Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

歴史暦:古今東西 01/18 今日の出來事

General Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor.

Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. He defeated his brother Constantine II in 340, but anger in the army over his personal life (homosexuality) and favouritism towards his barbarian bodyguards led the general Magnentius to rebel, resulting in the assassination of Constans in 350.

     Costantino II      Costante I      Flavio Dalmazio      Costanzo II

Seven-year-old Leo II succeeds his maternal grandfather Leo I as Byzantine emperor.
He dies ten months later.


Nika riots in Constantinople fail.

Bélisaire réprime la « sédition Nika » dans le sang.

On January 18, as Hypatios heads home, he is quickly intercepted by the rebels. They now want to overthrow the emperor and seek a pretender to the imperial throne. However, Hypatios enjoys a relationship with Anastase and his military experience that makes him a credible candidate.  ……



Emperor Huizong 徽宗 abdicates the Chinese throne in favour of his son Emperor Qinzong 欽宗.

Chinese Emperor Song Huizong takes responsibility for the forced flight to Hangzhou, forced by Jurchen invading the Song Dynasty, and abdicates in favor of his son Song Qinzong.

中國宋の第八代皇帝徽宗108235 、金軍の侵略に一男の欽宗110061に譲位する。が、


Ferdinand I, the beautiful one, climbs as the last burgundy king the Portuguese throne.


1470/0118(文明02/1227):日本天皇 102後花園141971、崩御

Go-Hanazono-tennō was the 102nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1428 through 1464.
This 15th-century sovereign was named after the 14th-century Emperor Hanazono 095花園129748 and go- (後) translates as "later", and thus, he could be called the "Later Emperor Hanazono", or in some older sources, may be identified as "Hanazono, the second" or as "Hanazono II".


King Henry VII of England marries Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV.

With the marriage of the English King Henry VII from the house Tudor with Elizabeth of York, the two rival dynasties Lancaster and York are united. The Rose Wars are thus finally a thing of the past.

Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro founds Lima, the capital of Peru.

After the conquest of Peru, the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro founds the new capital Ciudad de los Reyes, today's Lima, to contain the influence of the former Inca capital Cusco on a native settlement.



King Naresuan of Siam kills Crown Prince Mingyi Swa of Burma in single combat, for which this date is now observed as Royal Thai Armed Forces day.



1646/0118(正保02/1202):日本の戰國大名 細川忠興156346、卒去

Hosokawa Tadaoki was a Japanese 戰國大名(samurai warrior of the late Sengoku period) and early Edo period.
Tadaoki was the eldest son of Hosokawa Fujitaka 細川幽齋153410.
Tdaoki fought in his first battle at the age of 15, in the service of Oda Nobunaga 織田信長153482.

At the Battle of Sekigahara (21 October 1600) Tadaoki commanded 5,000 men in the Tokugawa vanguard and clashed with the forces of Shima Sakon.
He was awarded a fief in Buzen 豐前 (Kokura 小倉, 370,000 koku) and went on to serve at the Siege of Osaka 大阪の陣(1614–1615). He was succeeded by Hosokawa Tadatoshi 細川忠利158641, who was present at the Siege of Shimabara 島原の亂(1637~8).
In 1632 Tadatoshi received a huge fief in Higo 肥後 (Kumamoto 熊本, 540,000 koku), where the Hosokawa family remained until 1871.

1664/0118(寛文03/1220):日本の武家 野中兼山161564、死去

Nonaka Kenzan was Chief retainer of the Tosa clan in the early Edo period. He earned credit in many reforms, but he bought out the disappointment of the people by the harsh administration.


The English buccaneer Henry Morgan conquers with his people the city of Panama, which belongs to the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.
The looting provides fortune for the attackers, the city is set on fire, their inhabitants are massacred.

