Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 12/12 今日の出來事



西晉 Xishjin (0265 - 0316) is a dynasty established by Shiba 司馬炎023690. When it was a foundation, it was a dynasty that dominated the northern part of China and the southwest part, but it destroyed Wu and unified the whole of China, unified China that had been divided since the late Han Han period in 100 years. Although the name of the country is simply "Jin", it is called "Xi Jin" to distinguish it from the regime "East Jin" after the capital to Yongkang.


Li Yuan's army smashed Daxing City, capital of the Sui Dynasty.


# 唐高祖李淵056635,字「叔德」,隴西成紀(甘肅省秦安縣葉堡鄉)人,中國北方貴族出身,唐朝開國皇帝,在位(0618/0618~0626/0904。

0627/1212:ビザンチンvsペルシア「Battle of Nineveh」
A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II's Persian forces, commanded by General Rhahzadh.

Bataille de Ninive. Le basileus Héraclius Ier remporte une victoire décisive sur les Sassanides de l'empereur Khosro II.

The Byzantines under Emperor Heraclea's triumph at the Battle of Nineveh over the Sassanids under General Rhazates, who falls in battle. The battle decides the last Roman-Persian war in favor of Ostrom / Byzantium.

0884/1212:Carloman II 086784、崩去

Fils de Louis II dit le Bègue et d’Ansgarde de Bourgogne.

Louis III et Carloman II, rois de France, fils de Louis le Bègue

En 879, à la mort de mon père, le roi Louis II, il trône avec son frère Louis III. Certaines allégations ont fait valoir qu'ils devraient être un seul roi, mais à la fin, les deux frères sont devenus des rois. Bien qu'il y ait eu des doutes sur sa légitimité, la cadence des deux a été approuvée, et ils ont brisé la mort du père à Amiens en mars, Carloman II hérita de la Bourgogne et de l'Aquitaine.
Depuis que son frère Louis III est mort en août 882, Carloman II est devenu un seul roi. A cette époque, son royaume était dans un état misérable en raison de l'invasion des Normands.
Carloman II est décédé le 12 décembre 884 en raison d'un accident lors de la chasse. Héritage du trône a été fait en renommant Carl III qui était le roi de l'East Frank comme Charles III.

King Carloman II dies after a hunting accident. He is succeeded by his cousin, emperor Charles the Fat, who for the last time reunites the Frankish Empire.



「Fujihara Yoshiyo」

1098/1212:01十字軍、First Crusade「マアッラ攻囲戦」終結
 Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan: Crusaders breach the town's walls and massacre about 20,000 inhabitants. After finding themselves with insufficient food, they reportedly resort to cannibalism.

Godefroy de Bouillon arrive sur la mer de Marmara et ravage les environs de Selymbria.
1098: During the First Crusade, crusaders conquer the city of Maarat an-Numan, southeast of Antioch. All male residents are massacred, women and children enslaved. Cases of cannibalism have occurred due to the poor supply situation and shortage of food among the Crusaders, which has persisted for months.




The Order of the Dragon, a monarchical chivalric order, is created by Sigismund of Luxembourg, then king of Hungary.

Mariage du duc de Bedford, régent de France, avec Anne de Bourgogne, fille du duc de Bourgogne Jean sans Peur


「Ikkyū Sōjun」室町時代臨済宗大徳寺派の僧、詩人。
an eccentric, iconoclastic Japanese Zen Buddhist monk and poet. He had a great impact on the infusion of Japanese art and literature with Zen attitudes and ideals.
un moine et poète japonais. Célèbre dès son vivant, il connaît une postérité par l'influence qu'il a eue sur la culture dite de Higashiyama et surtout parce qu'il devient, à partir de l'époque d'Edo, le héros d'une littérature populaire le mettant en scène soit enfant soit adulte, les Ikkyūbanashi 一休咄.

1415應永22、京都の大徳寺の華叟宗曇(Kasou Soudon)に入門。「洞山三頓の棒」の公案に「有漏路より無漏路へ帰る 一休み 雨ふらば降れ 風ふかば吹け」と答へたことから華叟より「一休」の道号を授かる。

釈迦といふ いたづらものが世にいでて おほくの人をまよはすかな
女をば 法の御蔵と 云うぞ、げに 釈迦も達磨も ひょいひょいと生む
南無釈迦じゃ 娑婆じゃ地獄じゃ 苦じゃ楽じゃ どうじゃこうじゃと いうが愚かじゃ

この道を行けばどうなる? 一休さん「心配するな、なんとかなるわい」


a well-known merchant during the Sengoku period of the 16th century in Japan. His name has come down in Japanese cultural history because he followed Murata Jukō as an early proponent of wabi-cha, and was chanoyu teacher to Sen Rikyū.


