Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 02/12 今日の出來事

0712/0212:中國の大詩人 杜甫071270、誕生

Du Fu was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang 唐 dynasty. Along with Li Bai (Li Po) 李白070162, he is frequently called the greatest of the Chinese poets.
His greatest ambition was to serve his country as a successful civil servant, but he proved unable to make the necessary accommodations.
His life, like the whole country, was devastated by the An Lushan Rebellion 安祿山070357亂 of 755, and his last 15 years were a time of almost constant unrest.

Although initially he was little-known to other writers, his works came to be hugely influential in both Chinese and Japanese literary culture.
Of his poetic writing, nearly fifteen hundred poems have been preserved over the ages.
He has been called the "Poet-Historian" and the "Poet-Sage" by Chinese critics, while the range of his work has allowed him to be introduced to Western readers as "the Chinese Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Shakespeare, Milton, Burns, Wordsworth, Béranger, Hugo or Baudelaire".



0881/0212:Pope John VIII crowns Charles the Fat, the King of Italy: Holy Roman Emperor

à Rome, Charles III le Gros, fils de Louis le Germanique, est couronné empereur d'Occident.

0890/0212(寛平02/0119):日本の歌人 遍照081690、死去

Henjō (遍昭/遍照) est un recteur monacal 僧正 dans l'école bouddhique du Tendai 天臺 et un poète de waka 和歌 japonais, nommé parmi les six génies 六歌仙 de la poésie et les trente-six grands poètes 三十六歌仙.


江戸時代の 狩野探幽160274による『三十六歌仙額』

天つ風 雲の通ひ路 吹きとぢよ をとめの姿 しばしとどめむ    

末の露 もとの雫や 世の中の 遲れ先だつ ためしなるらん

Jin promulgated nvzhen text.

The Papal Cardinal Legate Guido assures the creation of the school at the Church of St. Mary Magdalene at the request of the Council and the City of Wroclaw.


L'empereur Henri VII fait face à Milan à une révolte fomentée par les della Torre, qui va s'étendre à d'autres villes lombardes.

Nella Repubblica di Venezia, il Consiglio dei Dieci proibisce l'uso di maschere, anche durante il periodo di Carnevale.

In the Republic of Venice, the Council of Ten forbids the wearing of masks, even during the Carnival period.

English forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orléans in the Battle of the Herrings.

« Journée des Harengs », de nombreux défenseurs de la ville d'Orléans meurent dans une expédition pour s'emparer d'un convoi de ravitaillement - des harengs - destinés aux Anglais.

Isabella d'Este, 16 anni, figlia del duca di Ferrara e nipote del re di Napoli, è sposata con Gianfrancesco II Gonzaga, marchese di Mantova. Sotto il suo patrocinio, la fattoria diventa Mantova uno dei centri culturali d'Europa.

16-year-old Isabella d'Este, daughter of the Duke of Ferrara and granddaughter of the King of Naples, is married to Gianfrancesco II Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. Under her patronage, the farm turns into Mantua one of the cultural

Edicto real que ordena la expulsión de moros no convertidos de España

Isabella I issued an edict outlawing Islam in the Crown of Castile, forcing virtually all her Muslim subjects to convert to Christianity.

Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, on his second voyage to India.


1541/0212:Fundación de Santiago de Chile.

The Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdívia founded with Santiago del Nuevo Extremo, now Santiago de Chile, the first city on Chilean soil.

1554/0212:Jane Grey 153754、刑死(斬首)
A year after claiming the throne of England for nine days, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason.

Lady Jane Grey , known also as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as "the Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.

ロンドン塔に幽閉されてゐた元イングランド女王 Jane Gray 153754、夫のギルフォウドとともに斬首刑に。Jane はイングランド史上初の女王として卽位したが、在位は僅か九日間で、MaryⅠによって廢位された。そして、その後七ヶ月、ロンドン塔に幽閉され、大逆罪で斬首刑となった。十七歳。

The Execution of Lady Jane Grey, by the French painter Paul Delaroche, 1833.

1612/0212:Christophorus Clavius 153812、死去

Mathematiker und Jesuitenpater am Collegio Romano.
Von seinen Zeitgenossen „Euklid des 16. Jahrhunderts“ genannt, wurde er vor allem durch die unter seiner fachlichen Leitung durchgeführte Kalenderreform zum Gregorianischen Kalender berühmt, die 1582 mit der Bulle Inter gravissimas von Papst Gregor XIII. verfügt wurde.
Clavius setzte dabei einen Reformentwurf von Aloisius Lilius um, der bereits 1576 verstorben war.

 Clavius. Kupferstich von Francesco Villamena, 1606



1692/0212:オランダの極東探檢者 Hendrick Hamel 163092、死去

the first Westerner to provide a first hand account of Joseon Korea. After spending thirteen years there, he wrote "Hamel's Journal and a Description of the Kingdom of Korea, 1653-1666," which was subsequently published in 1668

The Treaty of Lisbon (1668) recognizes the independence of Portugal.

