Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

今日が誕生日のErnst Barlach 187038の吊された天使

歴史暦:古今東西 01/02 今日の出來事


Vitellius est proclamé empereur des armées de Germanie inférieure et supérieure par ses légions.

In the Four Emperor's Year, Aulus Vitellius in Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium is proclaimed by his legions Roman emperor, although Galba is already ruling in Rome.

This is the Roman Empire 

The Alemanni cross the frozen Rhine in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire.


Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy.

Mercurius devient pape sous le nom de Jean II. Il est le premier pape à prendre un nouveau nom pour son avènement.


In the Peace of Perónne, the French King Philip II and Count Baldwin IX of Flanders agree on disputed ownership claims in the Artois.

Herzog Wartislaw IX von Pommern-Wolgast gesteht den Städten Stralsund, Greifswald, Demmin und Anklam im Goldenen Privileg bestimmte Rechte zu.

Duke Wartislaw IX of Pommern-Wolgast grants certain rights to the cities of Stralsund, Greifswald, Demmin and Anklam in the Golden Privilege.

 the Emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.

With the capitulation of the last Sultan of Granada, Boabdil, before the army of Catholic Kings Ferdinand of Aragón and Isabella of Castile, the Moorish rule on the Iberian Peninsula finally ends and the Reconquista is over.
Reconquista とは、0718~1492におこなはれたキリスト教國によるイベリア半島の「再征服」運動。

1497/0102:Beatrice d'Este 147597、死去

Duchess of Bari and Milan by marriage to Ludovico Sforza (known as "il Moro"). She was reputed as one of the most beautiful and accomplished princesses of the Italian Renaissance.
A member of the Este family, she was the younger daughter of Ercole I d'Este and the sister of Isabella d'Este and Alfonso d'Este. Along with her sister, Beatrice was noted for her excellent taste in fashion and for having invented new clothing styles.

Leonard da Vinci 145219 がフィレンチェからミラノに職を求めて行った先の君主がルドヴィコ「イルモロ」で、レオナルドはそこで彼等を慰めるために多忙となった。


三河物語』や『松平記』によれば、石川數正153393 は天正十二年春の時点ですでに秀吉に篭絡されつゝあったやうだ。しかし、理由は謎で、今も謎のまゝである。一益は家康の懐刀と云ってもいい側近中の側近であり、徳川の軍事的機密を知り尽くしており、この出奔は徳川にとって深刻な衝撃となり、以後、徳川軍は武田流を參考に軍事を改變することになる。



L'Académie française est par le roi français Louis XIII. élevé à une institution d'État.

1680/0102:インド「Trunajaya rebellion」
 Amangkurat II of Mataram and his bodyguards stabbed Trunajaya to death a month after the rebel leader was captured by the Dutch East India Company.

1733/0102:フランス『Courrier d'Avignon』刊行
Le journal français Courrier d'Avignon est publié pour la première fois.

# Le Courrier d'Avignon est un journal qui a occupé une place importante dans la presse internationale de langue française du XVIIIe siècle.

The Courrier d'Avignon was a newspaper which had an important role in the international French-language press of the 18th century. Published in the papal enclave within the kingdom of France, then in Monaco, it escaped the system controlling the press within France itself (privilege with permission) despite being under papal control. It appeared from 1733 to 1793 with two breaks, the first between July 1768 and August 1769 due to Avignon's annexation by France and the second between 30 November 1790 and 24 May 1791.

1777/0102:American Revolutionary War:
 American forces under the command of George Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek near Trenton, New Jersey.

Prise de Mrauk-U par Bodawpaya.

Mrauk U (formerly known as Myohaung) is an archaeologically important town in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar. It is also the capital of Mrauk-U Township, a sub region of the Mrauk-U District. From 1430 until 1785, it was the capital of the Mrauk U Kingdom, the most important and powerful Rakhine (Arakanese) kingdom.

1791/0102:USA、北西インディアン戦争「Big Bottom massacre」
 in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.

It is considered part of the Northwest Indian Wars, in which Native Americans in the Ohio Country confronted American settlers, regular soldiers and militia, seeking to expel them from their territory.

Die Uraufführung des Gesamtwerks des Requiems von Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart fand im Saal der Restauration Jahn in Wien statt.

The world premiere of the complete works of the Requiem by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart took place in the hall of the Restauration Jahn in Vienna.

Batalla de Zitácuaro (Guerra de Independencia de México).

# The Battle of Zitácuaro was a battle of the War of Mexican Independence that occurred on 12 July 1811 in the area around Zitácuaro, Michoacán. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire.

The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded.