1689/0118:フランス思想家 Montesquieu 168955、誕生

(Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, est un penseur politique, précurseur de la sociologie, philosophe et écrivain français des Lumières,
Né dans la banlieue de Bordeaux dans le sud-ouest de la France. Quand il a 7 ans, sa mère est décédée, a hérité du patrimoine et est devenue Baron La Blade.
Diplômé de la faculté de droit de l'université de Bordeaux, il étudie à Paris de 1709 à la fin de 1713 et revient de la mort de son père.
L'année suivante, il sera conseiller de la Haute Cour de Bordeaux à l'âge de 25 ans.
En 1716, en raison de la mort de son oncle, il héritera du titre de la baronne Montesquieu et du poste de directeur adjoint de la Haute Cour de Bordeaux.
Cependant, il était indifférent à l'aspect pratique, et en 1721, il a publié "Persian Letters" anonymement.
En 1726, il avait 37 ans et démissionna du poste de directeur adjoint de la Haute Cour de Bordeaux. Après cela, je serai dans la vie académique

En France, le roi Louis XIV émet une taxe de vote. La population est divisée en 22 classes d'impôt. Au plus bas, un livre est payable à l'État, le plus élevé étant de 2 000 livres.

In France King Louis XIV issues a poll tax. The population is divided into 22 tax classes. In the lowest, a livre is payable to the state, the highest being 2,000 livres.

Frederick I crowns himself King of Prussia in Königsberg.

Friedrich III., Kurfürst von Brandenburg, krönt sich selbst als Friedrich I. in Königsberg zum „König in Preußen“. Das von Friedrich großteils selbst inszenierte Zeremoniell findet im Königsberger Schloss statt.

1769/0118(明和05/1211):日本の禪僧 白隱慧鶴168569、示寂

Hakuin Ekaku fut l'une des figures les plus influentes du bouddhisme zen japonais.
Il transforma l'école de Rinzai 臨濟派, alors une tradition sur le déclin sans pratique rigoureuse, en une tradition centrée sur une méditation acharnée et la pratique des kōan 公案.
Pratiquement tous les pratiquants modernes du Zen Rinzai 臨濟禪 emploient des pratiques directement dérivées des enseignements prodigués par Hakuin.

Self-portrait / Eisei Bunko Museum, Tokyo



James Cook is the first known European to discover the Hawaiian Islands, which he names the "Sandwich Islands".

The first elements of the First Fleet carrying 736 convicts from Great Britain to Australia arrive at Botany Bay.

Le Français Nicholas-Louis Robert reçoit un brevet pour la machine à papier à grand écran qu'il a inventée l'année dernière.

La Banque de France est créée par le Premier Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, pour promouvoir la croissance économique après la grave récession de la Révolution.

Inauguration of the Bolshoi Theater.

Торжественное открытие Большого театра.

The kingdoms of Bavaria and Württemberg form the South German Zollverein.

1847/0118(弘化03/1202):日本の大名 松平定敬184708、誕生

Matsudaira Sadaaki was a Japanese daimyo of the Bakumatsu period, who was the last ruler of the Kuwana Domain.

高須四兄弟(1878年9月撮影) 左から定敬、容保、茂栄、慶勝

the Catholic Church authenticates the appearances of the Virgin in Lourdes.

{もうイエスキリストは地上に現れなくなった。異端審問官のせゐだらうか? ←ドストエフスキ『カラマゾフ兄弟』

1868/0118(慶應03/1224):日本の軍人 鈴木貫太郎186848、誕生

Baron Kantarō Suzuki was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, member and final leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April to 17 August 1945.


Wilhelm I of Germany is proclaimed Kaiser Wilhelm in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles (France) towards the end of the Franco-Prussian War.
Wilhelm already had the title of German Emperor since the constitution of 1 January 1871, but he had hesitated to accept the title.

1873/0118:イギリスの文人 Edward Bulwer-Lytton 180373、死去

an English novelist, poet, playwright, and politician. He was immensely popular with the reading public and wrote a stream of bestselling novels which earned him a considerable fortune. He coined the phrases "the great unwashed", "pursuit of the almighty dollar", "the pen is mightier than the sword", "dweller on the threshold", and the well-known opening line "It was a dark and stormy night".