The Convention Parliament declares that the flight to France in 1688 by James II, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, constitutes an abdication.

Invasion of the Saxon army in Livonia without declaration of war becomes first hostile act in the erupting Great Northern War.

1704/0212:フランス思想家 Charles Pinot Duclos 170472、誕生

un écrivain et historien français.
L’œuvre la plus célèbre de Duclos est les Considérations sur les mœurs de ce siècle (1751), qui connut un vif succès et fut traduite en anglais et en allemand et souvent rééditée. Elle est écrite avec un style précis, piquant, clair parfois jusqu’à la sécheresse. La peinture des modes et de l’esprit du temps est assez peu vivante.
L’auteur disait d’ailleurs avec justesse :
« Je ne regarde pas tout, mais ce que je regarde, je le vois bien ; je n’ai point de coloris, mais je serai lu. » 

After becoming tired of Charles XII's political intrigues, Sultan Ahmed III has the Swedish king seized by the Janissaries in 1709 following a Russian campaign in the Ottoman Empire.

The English general James Oglethorpe founds the city Savannah with 114 people and thus the colony Georgia.

Englishman James Oglethorpe founds Georgia, the 13th colony of the Thirteen Colonies, and its first city at Savannah (known as Georgia Day).

Hochzeit von Maria Theresia von Österreich und Franz Stephan von Lothringen.

After renouncing the Duchy of Lorraine, for which he receives the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as compensation, Grand Duke Franz I can marry Stephan Maria Theresia, Archduchess of Austria and future Queen of Hungary and Bohemia.

1763/0212:フランス喜劇作者 Pierre de Marivaux 168863、死去

un écrivain français.
Homme solitaire et discret à la personnalité susceptible, longtemps incompris1, il fut un journaliste, un romancier, mais surtout un dramaturge des Lumières, amoureux du théâtre et de la vérité, qui observait en spectateur lucide le monde en pleine évolution, et qui écrivit pour les Comédiens italiens, entre 1722 et 1740, des comédies sur mesure et d’un ton nouveau, dans le langage « de la conversation ».

彼は偉大なる先人の Molière162273 の喜劇とは味の異なる、女性に焦点をあてた戀愛心理の喜劇を作った。代表作は『Le Jeu de l'amour et du hasard 愛と偶然との戲れ』1730。繊細で氣取りを持った Marivaudage の文体で女性の恋愛心理を微細に表現したロマンティクコメディであった。

Auf dem Ettersberg in Weimar schreibt Johann Wolfgang von Goethe sein erstes Gedicht mit dem Titel Wandrers Nachtlied und fügt es einem Brief an Charlotte von Stein bei.

At the Ettersberg in Weimar, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe writes his first poem entitled Wandrers Nachtlied and adds it to a letter to Charlotte von Stein.

à Paris, le cordelier Momoro dénonce le « modérantisme » à la Convention.

Die Kaiserhymne von Joseph Haydn wird mit dem Text von Lorenz Leopold Haschka anlässlich des Geburtstags von Kaiser Franz II in allen Wiener Theatern aufgeführt, im Burgtheater in Anwesenheit des Kaisers selbst.
Die Volkshymne ist ein bewusster Gegenentwurf zur französischen revolutionären Marseillaise.

The hymn of Joseph Haydn is performed with the text by Lorenz Leopold Haschka on the occasion of the birthday of Emperor Franz II in all Viennese theaters, in the Burgtheater in the presence of the Emperor himself. The Volkshymne is a deliberate counterpart to the French revolutionary Marseillaise.

1799/0212:イタリア生物學者 Lazzaro Spallanzani 172999、死去

un gesuita, biologo, accademico e rettore italiano.
Considerato il "padre scientifico" della fecondazione artificiale, è ricordato soprattutto per aver confutato la teoria della generazione spontanea con un esperimento che verrà successivamente ripreso e perfezionato da Louis Pasteur.


Dissertazioni di fisica animale e vegetabile

1804/0212:Immanuel Kant 172404、死去

ein deutscher Philosoph der Aufklärung. Kant zählt zu den bedeutendsten Vertretern der abendländischen Philosophie. Sein Werk Kritik der reinen Vernunft kennzeichnet einen Wendepunkt in der Philosophiegeschichte und den Beginn der modernen Philosophie.

1804/0212:ドイツ科學者 Heinrich Lenz 180465、誕生

deutsch-baltischer Physiker, welcher als einer der Ersten die Zusammenhänge zwischen Magnetfeldern und elektrischen Feldern erkannte. So legte er mit der Lenz'schen Regel die Grundlage für die Wirbelstrombremse.


1809/0212:Charles Darwin 180982、誕生

an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.

