Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

今日が命日の女流標本画家 Maria Sibylla Merian 164717 Metamorphosis

歴史暦:古今東西 01/13 今日の出來事

0532/0113:コンスタンチノプルで「Nika riots」
In Constantinople, due to the rigid tax policy of Justinian I and his strict approach against the circus parties breaks out of the Nika rebellion.

0703/0113(大寶02/1222):日本041天皇 持統064502、崩御

L'impératrice Jitō (持統天皇, Jitō Tennō?) était le 41me Empereur du Japon, selon l'ordre traditionnel de la succession, et la troisième femme à occuper cette position. Elle a régné de 686 à 697.


0888/0113:ドイツ皇帝 Karl III 083988、崩去

Karl III. war von 876 bis 887 ostfränkischer König, von 879 bis 887 König von Italien, ab 882 Herrscher in Bayern, Franken und Sachsen, von 885 bis 888 westfränkischer König und von 881 bis 888 römischer Kaiser.
He was a great-grandson of Charlemagne. He was the second-last emperor of the Carolingian dynasty and the last to rule, briefly, over a re-united Frankish empire.

Eudes le comte de Paris a été élu au roi du royaume occidental Frank.

1001/0113(長保02/1216):一条天皇皇后 藤原定子097701、薨去

Fujiwara no Teishi est l'impératrice consort de l'empereur Ichijō 一条天皇09811 du Japon.






夜もすがら契りし事を忘れずは こひむ涙の色ぞゆかしき

création de l'Ordre du Temple lors du concile de Troyes.

ouverture du concile de Troyes, convoqué par le pape Honorius II, pour la reconnaissance de l'Ordre du Temple.




Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey is sentenced to death.

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, an English nobleman, was one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry. He was a first cousin of both Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Catherine Howard, second and fifth wives of King Henry VIII.

1599/0113:イギリス詩人 Edmund Spenser 155299、死去

an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I.
He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.

Shakespeare announces "The Merry Wives of Windsorr".

The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare first published in 1602, though believed to have been written in or before 1597.


The Bank of Genoa fails after announcement of national bankruptcy in Spain.

1691/0113:クヱカ開祖 George Fox 162491、死去

an English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
While his movement attracted disdain from some, others such as William Penn and Oliver Cromwell viewed Fox with respect.

1717/0113:ドイツの標本画家 Maria Sibylla Merian 164717、死去

eine Naturforscherin und Künstlerin.
a German-born naturalist and scientific illustrator, a descendant of the Frankfurt branch of the Swiss Merian family, founders of one of Europe's largest publishing houses in the 17th century.


In the Treaty of Madrid, Spain and Portugal agree on a redefinition of the borders of their possessions in South America.


Am Nationaltheater Mannheim erfolgt die Uraufführung von Friedrich Schillers Sturm und Drang-Drama Die Räuber unter der Regie von Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg.

Nicolas Jean Hugon de Bassville, representative of Revolutionary France, lynched by a mob in Rome

1797/0113:French Revolutionary Wars:
A naval battle between a French ship of the line and two British frigates off the coast of Brittany ends with the French vessel running aground, resulting in over 900 deaths.

Début de l'engagement naval au cours duquel eut lieu le naufrage du Droits de l'Homme, au retour de l'expédition d'Irlande.

1815/0113:War of 1812:
 British troops capture Fort Peter in St. Marys, Georgia, the only battle of the war to take place in the state.

1864/0113:USAソングライタ Stephen Foster 182664、死去

known as "the father of American music", was an American songwriter known primarily for his parlor and minstrel music.
Foster wrote over 200 songs; among his best-known are "Oh! Susanna", "Hard Times Come Again No More", "Camptown Races", "Old Folks at Home" ("Suwanee River"), "My Old Kentucky Home", "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair", "Old Black Joe", and "Beautiful Dreamer"

His Death
Foster became ill with a fever in January 1864. Weakened, he fell in his hotel in the Bowery, cutting his neck. His writing partner George Cooper found him still alive, naked, lying in a pool of blood. He died in Bellevue Hospital three days later, at age 37.
この時の彼の所持品はわずか38セントの小銭と「dear friends and gentle hearts」と走り書きされた紙片だけであった。


The Great Fire of New Orleans begins.

The steamship Lexington burns and sinks four miles off the coast of Long Island with the loss of 139 lives.