神経質への精神療法として「森田療法」を創始した Morita Masatake was the founder of Morita therapy, a branch of clinical psychology strongly influenced by Zen Buddhism.
In his capacity as the head of psychiatry for a large Tokyo hospital, Morita began developing his methods while working with sufferers of shinkeishitsu, or anxiety disorders with a hypochondriac base.

『森田正馬 神經質に對する余の特殊療法』青空文庫

1882/0118:イギリス小説家 Alan Alexander Milne 188256、誕生

an English author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various poems.
Milne was a noted writer, primarily as a playwright, before the huge success of Pooh overshadowed all his previous work.
Milne served in both World Wars, joining the British Army in World War I, and was a captain of the British Home Guard in World War II.

Dr. William Price attempts to cremate the body of his infant son, Jesus Christ Price, setting a legal precedent for cremation in the United Kingdom.

Modern hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England.

1889/0118:日本の軍人 石原莞爾188949、誕生

Ishiwara Kanji was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.
He and Itagaki Seishirō 板垣征四郎188548 were the men primarily responsible for the Mukden Incident 滿洲事變 that took place in Manchuria in 1931.





1904/0118:USA映画俳優 Cary Grant 190466、誕生

Archibald Alexander Leach, dit), acteur américain


Eugene Ely lands on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania stationed in San Francisco Bay, the first time an aircraft landed on a ship.

The aviation pioneer Eugene Burton Ely succeeds - two months after the first successful launch - for the first time also the landing on a ship, on a platform of the heavy cruiser USS Pennsylvania.

1913/0118:First Balkan War:
A Greek flotilla defeats the Ottoman Navy in the Naval Battle of Lemnos, securing the islands of the Northern Aegean Sea for Greece.


Japan issues the "Twenty-One Demands" to the Republic of China in a bid to increase its power in East Asia.

The Paris Peace Conference opens in Versailles, France.

Début de la conférence de paix de Paris.

1921/0118:日本生まれの理論物理學者 南部陽一郎192195、誕生

Nambu Yōichirō was a Japanese-born American physicist, a professor at the University of Chicago.
Known for his contributions to the field of theoretical physics, he was awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2008 for the discovery in 1960 of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics, related at first to the strong interaction's chiral symmetry and later to the electroweak interaction and Higgs mechanism.

1925/0118:フランスの思想家 Gilles Deleuze 192595、誕生

un philosophe français.
Des années 1960 jusqu'à sa mort, Deleuze a écrit une œuvre philosophique influente et complexe, à propos de la philosophie elle-même, de la littérature, de la politique, de la psychanalyse, du cinéma et de la peinture.
Jusqu'à sa retraite en 1988, il est également un professeur de philosophie renommé.

Dans «A propos de la société gérée» qui a été inclus comme «post-scriptum» dans son livre «Symboles et incidents», il présente le concept de «société gérée que Foucault envisageait et s'approchait des êtres humains proches». Ce concept est prévu comme une nouvelle technologie de gestion individuelle tenant lieu de discipline en raison du développement de la technologie électronique qui facilite la collecte massive d'informations personnelles telles que les caméras de surveillance et les bases de données.
In "About managed society" that was included as "postscript" in his book "Symbols and incidents", he presents the concept of "a managed society that Foucault was considering and comes to the near future human beings". This concept is anticipated as a new technology for individual management in lieu of discipline due to the development of electronic technology that facilitates massive collection of personal information such as surveillance cameras and databases.

1936/0118:イギリスの作家 Rudyard Kipling 186536、死去

an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book (1894), Kim (1901), and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888).
Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have ever known."
Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century. George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", explaining that he was "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting".


≫ East is East, West is West.


Hon'inbō Shūsai who was a Japanese professional Go player.




British troops launch a general counter-offensive against Italian East Africa.

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The first uprising of Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.

Die Nationalsozialisten marschieren in das Warschauer Ghetto ein, um dieses aufzulösen und die jüdischen Bewohner in Vernichtungslager zu deportieren. Der Jüdischen Kampforganisation unter Mordechaj Anielewicz gelingt es in viertägigen
Kämpfen, die Deutschen zunächst wieder zu vertreiben.

Fin du siège de Léningrad.