1809/0212:Abraham Lincoln 180965、誕生

American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, paved the way for the abolition of slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy.

Darwin と Lincoln が同じ年の同じ日の生まれとは、識らなかった。

San Martín triunfa fuerzas realistas en Chacabuco (Perú).

An Argentine/Chilean patriotic army, after crossing the Andes, defeats Spanish troops on the Battle of Chacabuco.
In the Chilean struggle for independence, the rebels under Bernardo O'Higgins and José de San Martín defeat the Spanish royalist troops in the Battle of Chacabuco. This ends the Spanish Reconquista Chiles.

Chile proclama su independencia.

Bernardo O'Higgins formally approves the Chilean Declaration of Independence near Concepción, Chile.

The Creek cede the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government by the Treaty of Indian Springs, and migrate west.

1828/0212:イギリス小説家 George Meredith 182809、誕生

an English novelist and poet of the Victorian era. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times.


Ecuador annexes the Galápagos Islands.

The Galapagos Islands, formerly part of Spain, are being annexed by Ecuador under President Juan José Flores. Spain is not interested in the islands and does not resist annexation.

1834/0212:ドイツ思想家 Friedrich Schleiermacher 176834、死去

ein deutscher evangelischer Theologe, Altphilologe, Philosoph, Publizist, Staatstheoretiker, Kirchenpolitiker und Pädagoge.
In mehreren dieser Wirkfelder wird er zu den wichtigsten Autoren seiner Zeit, in einigen auch zu den Klassikern der Disziplin überhaupt gerechnet, ähnliches gilt etwa für die Soziologie.
Er übersetzte die Werke Platons ins Deutsche und gilt als Begründer der modernen Hermeneutik.



Première à la Comédie-Française de Chatterton, drame en trois actes et prose d'Alfred de Vigny.



1850/0212:USA地理學者 William Morris Davis 185034、誕生

American geographer, geologist, geomorphologist, and meteorologist, often called the "father of American geography".

その最大の科学的業績は、いかにして河川が地形を形成するかを示すモデルである地形輪廻(侵食輪廻)を提唱したことで、1884年に初めて発表したその地形輪廻説は(大きな)河川は主に三つの部分、上流中流下流を持ち、それぞれが固有の地形や地形に関する特性を有することを指摘している。この地形輪廻の概念は、Charles Darwin 180982 の進化論の影響を受けている。一方で、人文地理学については自然環境の人間への影響を機械論的に論じ、環境決定論的な見方を示した。

1851/0212:オウストリ經濟學 Eugen Böhm von Bawerk 185114、誕生

österreichischer Ökonom. Er gilt als Vertreter der Wiener Schule und Begründer der österreichischen Kapitaltheorie.
He made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School of economics.
He was the Austrian Minister of Finance intermittently from 1895 to 1904, and also wrote a series of extensive critiques of Marxism.

彼は1880年代から1890年代にかけて、Karl Marx 181883 の経済学に広範な批判をおこなった
『資本と利子』の第一巻 "Geschichte und Kritik der Kapitalzinstheorien" 1884 で、利子の現象について代わりとなる理論(使用説、生産力説、禁欲説、等々)を徹底的に批評した。そこにはマルクスの搾取理論の批判も含まれていた。彼は、資本家は労働者を搾取するのではなく、労働者が生産を手伝った生産物から得られる収入の中から十分に、前もって所得を与えることで、労働者に提供する、と主張した。

Edward Hargraves announces he has found gold in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia, starting the Australian gold rushes.

Edward Hammond Hargraves finds gold in the Australian River Summer Hills Creek, New South Wales. The message triggers a gold rush.

While Australia has a population of just under 500,000, a gold digger, Edward Hargreaves, goes to America for a chance. He notes that the Californian lands are strangely similar to the alluvial lands of New Wales. Back home, he won the Bathurst site, where he finds gold today.

1857/0212:フランス写真家 Eugène Atget 185727、誕生

Jean Eugène Auguste Atget est un photographe français.

{写真家を氣取り始めた頃の私にとって、Henri Caritier-Bresson 190804 に絵画とは異なる表現を感じ、そしてその前史としてアッジェの名を知り、その写真を見るまへに彼のその名は神話的な存在となってゐた、のを思ひだした。

Fumies are abolished in Japan, the public entry of which, if in doubt, should prove that Christianity was not adhered to.


1861/0212:ロシア生まれの Lou Andreas-Salomé 186137、誕生

(Луиза Густавовна Саломе)
eine weitgereiste Schriftstellerin, Erzählerin, Essayistin und Psychoanalytikerin aus russisch-deutscher Familie. Die Art ihrer persönlichen Beziehungen zu prominenten Vertretern des deutschen Geisteslebens – in erster Linie zu Friedrich Nietzsche, Rainer Maria Rilke und Sigmund Freud – war und ist bis heute Gegenstand unterschiedlicher Interpretationen.