Dr. William Brydon, an assistant surgeon in the British East India Company Army during the First Anglo-Afghan War, becomes famous for being the sole survivor of an army of 4,500 men and 12,000 camp followers when he reaches the safety of a garrison in Jalalabad, Afghanistan.

The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the Mexican–American War in California.


1849/0113:ドイツの醫師 Erwin von Bälz 184913、誕生

ein deutscher Internist, Tropenmediziner, Anthropologe und Leibarzt der Kaiserlichen Familie von Japan.
Gemeinsam mit dem ebenfalls aus Deutschland stammenden Chirurgen Julius Scriba gilt er als Mitbegründer der modernen Medizin in Japan.

He was a foreigner invited for importing Western culture at Meiji Restoration, teaching medicine in Japan for 27 years and contributing to the development of Japanese medicine.
While living in Japan, he logged sympathetically and critically about the Japanese and the Japanese in the Meiji period in diaries and letters.

≫ 不思議なことに、今の日本人は自分自身の過去についてはなにも知りたくないのだ。それどころか、教養人たちはそれを恥じてさえいる。「いや、なにもかもすべて野蛮でした」、「われわれには歴史はありません。われわれの歴史は今、始まるのです」という日本人さえいる。このような現象は急激な変化に対する反動から来ることはわかるが、大変不快なものである。日本人たちがこのように自国固有の文化を軽視すれば、かえって外国人の信頼を得ることにはならない。なにより、今の日本に必要なのはまず日本文化の所産のすべての貴重なものを検討し、これを現在と将来の要求に、ことさらゆっくりと慎重に適応させることなのだ。

1864/0113:ドイツの科學者 Wilhelm Wien 186428、誕生

ein deutscher Physiker.
Er erforschte vor allem die Gesetzmäßigkeiten der Wärmestrahlung und erhielt 1911 dafür den Nobelpreis für Physik.

In 1911, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics by "Discovery of Laws of Heat Radiation".

1864/0113(文久03/1205):日本の発明家 屋井先蔵186427、誕生

Ya'i Sakizou、Invented Japanese inventors, dry batteries.


1872/0113(明治04/1204):日本の刺客 河上彦齋183472、死去

Kawakami Gensai était un partisan de l’Empereur du Japon et un des quatre célèbres hitokiri ou assassin (littéralement destructeur d’homme) à la période du Bakumatsu (milieu du XIXe siècle).


東京で「マイナス 9.2度」を記録(今も東京の最低気温記録)

"Minus 9.2 degrees" recorded in Tokyo (still the lowest temperature record in Tokyo)

1877/0113:神祕思想家 George Gurdieff 186649、誕生

en Arménie alors dans l'empire russe et mort le 29 octobre 1949, était un mystique, philosophe, professeur spirituel et compositeur influent au début du XXe siècle.
Gurdjieff pensait que la plupart des humains ne possèdent pas une conscience unifiée esprit-émotion-corps et vivent leur vie dans un état hypnotique de «sommeil éveillé», mais qu'il est possible de passer à un état supérieur de conscience et d'atteindre le plein potentiel humain.
Gurdjieff a élaboré une méthode qui tente d’atteindre ce potentiel, il a nommé cette discipline Le travail (sur soi) ou la méthode. Selon ses principes et instructions, cette méthode pour éveiller sa conscience unit les méthodes du fakir, du moine ou du yogi, il l'appela la Quatrième voie.

The National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D.C.

1893/0113:USA雜誌小説家 Clark Ashton Smith189361、誕生

a self-educated American poet, sculptor, painter and author of fantasy, horror and science fiction short stories.

1893/0113:ロシアの画家 Chaïm Soutine 189343、誕生

Хаим Соломонович Сутин est un peintre russe juif émigré en France, né en 1893 ou 1894 dans le village de Smilovitchi, à cette époque dans l'Empire russe, et mort à Paris le 9 août 1943.

The Independent Labour Party of the United Kingdom holds its first meeting.

1894/0113:ロシアの慈善家 Nadezhda von Meck 183194、死去

Надежда Филаретовна фон Мекк
Russian philanthropist, the wife of the railway tycoon Karl Fedorovich von Mecca, the hostess of the Pleshcheyevo estate near Moscow. Known mainly for his relations with Пётр Чайковский 184093, with whom she corresponded for a long time and who in every possible way patronized.