After the death of Sultan Selim II his eldest son Murad III moves to the top of the Ottoman Empire. The new sultan soon has his five brothers murdered.

En France, la Paulette est introduite, une taxe qui assure aux fonctionnaires l'héritabilité de leurs emplois.

# La paulette, de son vrai nom droit annuel, était une taxe facultative qui permettait aux officiers qui la payaient de transmettre automatiquement leur office sous l'Ancien Régime français. Elle fut instaurée le 12 décembre 1604 sous le règne d'Henri IV de France. La paulette représente, au début du XVIIe siècle, 5 à 10 % des recettes de l'État.

Lors de la bataille de Tobago dans la guerre de Hollande, les forces françaises battent les défenseurs hollandais, qui en mars de cette année ont combattu une première tentative d'atterrissage par les Français sur l'île des Caraïbes de Tobago.

In the Battle of Tobago in the Dutch War, French forces defeat the Dutch defenders, who in March of that year fought off a first landing attempt by the French on the Caribbean island of Tobago.

1685/1212:John Pell 161185、死去

an English mathematician.

1766/1212:Johann Christoph Gottsched 170066、死去

ein deutscher Schriftsteller, Dramaturg, Sprachforscher und Literaturtheoretiker sowie Professor für Poetik, Logik und Metaphysik der Aufklärung.

1781/1212:American Revolutionary War「02 Battle of Ushant」
 A British fleet led by HMS Victory defeats a French fleet.

 becomes the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, five days after Delaware became the first.

Une armée de l'armée française sous le commandement de François Séverin Marceau défait une armée de 15000 personnes au Mans, qui participent au soulèvement de la Vendée.





1805/1212:William Lloyd Garrison 180579、誕生

a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer.
He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded with Isaac Knapp in 1831 and published in Massachusetts until slavery was abolished by Constitutional amendment after the American Civil War.

Serb Karageorges seizes Belgrade.

réunion des royaumes de Naples et de Sicile, création du royaume des Deux-Siciles.

1821/1212:Gustave Flaubert 182180、誕生

Prosateur de premier plan de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, Gustave Flaubert a marqué la littérature universelle par la profondeur de ses analyses psychologiques, son souci de réalisme, son regard lucide sur les comportements des individus et de la société, et par la force de son style dans de grands romans comme Madame Bovary (1857), Salammbô (1862), L'Éducation sentimentale (1869), ou le recueil de nouvelles Trois contes (1877).

Frobert vise à éliminer la subjectivité de l'auteur et à assimiler l'auteur à la personne en construction avec un styliste objectif et précis.
Ses mots "Mme Bovariy est censée être moi" aurait dit au cours du procès est une simple expression de sa croyance littéraire.

The Ottoman Empire recognizes the factual independence of Serbia, which Miloš Obrenović has fought for. International law, however, the country only in 1878 independent.

1862/1212:American Civil War、海戦
USS Cairo sinks on the Yazoo River, becoming the first armored ship to be sunk by a controlled mine.

1863/1212:Edvard Munch 186344、誕生

ein norwegischer Maler und Grafiker des Symbolismus.
In the 1890s Europe, where Munch produced many of his masterpieces, is an era called the art at the end of the century, as well as painters of the same age, left the realism and headed for pursuit of the mystery of human mind. Although the anxiety which is difficult to explain is deeply rooted in the work typified by "cry", it can be said that he expresses the world of the darkness of the human heart with a keen sensitivity


1866/1212:イギリス最惡の鉱山災害「Oaks explosion」
The worst mining disaster in England kills 361 miners and rescuers.


a samurai in Bakumatsu period Japan, and a close associate of Sakamoto Ryōma in the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate.

1889/1212:Robert Browning 181289、死去

an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the foremost Victorian poets.
His poems are known for their irony, characterization, dark humour, social commentary, historical settings, and challenging vocabulary and syntax.