In the following year, She studied under Lucian Freud 192211 and also worked as a psychoanalyst. A daughter of the general of the Jewish Russian, originally a family of Hungarian French


1866/0212:ロシア生まれの Léon Chestov 186638、誕生

un avocat, écrivain et philosophe russe.
known for his "Philosophy of Despair"


American ultimatum to Napoleon III for the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico

1877/0212:Louis Renault 187744、誕生

, inventeur français, pilote de course et chef d'entreprise fondateur de l'entreprise Renault

1881/0212:ロシア生まれの Anna Pavlova 188131、誕生

(Анна Матвеевна Павлова), ballerine russe
русская артистка балета, прима-балерина Мариинского театра в 1906—1913 годах, одна из величайших балерин XX века Danseur de ballet russe, prima ballerina du Théâtre Mariinsky en 1906-1913, l'une des plus grandes ballerines du XXe siècle

パヴロワは1931年1月、風邪をこじらせたまま巡演に出発し肺炎となった[2]。症状はさらに悪化し、オランダのハーグ到着後に胸膜炎と診断された。外科手術を勧められたが、手術をすれば舞踏手としては再起不能になると告げられたためにこれを拒否し、闘病の末に亡くなった。50歳の生涯だった。パヴロワが出演を予定されていた公演は通常通り行われ、『瀕死の白鳥』 の曲が流れると共にパヴロワがいつも踊っていた軌跡をたどるようにスポットライトが無人の舞台を照らし、観客はパヴロワの早い死を悼んだという。パヴロワの名を汚さぬよう、またパヴロワと比較されてしまうのを恐れて、『瀕死の白鳥』 は以後同じロシアの偉大なバレエダンサー、マイヤ・プリセツカヤが違う振り付けで踊るまで20年間誰も踊ることがなかった。

Lewis Edson Waterman receives US Patent Number 293545 on his invented fountain pen.

1886/0212:日本の政治家 中野正剛188643、誕生

Nakano Seigō was a Japanese political leader who advocated a fascist Japan to complete the Meiji Restoration.


≫ 諸君は、由緒あり、歴史ある早稲田の大学生である。便乗はよしなさい。歴史の動向と取り組みなさい。天下一人を以て興る。諸君みな一人を以て興ろうではないか。日本は革新せられなければならぬ。日本の巨船は怒涛の中にただよっている。便乗主義者を満載していては危険である。諸君は自己に目覚めよ。天下一人を以て興れ、これが私の親愛なる同学諸君に切望する所である。

The Mediterranean Entente arises from an agreement that concludes Great Britain and Italy under the mediation of the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.
The contracting parties want to preserve the status quo in the Mediterranean.

1889/0212:日本の政治家 森有禮184789、死去(暗殺)

Viscount Mori Arinori was a Meiji period Japanese statesman, diplomat, and founder of Japan's modern educational system.


His Death
Mori was stabbed by an ultranationalist on the very day of promulgation of the Meiji Constitution in 1889, and died the next day. The assassin was outraged by Mori's alleged failure to follow religious protocol during his visit to Ise Shrine two years earlier; for example, Mori was said to have not removed his shoes before entering and pushed aside a sacred veil with a walking stick.


1891/0212:日本の小説家 直木三十五189134、誕生

Naoki Sanjūgo est le nom de plume d'un romancier japonais des ères Taishō et Shōwa.

1894/0212:ドイツ指揮者 Hans von Bülow 183094、死去

ein deutscher Klaviervirtuose, Dirigent und Kapellmeister des 19. Jahrhunderts. Er trat auch als Komponist in Erscheinung.

Meininger Hofkapelle mit Hans von Bülow 1882

Anarchist Émile Henry hurls a bomb into the Cafe Terminus in Paris, killing one person and wounding 20.

attentat anarchiste au café Terminus revendiqué par Émile Henry. 

Im Deutsch-Spanischen Vertrag erwirbt das Deutsche Reich von Spanien die im Stillen Ozean gelegenen Inselgruppen Karolinen, Marianen und Palau gegen Zahlung von 17 Millionen Mark.

Germany buys the Mariana Islands, the Carolinas Islands and Palau from Spain.

The expedition ship Antarctic of the Swedish polar explorer Otto Nordenskjöld, trapped in pack ice, sinks in the Weddell Sea. The entire crew reaches Paulet Island after sixteen days, from where it is rescued ten months later.

The big race around the world starts in Paris.
Participants in the famous automobile race include the German Hans Koeppen and the American George Schuster. The race lasts until the end of July and leads through the whole of America, Asia and Europe.

1909/0212:日本の映画男優 佐分利信190982、誕生

Saburi Shin est un acteur et réalisateur japonais
En occident, il est surtout connu pour les rôles qu'il a tenu dans un grand nombre de films de Yasujirō Ozu.