She also hired a boyhood Claude Debussy 186218 as her daughter's piano teacher. Debussy fell into a romantic relationship with her daughter and knew about it, and she fired him ragely.

She became patron of the composer Tchaikovsky and continued funding for 6000 rubles per year for 14 years from 1877. She exchanged letters with Tchaikovsky but never met.

1895/0113:第一次イタリア・エチオピア戦争「Battle of Coatit」
First Italo-Ethiopian War: the war's opening battle occurs; it is an Italian victory.

Publication de l'article J'accuse…! par Émile Zola dans le quotidien L'Aurore, lors de l'affaire Dreyfus.

1906/0113:ソ連の科學者 Alexandre Popov 185906、死去

Александр Степанович Попов
русский физик и электротехник, профессор, изобретатель, статский советник (1901), Почётный инженер-электрик (1899). Один из изобретателей радио.
a Russian physicist who is acclaimed in his homeland and some eastern European countries as the inventor of radio.

1908/0113:日本畫家 橋本雅邦183508、死去

Hashimoto Gahō est un peintre japonais, l'un des derniers représentants de l'école Kanō 狩野派.



The Rhoads Opera House fire in Boyertown, Pennsylvania kills 171 people.

Henri Farman crosses a closed circuit of one kilometer over the Issy-les-Moulineaux field, setting a new world record.

Le Français Henri Farman gère avec son biplan le premier vol motorisé sur une distance de plus d'un kilomètre. Il reçoit le Grand Prix d'Aviation pour cela.

The Metropolitan Opera in New York City is the first opera broadcast in the history of radio broadcasting Enrico Caruso's voice.

The first public radio broadcast takes place; a live performance of the operas Cavalleria rusticana and Pagliacci are sent out over the airwaves from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York.

1911/0113:日本の俳優 森雅之191173、誕生

Mori Masayuki was a Japanese actor, the son of Arishima Takeo 有島武郎187823 , a Japanese novelist active during the late Meiji and Taishō periods. Mori appeared in many of Akira Kurosawa's films such as Rashomon 羅生門 and The Idiot 白痴. He also starred in pictures by Kenji Mizoguchi (Ugetsu 雨月物語), Mikio Naruse (Floating Clouds 浮雲) and other prominent directors.

An unemployed naval chef stabbed at Rembrandt's painting The Night Watch with a knife at the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum.

un terremoto nella regione di Avezzano, nell'Italia centrale, causa quasi 30.000 morti.

The 6.7 Mw Avezzano earthquake shakes the Province of L'Aquila in Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing between 29,978–32,610.

In one of the most serious railway accidents in the world, a train overcrowded with wounded Russian soldiers and refugees derailed at the station in the Romanian town of Ciurea. The accident requires between 600 and 1000 deaths.

1924/0113:オウストリ哲學者 Paul Karl Feyerabend 192494、誕生

ein österreichischer Philosoph und Wissenschaftstheoretiker.
At various different points in his life, he lived in England, the United States, New Zealand, Italy, Germany, and finally Switzerland. His major works include Against Method (published in 1975), Science in a Free Society (published in 1978) and Farewell to Reason (a collection of papers published in 1987). Feyerabend became famous for his purportedly anarchistic view of science and his rejection of the existence of universal methodological rules

1927/0113:南アの生物学者 Sydney Brenner 1927--、誕生

a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Bob Horvitz and John Sulston.
Brenner made significant contributions to work on the genetic code, and other areas of molecular biology

1929/0113:USA保安官 Wyatt Earp 184829、死去

Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was an American Old West gambler, a deputy sheriff in Pima County, and deputy town marshal in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, who took part in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, during which lawmen killed three outlaw cowboys.
He is often mistakenly regarded as the central figure in the shootout in Tombstone, although his brother Virgil was Tombstone city marshal and deputy U.S. marshal that day, and had far more experience as a sheriff, constable, marshal, and soldier in combat.

Tombstone in 1881

In his later years he settled in Los Angeles and became a legendary living witness of the Western Pioneering era, influencing John Ford's movie director's Western movie production.

The British Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition under Sir Douglas Mawson discovers a group of ten small islands named Aagaard Islands.