"God's in his heaven. All's right with the world.(神、そらに知ろしめす。すべて世は事も無し)

1893/1212:Edward G. Robinson 189373、誕生

(Emanuel Goldenberg, dit), acteur américain


洗礼名は (Joseph Heco)。幼名は彦太郎。帰国後は「アメ彦」の通称で知られた。
the first Japanese person to be naturalized as a United States citizen and the first to publish a Japanese language newspaper.

Belo Horizonte, the first planned city in Brazil, is founded.

The officially founded Belo Horizonte becomes the capital of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. The small settlement around a farm has been developed by a city planner on the drawing board to the metropolis.

1897/1212:USA『Pim, Pam and Poum』初登場
first publication in the New York Journal of Pim, Pam and Poum, a cartoon series with the absolute record of longevity.

Inspired by Max and Moritz, the cartoon The Catjammer Kids by Rudolph Dirks is published for the first time in the New York Journal, following one of the longest-lived newspaper cartoons.


one of the most celebrated Japanese photographers of the twentieth century, particularly known for his portrayal of Tokyo and Akita Prefecture.
He took not only news photographs, but also all kinds of pictures including publicity photos, street snaps, portraits, stage photographs and the like. He is a two-person in the realism photograph, especially with a photographer living in the same era, Domon Ken 土門拳1990990.

Domen Fist liked a detailed description at a deep depth of field. On the other hand, Kimura shot soft focus with a shallow depth of field and was praised as a master of female portrait. 土門拳は深い被写界深度で克明な描写を好んだ。一方、木村は浅い被写界深度でソフトフォーカスに撮影し、女性ポートレートの名手とほめそやされた。

Guglielmo Marconi receives the first transatlantic radio signal (the letter "S" in Morse Code), at Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland.

première liaison transatlantique par signal sans-fil entre Terre-Neuve et les Cornouailles par Guglielmo Marconi.


un réalisateur japonais.

Gilles Deleuze a analysé l’esthétique d’Ozu dans son ouvrage Cinéma 2 : L’image-temps. Selon lui, l’œuvre de Yasujirō Ozu dans son ensemble « réussit à rendre visibles et sonores le temps et la pensée ». Ainsi, ➪https://is.gd/lLv6M7


1904/1212:Nicolas de Gunzburg 190481、誕生

un homme d'affaires d'origine russe.
He worked as an athlete, actor, producer and also had a tremendous influence on the fashion design world as an editor of top-notch fashion magazines such as "Vogue" "Harper's Bazaar". Calvin Klein, Bill Brasse, Oscar de la Renta and others are professing his influence.

Il fait la rencontre de Carl Theodor Dreyer à Paris. Il coproduit avec lui le film Vampyr (1932), dont il joue le rôle principal (Allan Gray) sous le nom d'écran de Julian West.
En 1934, il s'installa aux États-Unis, en Californie puis comme banquier à New York en 1936. Il y est rejoint par ses amis Fulco di Verdura et la princesse Natalie Paley.
Après avoir été rédacteur du Harper's Bazaar et rédacteur en chef du Town & Country, Gunzburg devient « rédacteur mode » du magazine américain Vogue, avec Diana Vreeland.


Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India.

King George V of the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck are enthroned as Emperor and Empress of India.

The British King George V is proclaimed Emperor of India at the Durbar (Court Day) in Delhi; it is the only imperial proclamation in India in the presence of the monarch during British colonial rule. As part of the coronation ceremony, he proclaimed the transfer of the capital of British India from Calcutta to the old mogul capital Delhi, or the newly created government district New Delhi.


1913/1212:エチオピア皇帝 Ménélik II 184413、崩去

(ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ), empereur d'Éthiopie de 1889 à 1913.
Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death in 1913. At the height of his internal power and external prestige, the process of territorial expansion and creation of the modern empire-state was completed by 1898, which expanded the Ethiopian Empire to the extent of the historic Aksumite Empire.



La Joconde, qui avait été volée au Louvre le 21 août 1911 par Vincenzo Peruggia, est retrouvée à Florence.

1915/1212:Frank Sinatra 191598、誕生

Francis Albert « Frank » Sinatra,
an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century.


Yuan Shikai, the first president of the Republic of China, proclaims himself Emperor Hongxian. However, the renewed Empire of China lasts only 83 days.

Der Deutsche Hugo Junkers flog das erste Ganzmetallflugzeug, die Junkers J 1.

# The Junkers J 1, nicknamed the Blechesel ("Tin Donkey" or "Sheet Metal Donkey"), was an experimental monoplane aircraft developed by Junkers & Co. It holds the distinction of being the world's first practical all-metal aircraft.