The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded.

in New York, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is created, on the initiative of Mary White Ovington.

New Zealand's worst maritime disaster of the 20th century happens when the SS Penguin, an inter-island ferry, sinks and explodes at the entrance to Wellington Harbour.

1912/0212:日本の作家 武田泰淳191276、誕生

Takeda Taijun est un romancier japonais partie prenante de la première génération d'écrivains de l'après-guerre, et autorité reconnue de la littérature chinoise.


1912/0212:ハンセン病 Gerhard Armauer Hansen 184112、死去

a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy.


Empress Longyu on behalf of the last emperor Pu Yi released abdication and authorized Yuan Shikai to organize a provisional republican government, the Qing Dynasty perish.
en Chine, le dernier empereur Puyi abdique et Sun Yat-sen proclame la république.

Im neu errichteten „Glashaus“ in Neubabelsberg, aus dem später das Studio Babelsberg hervorgeht, beginnen die Dreharbeiten zum Stummfilm Der Totentanz von Urban Gad mit Asta Nielsen in der Hauptrolle.

In the newly built "Glass House" in Neubabelsberg, from which the studio Babelsberg emerges later, the filming of the silent movie The Dance of Death by Urban Gad with Asta Nielsen in the leading role begins.

Mary Phelps Jacob dépose le brevet du soutien-gorge.


China's celebrity cabinet was dismissed by President Yuan Shikai, replaced by Sun Baoqi interim cabinet.

Quarry workers discover the oldest remains of two modern humans (Homo sapiens) in Germany and a dog buried with them in the double grave of Oberkassel at 14,000 years.

In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.

Le soldat Lucien Bersot est condamné à mort pour "faire un exemple de discipline militaire".

1916/0212:ドイツ数学者 Richard Dedekind 183116、死去

Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind war ein deutscher Mathematiker.



1918/0212:理論物理學者 Julian Schwinger 191894、誕生

He is best known for his work on the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), in particular for developing a relativistically invariant perturbation theory, and for renormalizing QED to one loop order.

Schwinger is recognized as one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, responsible for much of modern quantum field theory, including a variational approach, and the equations of motion for quantum fields.
He developed the first electroweak model, and the first example of confinement in 1+1 dimensions. He is responsible for the theory of multiple neutrinos, Schwinger terms, and the theory of the spin 3/2 field.

1920/0212:日本の女優 山口淑子1920--、誕生

Yoshiko Ōtaka (ou en mandarin Li Xianglan et en anglais Shirley Yamaguchi) est une chanteuse, actrice et femme politique japonaise

戦前の中国(中華民国)と満州国と日本・戦後の香港で李 香蘭(リシャンラン)、第二次世界大戦後のアメリカ合衆国ではシャーリーヤマグチの藝名で映画や歌などで活躍した。日本の敗戦を上海で迎へた彼女は、祖国中國を裏切った漢奸の容疑で中華民國の軍事裁判に掛けられたが日本人であることが証明され、漢奸罪は適用されずに国外追放処分となり、日本に帰国した。

Bolsheviks launch a revolt in Georgia as a preliminary to the Red Army invasion of Georgia.


The first "Ohomoto" incident. Executives of the "Ohomoto" including 出口王仁三郎187148 were arrested for unfaithful sins.





The sarcophagus of Pharaoh Tutankhamun is opened, 15 months after its discovery, in Egypt, by the team of Howard Carter.

George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue received its premiere in a concert titled "An Experiment in Modern Music", in Aeolian Hall, New York, by Paul Whiteman and his band, with Gershwin playing the piano.

The experiment in Modern Music, the attempt to combine jazz and classical music, receives very different reviews.

München. Aufhebung des Belagerungs- und Verbotszustandes der NSDAP, der Nationalsozialistischen Partei oder NSDAP.

Arrival of the expeditionary force sent by London to protect British "concessions".

1927/0212:Em Portugal,
o ditador Carmona reprime um levante popular.

1933/0212:フランス作曲家 Henri Duparc 184833、死去

un compositeur français

Un compositeur du romantisme français tardif. Comme la majeure partie du travail a été abandonnée par lui-même, il ne reste que quelques œuvres, principalement des chansons, mais la plupart des travaux restants, tels que "L'invitation au voyage (1870)", est considéré comme un chef-d'œuvre représentant des chansons françaises Cela a.