1822/0102:Rudolf Clausius 182288、誕生

ein deutscher Physiker. Clausius gilt als Entdecker des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermodynamik, Schöpfer der Begriffe Entropie und Virial, sowie einer der ersten theoretischen Physiker in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts.
He established an important foundation of thermodynamics, including formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, introduction of the concept of entropy.
He was a contemporary of Hermann von Helmholtz, James Prescott Joule, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Johann Josef Loschmidt, Ludwig Boltzmann and James Clerk Maxwell.

1831/0102:Barthold Georg Niebuhr 177631、死去

ein bedeutender deutscher Althistoriker.
Ein Historiker, der sich auf antike Geschichte spezialisiert hat. Es wird gesagt, einer der Vorfahren der modernen Geschichte zu sein.

He wrote the "Roman History" that he read out in a critical spirit that thoroughly outlines historical materials such as myths and traditions of Roman history, and objectively described it. It can be said that his method had a great influence on Leopold Ranke 179586 which established modern history.

Reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.




Die Oper Der fliegende Holländer(さまよへるオランダ人)von Richard Wagner wird in Dresden mit mäßigem Erfolg uraufgeführt. Bereits nach vier Aufführungen wird sie wieder vom Spielplan genommen.

The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris, France.

The astronomer and mathematician Urbain Le Verrier represents in a lecture in Paris the well-founded opinion that there must be a planet he called volcano within the Mercury orbit. It then begins its search by astronomers.

1863/0102:American Civil War:
 The Battle of Stones River (a.k.a. Battle of Murfreesboro) resumes in central Tennessee after a day's respite, resulting in a significant Union victory.

1865/0102:ウルグァイ「Uruguayan War」
: The Siege of Paysandú ends as Brazilian and Coloradans capture Paysandú, Uruguay.

1868/0102:DragonTree 龍血樹、嵐に倒される
On Tenerife, a century-old dragon tree falls by a storm near La Orotava. The plant was a famous tourist attraction.


1870/0102:Ernst Barlach 187038、誕生

ein deutscher Bildhauer, Schriftsteller und Zeichner. Barlach ist besonders bekannt für seine Holzplastiken und Bronzen.

Der Berserker (1910)
Magdeburger Ehrenmal (1928/1929)

1873/0102:Thérèse de Lisieux 187397、誕生

une religieuse carmélite française フランスの夭折した聖女

Sœur Thérèse de l'Enfant-Jésus et de la Sainte-Face en 1894

≫ Je veux passer mon ciel à faire du bien sur la terre.Je ferai tomber une pluie de roses. I want to spend my heaven doing good on the earth. I'll drop a rain of roses

1877/0102:Alexander Bain 181177、死去

a Scottish inventor and engineer who was first to invent and patent the electric clock. He installed the railway telegraph lines between Edinburgh and Glasgow.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Bain-clock.jpg Electric clock, Alexander Bain, London, ca. 1845

Bain's improved facsimile 1850

John D. Rockefeller joins the standard network of Standard Oil Company to the Standard Oil Trust.

1896/0102:Dziga Vertov 189654、誕生

(Дави́д А́белевич Ка́уфман), cinéaste soviétique ソ連の動画撮影者
советский кинорежиссёр, один из основателей и теоретиков документального кино.
Soviet film director, one of the founders and theoreticians of documentary films.

Along with Robert Flaherty 188451 and Joris Ivens 189889 he was said to be the creator of documentary films.
After overseeing several feature documentaries, he oversees the "Человек с киноаппаратом man with a camera" (1929), which should also be called the culmination of his film theory. It was a cutting-edge work that used many state-of-the-art photography techniques at the time, such as multiple exposures, stop motion, slow motion, fast turn, and moving photography.


末弟の Борис Кауфман は フランスの映画作家 Jean Vigo 190534 の『操行ゼロ』や『アタラント号』、エリア カザンの『波止場』などの撮影を担当した。

The Jameson Raid, an invasion by Leander Jameson of British troops into the territory of the South African Republic, ends in failure after the Boers resist.


Itami Mansaku, de son vrai nom Yoshitoyo Ikeuchi, est un réalisateur et scénariste japonais.


In Wien erscheint die erste Ausgabe der Kronen Zeitung. Herausgeber der neuen Tagesgazette ist Gustav Davis.


American statesman and diplomat John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.

Sigmund Freud publiziert seine Arbeit Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens.

Sigmund Freud publishes his work on the psychopathology of everyday life.

Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China.

The Russian fortress Port Arthur capitulates after months of siege by Japanese troops in the Russo-Japanese War.

In Berlin führt die DeutscheReichs post den bargeldlosen Zahlungsverkehr mittels Postschecks ein.

In Berlin, the German Reichs Post introduces cashless payment by post office check.

1913/0102:Léon Teisserenc de Bort 185513、死去

un météorologue français qui développa l'observation et l'étude de l'atmosphère par l'utilisation de ballons instrumentés. Il fut aussi le découvreur de la stratosphère. Des cratères sur la Lune et sur Mars portent son nom.