Germany communicates the will to peace negotiations with the allies to the United States.

1917/1212:Andrew Taylor Still 182817、死去

the founder of osteopathy and osteopathic medicine. He was also a physician and surgeon, author, inventor and Kansas territorial and state legislator.
He was one of the founders of Baker University, the oldest four-year college in the state of Kansas,

He believes that his own research and clinical observation suggest that muscle and skeletal mechanisms play a critical role in health and disease, and if they can provide appropriate stimulation to those muscles and skeletons, maintain health I thought that it must be able to do.
He thought, by correcting problems in the structure of the body, the body will function properly, self healing power will be improved. In addition, he thought about preventive medicine, thinking that the doctor should treat not only the disease but also the patient's mind and body as a whole.

Dans la nuit du 12 au 13 décembre, près de Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne dans les Alpes françaises, un grave accident ferroviaire survient lorsqu'un train militaire venant d'Italie déraille à cause d'une vitesse excessive avec des freins défaillants. L'ampleur de la catastrophe (estimée à 700 morts) est d'abord tenue secrète à cause de la Première Guerre mondiale par la censure militaire.


The Flag of Estonia is raised atop the Pikk Hermann for the first time.


1923/1212:Raymond Radiguet 190323、死去

un écrivain français. Talent très précoce, il a écrit deux romans ayant connu un grand succès critique et populaire, Le Diable au corps et Le Bal du comte d'Orgel, publiés alors qu'il abordait la vingtaine.

Quand j'avais 14 ans, j'ai rencontré une femme plus âgée qui avait l'apparence d'un «diable de corps physique», et par conséquent, mon école a été licenciée pour ne pas avoir étudié et refusé d'étudier.
À l'âge de quinze ans, son poème a été évalué par le poète Max Jacob, et Jacob a présenté ce jeune au poète Jean Cocteau.
Cocteau a présenté Radige à d'autres artistes et collègues littéraires. Grâce à un tel compagnon, L'Radige a déplacé le centre de gravité littéraire de la poésie à un roman et a commencé à écrire un long métrage vierge "Démon physique" basé sur ses propres expériences.

The Majlis of Iran votes to crown Reza Khan as the new Shah of Iran, starting the Pahlavi dynasty.

1927/1212:Robert Noyce 192790、誕生

nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley," co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation in 1968.
He is also credited (along with Jack Kilby) with the realization of the first integrated circuit or microchip that fueled the personal computer revolution and gave Silicon Valley its name

L'opéra en un acte de Darius Milhaud, Le pauvre matelot, à l'Opéra-Comique de Paris avec le livret de Jean Cocteau.

1928/1212:Chyngyz Aitmatov 192808、誕生

(Kyrgyz: Чыңгыз Айтматов, Çıñğız Aytmatov, چىڭعىز ايتماتوۋ [tʃɯŋˈʁɯs ɑjtˈmɑtəf]; Russian: Чинги́з Тореку́лович Айтма́тов, Chingiz Torekulovich Aytmatov) was a Soviet and Kyrgyz author who wrote in both Russian and Kyrgyz.
He is the best known figure in Kyrgyzstan's literature.

In 1958, it became to be evaluated in the Russian literary world by the "Jamila (Issue: Ğamijla, Dzhamila, Jamilya)". French poet Louisi Aragon acclaimed "Jamilia" as "the most beautiful love story of the world". "Jamilya" won the Lenin literary award in 1963.
In 1980, the first novel novel "The Day Lasts More than a Hundred Years" will be announced. In 1988, he released his long novel "The Scaffold".


「Akiyoshi Toshiko」a Japanese jazz composer/arranger, bandleader and pianist.
She has received 14 Grammy nominations, and she was the first woman to win the Best Arranger and Composer awards in Down Beat magazine's Readers Poll. In 1984, she was the subject of a documentary film titled Jazz Is My Native Language. In 1996, she published her autobiography, Life with Jazz and in 2007 she was named an NEA Jazz Master by the U.S. National Endowment for the Arts.


Au Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens à Paris, la première mondiale de l'opérette Les Aventures du Roi Pausole d'Arthur Honegger suit un roman de Pierre Louÿs.

1935/1212:ドイツナチ「Lebensborn Project}
a Nazi reproduction program, is founded by Heinrich Himmler.