≫ Après avoir vécu 25 ans dans un splendide rêve, toute idée de représentation m'était – je vous le répète – devenue odieuse. L'autre motif de cette destruction, que je ne regrette pas, c'est la complète transformation morale que Dieu a opéré en moi il y a 20 ans et qui en une seule minute a abolie toute ma vie passée. Dès lors, la Roussalka n'ayant aucun rapport avec ma vie nouvelle ne devait plus exister.
(すばらしい夢のうちに25年間生きてきて、表現するということがなにもかも -- 君にだけ言うが -- 嫌になってしまったのだ。これを破棄するもう一つの理由は(破棄することは悔いていない)、20年前に神が私の精神を完全に変えてしまわれ、一瞬にして私の過去の人生を全て捨て去ってしまわれたからだ。従って、『ルサルカ』は私の新しい人生とは全く関係がなく、もはや存在している必要がないのだ。)

1933/0212:映画監督 Costa-Gavras 1933--、誕生

Konstantínos Gavrás (Κωνσταντίνος Γαβράς), dit Costa-Gavras (Κώστας Γαβράς, Kóstas Gavrás), est un cinéaste de cinéma français
Chacun de ses films est, pour lui, l'occasion de témoigner de son engagement dans ses idées et de livrer un message à propos du pouvoir.
Ses premiers succès sont des thrillers politiques comme Z et L'Aveu ; il passe ensuite au drame sentimental puis à la social-fiction.

grève générale en France après les manifestations du 6 février.

general strike in France after the demonstrations of February 6th.

1935/0212:フランス料理人 Auguste Escoffier 184635、死去

un chef cuisinier, restaurateur et auteur culinaire français.
Ce « roi des cuisiniers », et « cuisinier des rois », a modernisé et codifié la cuisine raffinée de Marie-Antoine Carême. Créant dans des établissements de prestige de nombreuses recettes, reprises ensuite par d'autres chefs, il a fait connaitre internationalement la cuisine française.

USS Macon, one of the two largest helium-filled airships ever created, crashes into the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California and sinks.

Bei einem Treffen auf dem Obersalzberg in Berchtesgaden zwingt der deutsche Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler dem österreichischen Kanzler Kurt Schuschnigg das Berchtesgadener Abkommen auf, wonach dieser den Nationalsozialisten Arthur Seyß-Inquart als Innen- und Sicherheitsminister in sein Kabinett aufnehmen muss. Es handelt sich um den ersten Schritt zum Ende des Austrofaschismus und dem Anschluss Österreichs an das Deutsche Reich.

Hitler gives Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg an ultimatum including the appointment of Nazi Arthur Seyss-Inquart to the Ministry of the Interior and Security.

1941/0212:日本の登山家 植村直己194184、誕生

Uemura Naomi was a Japanese adventurer.
He was particularly well known for doing alone what had previously been achieved only with large teams.
For example, he was the first man ever to reach the North Pole solo, the first man ever to raft the Amazon solo, and the first man ever to climb Denali solo. He disappeared while attempting to climb Denali in the winter.


Penicillin treated to a man for the first time.

In London, a police officer is the first patient to be treated with penicillin.

1942/0212:シオニスト Avraham Stern 190742、暗殺(射殺)

der Gründer und Leiter einer zionistischen Terrororganisation, die ab 1940 unter dem Namen Lechi bekannt und von der britischen Mandatsmacht als Stern Gang bezeichnet wurde.



 Ankunft in Tripolis des Afrikakorps von Rommel.

1943/0212:日本の作家 倉田百三189143、死去

Kurata Hyakuzō est un dramaturge et essayiste japonais sur des thèmes religieux, actif durant l'ère Taishō et le début de l'ère Shōwa du Japon.

 Operation Deadlight ends after scuttling 121 of 154 captured U-boats.

With the sinking of submarine U 3514, Operation Deadlight, which has been in operation since November 27, ends the destruction of all operational German submarines by the British Royal Navy and the Polish Navy.

African American United States Army veteran Isaac Woodard is severely beaten by a South Carolina police officer to the point where he loses his vision in both eyes. The incident later galvanizes the Civil Rights Movement and partially inspires Orson Welles' film Touch of Evil.

1947/0212:ドイツ心理學者 Kurt Lewin 189047、死去

Kurt Tsadek Lewin einer der einflussreichsten Pioniere der Psychologie.
Er ist einer der Begründer der modernen experimentellen Sozialpsychologie und gehört, zusammen mit Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler und Kurt Koffka, zu den „großen Vier“ der Berliner Schule der Gestaltpsychologie. Sein Name ist weiterhin verbunden mit der „Feldtheorie in den Sozialwissenschaften“. Nach Lewin wurde das von ihm entwickelte 3-Phasen-Modell bezeichnet.


The largest observed iron meteorite until that time creates an impact crater in Sikhote-Alin, in the Soviet Union.

Christian Dior unveils a "New Look", helping Paris regain its position as the capital of the fashion world.

1949/0212:ムスリム同胞団 Hassan el-Banna 190649、死去

un instituteur égyptien, fondateur des Frères musulmans. Il est le grand-père de Tariq Ramadan et Hani Ramadan.

Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi marries 18-year-old Soraya Esfandiary Bakhtiary in the Golestan Palace of Tehran.