退職後 Trappes に個人の気象観測所を作り、無人観測気球を使った高空の気象の実験を行った。高空の観測に無人気球をつかった最初の科学者となった。

1920/0102:Isaac Asimov 192092、誕生

He was known for his works of science fiction and popular science. Asimov was a prolific writer, and wrote or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards
Asimov wrote hard science fiction and, along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke, he was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime

The second Palmer Raid takes place with another 6,000 suspected communists and anarchists arrested and held without trial. These raids take place in several U.S. cities.


The sinking of the Spanish steamer Santa Isabel off Villagarcia / Galicia kills 213 people and 56 can be saved.

1927/0102:Achad Ha'am 185627、死去

Ascher Hirsch Ginsberg (russisch Ушер Исаевич (Ушер Хирш) Гинцберг Uscher Issajewitsch (Uscher Chirsch) Ginzberg, hebräisch אשר צבי (הירש) גינצברג Āšēr Zvī (Hīrš) Gīnzberg; bekannt unter seinem Pseudonym Achad Ha'am (hebräisch ‚Einer aus dem Volk‘), war ein zionistischer Aktivist, Journalist und Hauptvertreter des später so genannten Kulturzionismus, der Lehre vom „geistigen Zentrum“ (hebräisch merkas rūchanī מרכז רוחני) in Palästina.
He became the central figure of "psychological Zionism" against Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl 186004l's "political Zionism".



Ikeda Daisaku, born 2 January 1928, Japan) is a Buddhist philosopher, educator, author, and nuclear disarmament advocateHe has served as the third president and then honorary president of the Soka Gakkai, the largest of Japan's new religious movements

Der Spielfilm Emil und die Detektive von Gerhard Lamprecht nach dem gleichnamigen Roman von Erich Kästner hat seine Uraufführung in Berlin.

The feature film Emil and the detectives by Gerhard Lamprecht based on the eponymous novel by Erich Kästner have their world premiere in Berlin.


The Japanese captured Jinzhou, occupying all of Northeast China.

1937/0102:イギリス、戦艦『Prince of Wales』建造開始 ~1939進水。

The construction of British battleship "Prince of Wales" begins. Launched in 1939.

German bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) convicts 33 members of a German spy ring headed by Fritz Joubert Duquesne in the largest espionage case in United States history—the Duquesne Spy Ring.

The largest espionage case in US history ends with the sentencing of 33 German agents of the Duquesne spy ring to imprisonment, which adds up to over 300 years.

 Manila, Philippines is captured by Japanese forces.


ポウトモレスビ作戦: ニュウギニアのブナで日本軍が玉砕

Operation of Port Moresby: Japanese troops crushing in Beech in New Guinea


 Nuremberg, Germany is severely bombed by Allied forces.

Nuremberg is largely destroyed in an Allied air raid in the Second World War. Above all, the historically valuable old town is virtually razed to the ground.

1950/0102:Emil Jannings188450、死去

in deutscher Schauspieler. Er erhielt den ersten Oscar überhaupt und ist gleichzeitig der bislang einzige Deutsche, der als bester Hauptdarsteller ausgezeichnet wurde.



At the general public in the Imperial Palace, an accident happens to domino knock down on the NijuuBashi entering the Imperial Palace, and 16 people die.

The lost Inca city Paititi is discovered by Hans Ertl near the Rio Chinijo.

Panamanian president José Antonio Remón Cantera is assassinated.


This zile cutting developed into a social problem called "Nylon Zile incident", the novel by Yasushi Inoue "氷壁 Ice wall" began to take a topic and the mountaineering boom began in Japan, then Kamikochi and Azusagawa became a tourist spot.



From this year Hakone Ekiden will go out on the 2nd of January and return on the 3rd will be held.

1959/0102:ソ連「Luna 1」,
 the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and to orbit the Sun, is launched by the Soviet Union.


Suicide by jumping on ANA machines in Osaka line via Iwakuni from Oita Airport. After that, 25 unexploded dynamites were found from the flight toilet.

1960/0102:Fausto Coppi 191960、死去

un ciclista su strada e pistard italiano.
Nicknamed "the Campionissimo" or "l'Airone", he was the most famous and winning rider of the golden age of cycling and is considered one of the greatest and most popular athletes of all time.
A formidable passista, exceptional climber, and equipped with a good fast cue, he was a complete rider and suitable for any type of road competition.

John F. Kennedy announces that he will run for the US presidential election.

Vietnam War: The Viet Cong wins its first major victory.


He was one of the most faithful disciples of Kanzo Uchimura, a nonchurchist Christian, who took care of his death. It is also said that he was a model of the poem "Ame Nimo Makezu" by Kenji Miyazawa.




