldwide.
It is estimated that between eight million to 30 million people participate, making this the largest peace demonstration in history.

A panic has set in over the past few days in China after the mysterious arrival of a disease that will prove to be the main cause of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), wreaking havoc in the south of the country.

Former PayPal employees Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim found the Internet video portal YouTube, where video clips can be viewed and uploaded for free.

2007/0215:USA発明家 Robert Adler 191307、死去

an Austrian-born American inventor who held numerous patents.
His work included developing early sound based remote controls for televisions, which were the standard for 25 years until replaced by IR remotes that could transmit more complex commands.


2012/0215:In the Indian Ocean,
 two Tamil fishermen are accidentally shot by Italian military forces by oil tanker Enrica Lexie, as they are considered Somali pirates. This marine incident led to diplomatic tensions between Italy and India.

360 people die in a fire at a Honduran prison in the city of Comayagua.

A meteor explodes over Russia, injuring 1,500 people as a shock wave blows out windows and rocks buildings.
This happens unexpectedly only hours before the expected closest ever approach of the larger and unrelated asteroid 2012 DA14.

In Chelyabinsk, a meteor enters the earth's atmosphere and explodes 30 to 50 kilometers above the ground. The subsequent blast will damage around 3,500 buildings. 1491 people are injured by flying glass splinters. It is the largest meteor since the entrance of the Tunguska Meteoroid.


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