1954/0212:日本の科學者 本多光太郎187054、死去

Honda Kōtarō was a Japanese scientist and inventor. He invented KS steel (initials from Kichiei Sumitomo), which is a type of magnetic resistant steel that is three times more resistant than tungsten steel



Lyons's LEO produces a payroll report. It is the first time in history a computer is used in business.

1954/0212:ロシアの撮影監督 Dziga Vertov 189654、死去

(Дави́д А́белевич Ка́уфман), cinéaste soviétique
советский кинорежиссёр, один из основателей и теоретиков документального кино.
Soviet film director, one of the founders and theoreticians of documentary films.
Along with Robert Flaherty 188451 and Joris Ivens 189889 he was said to be the creator of documentary films.
After overseeing several feature documentaries, he oversees the "Человек с киноаппаратом man with a camera" (1929), which should also be called the culmination of his film theory. It was a cutting-edge work that used many state-of-the-art photography techniques at the time, such as multiple exposures, stop motion, slow motion, fast turn, and moving photography.
末弟の Борис Кауфман は フランスの映画作家 Jean Vigo 190534 の『操行ゼロ』や『アタラント号』、エリア カザンの『波止場』などの撮影を担当した。

an American study highlights the link between certain cancers and tobacco consumption.

Chinese Communist Party launched the "four pests movement."


Merry chocolate sells heart-shaped chocolate at Isetan Department store in Shinjuku. The beginning of Valentine 's chocolate.

Soviet Union launches Venera 1 towards Venus.

The Soviet Union sends the space probe Venera 1 on the journey to Venus. After a week, radio contact with her is lost.

Construction begins on the Gateway Arch in St. Louis.

in Cyprus, beginning of the civil war.

1965/0212:Malcolm X visits Smethwick following the racial charged 1964 general election.

1968/0212:ベトナム戦争: フォンニィ・フォンニャットの虐殺
Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre.


un avion Vickers Viscount d'Air Rhodesia se crashe à Kariba et tue ses 57 passagers et membres d'équipage.

Le début des protestations pour Henri Langlois et la Cinémathèque française avec en tête, François Truffaut, Claude Jade et Jean-Pierre Léaud.

After the French Minister of Culture, André Malraux, cut subsidies to the Cinémathèque française to obtain the dismissal of Henri Langlois, the first demonstration for the film institute takes place, headed by François Truffaut, Claude Jade and Jean-Pierre Léaud. Further demonstrations eventually lead to the Paris May riots.

An Israeli air raid on an Egyptian metal recovery plant killed 70 civilians.

Bhutan gets the full sovereignty of India.

1973/0212:Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Laos and the Pathet Lao: End of the Lao Civil War.

1974/0212:Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970, is exiled from the Soviet Union.


1979/0212:フランス映画監督 Jean Renoir 189479、死去

Jean Renoir est un réalisateur et scénariste français,
Deuxième fils du peintre Auguste Renoir, ses films ont profondément marqué les mutations du cinéma français entre 1930 et 1950, avant d'ouvrir la porte à la Nouvelle Vague du cinéma français.

Jean âgé de 6 ans par Auguste Renoir.

As a film director and actor, he made more than forty films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s. His films La Grande Illusion (1937) and The Rules of the Game (1939) are often cited by critics as among the greatest films ever made.

Avant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Jean Renoir tente de promouvoir un message de paix avec La Grande Illusion (1937), montrant l'absurdité de la guerre. Il fait tourner dans ce film, en manière d'hommage, le cinéaste qu'il admire le plus, Erich von Stroheim, aux côtés de Jean Gabin. Dans La Bête humaine (1938), il s'efforce de mettre en scène les enjeux sociaux de l'époque.
Dans son chef-d'œuvre, La Règle du jeu (1939), sorti en juillet 1939, Renoir prévoit l'effondrement des valeurs humanistes et brosse un tableau sans complaisance des mœurs de la société française. Mais à la veille de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, ce film sera son plus grand échec commercial. Renoir a raconté qu'à la première de son film, il a vu un homme qui essayait de mettre le feu à la salle avec un journal et des allumettes11. François Truffaut, dans son livre Les Films de ma vie, écrit « La Règle du jeu (1939) c'est le credo des cinéphiles, le film des films, le plus haï à sa sortie, le plus apprécié ensuite. »

Proclamation of the Islamic Republic in Iran.

One hundred women protest in Lahore, Pakistan against military dictator Zia-ul-Haq's proposed Law of Evidence. The women were tear-gassed, baton-charged and thrown into lock-up. The women were successful in repealing the law.