The pachinko sniper case against Emperor Showa occurred at the general public.


原一男の『ゆきゆきて、神軍』は奥崎謙三のドキュメントが内容。ドキュメンタリ作家のマイケル・ムアが「生涯観た映画の中でも最高のドキュメンタリだ」と評してゐる。私も、この映画を見て、映像の奥崎の迫力に圧倒された。 YouTube にあるかも知れない。

The Beatles begin filming the documentary Let It Be at Twickenham Film Studios.

The second Ibrox disaster kills 66 fans at a Rangers-Celtic association football (soccer) match.


Masao Ohoba is the fifth defense success in the boxing world flyweight title match. (Died in a traffic accident on January 25 the same year)

A bomb blast at Samastipur, Bihar, India, fatally wounds Lalit Narayan Mishra, Minister of Railways


Dan Kazuo est un poète et romancier japonais.

代表作は、律子夫人の没後に描いた『リツ子 その愛』『リツ子 その死』、時代娯楽作品も人気があり『真説石川五右衛門』(1950年、第24回直木賞受賞)、『夕日と拳銃』など、また20年以上に亘り、書き継がれライフワークとなった遺作『火宅の人』(1986年、東映で異父弟のプロデューサーの高岩淡の企画、深作欣二監督、緒形拳主演により映画化)など。

The Gale of January 1976 begins, which results in coastal flooding around the southern North Sea coasts, resulting in at least 82 deaths and US$1.3 billion in damage.

Nella Basilica di San Lorenzo a Firenze sono scoperti affreschi sconosciuti, forse di Michelangelo.

In the Basilica di San Lorenzo in Florence unknown frescoes are uncovered, possibly by Michelangelo.

1977/0102:Erroll Garner 192177、死去

an American jazz pianist and composer known for his swing playing and ballads. His best-known composition, the ballad "Misty", has become a jazz standard.

Concert by the Sea (1955), Columbia CL883

1978/0102:Arnold Hauser 189278、死去

a Hungarian art historian who was perhaps the leading Marxist in the field. He wrote on the influence of change in social structures on art. His The Social History of Art (1951) argued that art—which, after a paleolithic period of naturalism, began as "flat, symbolic, formalized, abstract and concerned with spiritual beings"—became more realistic and naturalistic as societies became less hierarchical and authoritarian, and more mercantile and bourgeois (Harrington).
He was influenced by Georg Simmel 185818l, Ernst Troeltsch 186523, Max Dvořák 187421, György Lukács 188571, Karl Mannheim 189347 and others. In addition, he integrated the art history with sociology, historical studies, ideological history and so on.

1951: Sozialgeschichte der Kunst und Literatur (The Social History of Art and Literature)
1958: Philosophie der Kunstgeschichte (The Philosophy of Art History)
1964: Der Manierismus. Die Krise der Renaissance und der Ursprung der modernen Kunst (Mannerism: The Crisis of the Renaissance and the Origin of Modern Art)
1974: Soziologie der Kunst (The Sociology of Art)
1978: Im Gespräch mit Georg Lukács kleiner Sammelband mit drei Interviews und dem Essay „Variationen über das tertium datur bei Georg Lukács“

One of the largest investigations by a British police force ends when serial killer Peter Sutcliffe, the "Yorkshire Ripper", is arrested in Sheffield, South Yorkshire.

Southwest of Cairo, the remains of a 32 million year old primate are found, the Aegyptopithecus zeuxis.

1993/0102:Sri Lankan Civil War:
 The Sri Lanka Navy kill 35-100 civilians on the Jaffna Lagoon.

1998/0102:Massacre de Ramka (guerre civile algérienne).

# Le massacre de Ramka désigne un massacre qui a eu lieu durant la guerre civile algérienne dans la nuit du 2 au 3 janvier 1998 en Algérie dans trois villages de la wilaya de Relizane, au cours duquel environ 1 000 personnes ont été égorgées par le Groupe islamique armé, selon la déclaration d'Ahmed Ouyahia lors d'une conférence de presse en 2006 à la résidence Djenane El Mithaq, à Alger1.



A brutal snowstorm smashes into the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches (359 mm) of snow in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches (487 mm) in Chicago, where temperatures plunge to -13 °F (-25 °C); 68 deaths are reported.

Levy Mwanawasa is elected president of Zambia in a poll described by EU observers as "chaotic and not entirely fair".

Eduardo Duhalde takes office as President of Argentina. He is the fifth president of Argentina within just 13 days.

2011/0102:Anne Francis 193011、死去

Her distinctive physical features were her blonde hair, striking blue eyes, and a small mole just to the right of her lower lip. The mole was even written into the script of one of her films


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

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