1935/0113:Sarre 住民、ナチドイツへの歸屬が壓倒的多數
A plebiscite in Saarland shows that 90.3% of those voting wish to join Nazi Germany.

In der Saarabstimmung entscheiden sich 90,7 Prozent der Teilnehmer für die Wiedereingliederung des Saargebiets in das Deutsche Reich. Vor der Abstimmung wird vermutlich erstmals auch der Spruch „Heim ins Reich“ verwendet.

The Black Friday bush fires burn 20,000 square kilometers of land in Australia, claiming the lives of 71 people.

1941/0113:アイルランド作家 James Joyce 188241、死去

an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century.

Joyce is best known for Ulysses (1922), a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, perhaps most prominently stream of consciousness.
Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). His other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters and occasional journalism.

 First use of an aircraft ejection seat by a German test pilot in a Heinkel He 280 jet fighter.

Mit dem Angriff auf Königsberg durch die 3. Weißrussische Front der Roten Armee beginnt die bis zum 25. April dauernde Schlacht um Ostpreußen im Zweiten Weltkrieg.

A heavy air attack by the British Royal Air Force with 274 aircraft is directed against Saarbrücken.


Ho Chi Ming declared independence of the Vietnamese Democratic Republic (North Vietnam).

First Indochina War: The Battle of Vĩnh Yên begins.

Tito assumes the President of Yugoslavia.


Doctors conspiracy: In a Pravda article, some of the most respected and well-known doctors in the Soviet Union (many of them Jews) are accused of involvement in an alleged plot to assassinate the supreme Soviet political and military leadership.

An article appears in Pravda accusing some of the most prestigious and prominent doctors, mostly Jews, in the Soviet Union of taking part in a vast plot to poison members of the top Soviet political and military leadership.

Wham-O produces the Pluto plates developed by Walter Frederic Morrison, later known as Frisbee discs.

The Moroccan Army of Liberation ambushes a Spanish patrol in the Battle of Edchera.

1963/0113:USAジャズピアニスト Sonny Clark 193163、死去

an American jazz pianist who mainly worked in the hard bop idiom.

Coup d'état in Togo results in the assassination of president Sylvanus Olympio

The first president of Togo, Sylvanus Olympio, is assassinated by putschists under the leadership of Gnassingbé Eyadéma. Nicolas Grunitzky is appointed as the new head of state of Togo.

Anti-Muslim riots break out in Calcutta, resulting in 100 deaths.

In Togo, Gnassingbé Eyadéma again assassins. President Nicolas Grunitzky has to flee abroad. Gnassingbé Eyadéma takes over his duties.


Prime Minister Kofi Abrefa Busia and President Edward Akufo-Addo of Ghana are ousted in a bloodless military coup by Colonel Ignatius Kutu Acheampong.

1982/0113:Marcel Camus 191282、死去

réalisateur français
Il est surtout connu pour son film Orfeu Negro, succès mondial, Palme d'or du festival de Cannes 1959 et Oscar du meilleur film étranger l'année suivante.

Shortly after takeoff, Air Florida Flight 90, a Boeing 737 jet, crashes into Washington, D.C.'s 14th Street Bridge and falls into the Potomac River, killing 78 including four motorists.

A passenger train plunges into a ravine in Ethiopia, killing 428 in the worst railroad disaster in Africa.

A month-long violent struggle begins in Aden, South Yemen between supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad and Abdul Fattah Ismail, resulting in thousands of casualties.


Lee Teng-hui becomes the first native Taiwanese President of the Republic of China.

A seven-day pogrom breaks out against the Armenian civilian population of Baku, Azerbaijan, during which Armenians were beaten, tortured, murdered, and expelled from the city.

Soviet Union troops attack Lithuanian independence supporters in Vilnius, killing 14 people and wounding around 1000 others.


Der ehemalige Staats- und Parteichef in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik Erich Honecker und seine Frau Margot gehen ins Exil nach Chile.

The former state and party leader in the German Democratic Republic Erich Honecker and his wife Margot go into exile in Chile.

1993/0113:USA「Space Shuttle program」
 Endeavour heads for space for the third time as STS-54 launches from the Kennedy Space Center.

Skyscraper Taipei 101 started construction.

The passenger cruise ship Costa Concordia sinks off the coast of Italy due to the captain's negligence and irresponsibility. There are 32 confirmed deaths.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

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