1984/0212:ラテンアメリカ作家 Julio Cortázar 191484、死去

un escritor, traductor e intelectual argentino. Optó por la nacionalidad francesa en 1981, en protesta contra el régimen militar argentino.
Es considerado uno de los autores más innovadores y originales de su tiempo, maestro del relato corto, la prosa poética y la narración breve en general, y creador de importantes novelas que inauguraron una nueva forma de hacer literatura en el mundo hispano, rompiendo los moldes clásicos mediante narraciones que escapan de la linealidad temporal. Debido a que los contenidos de su obra transitan en la frontera entre lo real y lo fantástico, suele ser puesto en relación con el realismo mágico e incluso con el surrealismo

1951、フランス留学 以後、帰国せずに、ユネスコ自由契約翻訳官の職を得てフランスに永住、1981年にはフランス市民権を取得
1960年の『懸賞』と1963年の『石蹴り遊び』で、ラテンアメリカ文學を表する作家と見做されるやうになり、短篇『惡魔の罠』が Michelangelo Antonioni 191207 の『欲望』の原作となり、文名は世界的なものになった。

1984/0212:偽ロシア人 Anna Anderson 190084、死去

the best known of several impostors who claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia.
Anastasia, the youngest daughter of the last Tsar and Tsarina of Russia, Nicholas II and Alexandra, was killed along with her parents and siblings on 17 July 1918 by communist revolutionaries in Yekaterinburg, Russia; but the location of her body was unknown until 2007.




The Tass news agency reports that Dr. Jivago, Boris Pasternak's famous novel banned for 30 years in the Soviet Union, will be published for the first time in the USSR the following year.

1989/0212:オウストリア作家 Thomas Bernhard 193189、死去

ein österreichischer Schriftsteller. 1970 erhielt Bernhard den Georg-Büchner-Preis; seit den 1980er Jahren wird er international zu den bedeutendsten österreichischen und deutschsprachigen Autoren gerechnet.



Riots in Islamabad against The Satanic Verses of the writer Salman Rushdie.

Launch of an international campaign for the reconstruction of the Library of Alexandria in Egypt.

The two adventurers Arved Fuchs and Reinhold Messner finish their crossing over the South Pole Antarctic crossing after reaching Scott Base after 92 days and 2,800 kilometers on foot.

Two-year-old James Bulger is abducted from New Strand Shopping Centre by two ten-year-old boys, who later torture and murder him.

1994/0212:前衛美術家 Donald Judd 192894、死去

an American artist associated with minimalism (a term he nonetheless stridently disavowed).
In his work, Judd sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it, ultimately achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional hierarchy. It created an outpouring of seemingly effervescent works that defied the term "minimalism".

1965年、自らの芸術作品が従来の絵画や彫刻とは異なるゆえんを論じたテクスト、『Specific Objects 明確な物体』を発表。

Untitled, 1977, Münster, Germany

Four thieves break into the National Gallery of Norway and steal Edvard Munch's iconic painting The Scream.

1996/0212:日本の小説家 司馬遼太郎192396、死去

Shiba Ryōtarō est un écrivain japonais surtout connu pour ses romans historiques dont l'action se situe au Japon et dans le sous-continent asiatique, ainsi que pour ses essais historiques et culturels relatifs au Japon et à ses relations avec le reste du monde.



Hwang Jang-yop, senior official of the North Korean Communist Party, seeks political asylum at the South Korean embassy in Beijing.

United States President Bill Clinton is acquitted by the United States Senate in his impeachment trial.

In the US Senate, the impeachment of President Bill Clinton ends after his Lewinsky affair. For a guilty verdict for perjury or denial of punishment no required two-thirds majority comes about.

2000/0212:「Peanuts」Charles Monroe Schulz 192200、死去

nicknamed Sparky, was an American cartoonist best known for the comic strip Peanuts (which featured the characters Charlie Brown and Snoopy, among others). He is widely regarded as one of the most influential cartoonists of all time, cited as a major influence by many later cartoonists, including Jim Davis, Bill Watterson, and Matt Groening.

The Human Genome Project and Celera teams publish the results of the 95% sequencing analysis of the human genome.
They indicate that our genome is not homogeneous and especially that it contains few genes (between 30,000 and 40,000) compared to previous estimates.

NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the "saddle" region of 433 Eros, becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid.

The trial of Slobodan Milošević, the former President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, begins at the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague, Netherlands. He dies four years later before its conclusion.

An Iran Airtour Tupolev Tu-154 crashes in the mountains outside Khorramabad, Iran while descending for a landing at Khorramabad Airport, killing 119.

Ppresentation of The Gates, a work of Christo. It's a 37-kilometer course through Central Park in New York punctuated with 7,500 porticoes.

Christo and Jeanne-Claude are opening the art installation The Gates in Central Park, New York.

Colgan Air Flight 3407 crashes into a house in Clarence Center, New York while on approach to Buffalo Niagara International Airport, killing all on board and one on the ground.

2012/0212:日本、Tokyo Gate Bridge opened.

Third consecutive nuclear test conducted by North Korea after those of 2006 and 2009. It is widely condemned by the international community.



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