Zwei Tage nach der Ankunft Adolf Hitlers in Berlin wird auf dem Wilhelmplatz in der Stadtmitte das letzte Aufgebot des Volkssturms filmisch festgehalten, darunter auch eine Rede des NS-Propagandaministers Joseph Goebbels mit dem bekannten Teil: „...unsere Mauern mögen brechen, aber unsere Herzen nie...“.


1947/0118:日本の藝人 ビートたけし北野武)1947--、誕生

Kitano Takeshi is a Japanese comedian, television personality, director, actor, author, and screenwriter.


1950/0118:F1ドライヴァ Gilles Villeneuve 195082、誕生

un pilote automobile canadien. Malgré un palmarès relativement peu étoffé (six victoires en Grand Prix), son style de pilotage hautement spectaculaire ainsi que sa mort tragique aux qualifications du GP de Belgique 1982 ont contribué à faire de lui l'une des légendes de la Formule 1.


1955/0118:アメリカの映画俳優 Kevin Costner 1955--、誕生

an American actor, director, producer, and musician. His accolades include two Academy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards and one Emmy Award.
Costner has played Eliot Ness in The Untouchables, Crash Davis in Bull Durham, Ray Kinsella in Field of Dreams, Lt. John J. Dunbar in Dances with Wolves, for which he won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture, Jim Garrison in JFK, Robin Hood in Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Frank Farmer in The Bodyguard, Roy McAvoy in Tin Cup, Jonathan Kent in the DC Extended Universe, and the Mariner in Waterworld.

1957/0118:日本の植物學者 牧野富太郎186257、死去

a pioneer Japanese botanist noted for his taxonomic work. He has been called "Father of Japanese Botany".
He was one of the first Japanese botanists to work extensively on classifying Japanese plants using the system developed by Linnaeus. His research resulted in documenting 50,000 specimens, many of which are represented in his Makino's Illustrated Flora of Japan.


Capital Airlines Flight 20 crashes into a farm in Charles City County, Virginia, killing all 50 aboard, the third fatal Capital Airlines crash in as many years.

Albert DeSalvo, the "Boston Strangler", is convicted of numerous crimes and is sentenced to life imprisonment.

United Airlines Flight 266 crashes into Santa Monica Bay killing all 32 passengers and six crew members.




A Disengagement of Forces agreement is signed between the Israeli and Egyptian governments, ending conflict on the Egyptian front of the Yom Kippur War.

Lebanese Christian militias kill at least 1,000 in Karantina, Beirut.


Australia's worst rail disaster occurs at Granville, Sydney killing 83.

SFR Yugoslavia's Prime minister, Džemal Bijedić, his wife and six others are killed in a plane crash in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The European Court of Human Rights finds the United Kingdom's government guilty of mistreating prisoners in Northern Ireland, but not guilty of torture.

Phil Smith and Phil Mayfield parachute off a Houston skyscraper, becoming the first two people to BASE jump from objects in all four categories: buildings, antennae, spans (bridges), and earth (cliffs).


1991/0118:イタリア彫刻家 Giacomo Manzù 190891、死去

uno scultore italiano.

Five Iraqi Scud missiles reach Tel Aviv and Haifa in Israel.

1995/0118:ドイツの生化学者 Adolf Butenandt 190395、死去

ein deutscher Biochemiker und Hochschullehrer. 1939 erhielt er den Nobelpreis für Chemie in Anerkennung seiner Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Steroidhormone.

The Airbus A380, the world's largest commercial jet, is unveiled at a ceremony in Toulouse, France


The strongest storm in the United Kingdom in 17 years kills 14 people and Germany sees the worst storm since 1999 with 13 deaths. Hurricane Kyrill causes at least 44 deaths across 20 countries in Western Europe.

The Euphronios Krater is unveiled in Rome after being returned to Italy by the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The Euphronios Krater (or Sarpedon krater) is an ancient Greek terra cotta calyx-krater, a bowl used for mixing wine with water. Created around the year 515 BC, it is the only complete example of the surviving 27 vases painted by the renowned Euphronios and is considered one of the finest Greek vase artifacts in existence.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

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