Xi'an Incident: The Generalissimo of the Republic of China, Chiang Kai-shek, is kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang.
Chinese National Revolutionary Army generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng detained Chiang Kai-shek, the chairman of the National Government's military committee in Xi'an, forcing him to jointly resist the Japanese invasion. The history was called the "Incident in Xi'an" or the "Twelfth Incident".
Warlord Zhang Xueliang kidnaps Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek during a troop visit. The incident of Xi'an ends with the release of Chiang after two weeks.
Tchang Kaï-chek est arrêté par ses généraux, qui le forcent à faire la paix avec les communistes chinois pour combattre le Japon.

Sino-Japanese War: USS Panay incident: Japanese aircraft bomb and sink U.S. gunboat USS Panay on the Yangtze river in China.

Japanese airmen sink the USS Panay, which wants to evacuate US citizens from Nanjing, and two US oil tankers. Three people are killed in the attack, nearly 50 are wounded. Although Japan subsequently officially apologizes and pays compensation of over $ 2 million, the Panay incident continues to change the image of Japan in the US.

1939/1212:Douglas Fairbanks 188339、死去

an American actor, screenwriter, director, and producer. He was best known for his swashbuckling roles in silent films including The Thief of Bagdad, Robin Hood, and The Mark of Zorro but spent the early part of his career making comedies.

1939/1212:WWⅡ「Winter War: Battle of Tolvajärvi」
Finnish forces defeat those of the Soviet Union in their first major victory of the conflict.

HMS Duchess sinks after a collision with HMS Barham off the coast of Scotland with the loss of 124 men.


Approximately 70 people are killed in the Marples Hotel, Fitzalan Square, Sheffield, as a result of a German air raid.

54 Japanese A6M Zero fighters raid Batangas Field, Philippines. Jesús Villamor and four Filipino fighter pilots fend them off; César Basa is killed.

The United Kingdom declares war on Bulgaria. Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States. India declares war on Japan.

Adolf Hitler declares the imminent extermination of the Jews at a meeting in the Reich Chancellery


German troops begin Operation Winter Storm, an attempt to relieve encircled Axis forces during the Battle of Stalingrad.

Company Winter Gewitter, the German Wehrmacht's attempt to relieve the 6th Army trapped in the Stalingrad Cauldron during the Russian campaign of World War II, begins. The attack lasts until December 23rd.



ROC dispatched troops to Xisha and Nansha Islands.


The People's Republic of China declared its sovereignty over the Spratly Islands based on the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Proclamation.


1948/1212:マラヤ「Malayan Emergency」Batang Kali massacre:
14 members of the Scots Guards stationed in Malaya allegedly massacre 24 unarmed civilians and set fire to the village.

1951/1212:Mildred Bailey 190751、死去

, chanteuse américaine

Christopher Cockerell applies for a patent for the first hovercraft.

Résolution no 121 du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies relative à l'admission d'un nouveau membre : Japon.

Beginning of the Irish Republican Army's "Border Campaign".


le jury de la cour d'assises de la Gironde acquitte Marie Besnard, « l'empoisonneuse de Loudun ».

# Marie Besnard, de son nom de jeune fille Marie Joséphine Philippine Davaillaud, née le 15 août 1896 à Saint-Pierre-de-Maillé et morte le 14 février 1980 à Loudun, surnommée « l’empoisonneuse de Loudun », « la Brinvilliers de Loudun » ou « la Bonne Dame de Loudun », a été soupçonnée d'être une tueuse en série et reste au centre d'une des énigmes judiciaires françaises du XXe siècle.





Kenya gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

Prime Minister Jomo Kenyatta becomes the first President of the Republic of Kenya.

1969/1212:イタリア「Years of Lead」
Piazza Fontana bombing: The offices of Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura in Piazza Fontana, Milan, are bombed.

l'attacco a Piazza Fontana a Milano segna l'inizio degli "anni di piombo" in Italia.

# The Years of Lead were a political phenomenon related to the Cold War that was characterized by left and right-wing terrorism and the strategy of tension, beginning in Italy and later spreading to the rest of Europe. In Italy terrorist groups include the Red Brigades and Ordine Nuovo, in Germany there was the Red Army Faction and in France there was Action directe. In Belgium, the années de plomb or "Bloody Eighties", refers to the Brabant massacres which resulted in 28 deaths. The far-right movement Westland New Post (WNP) has been suspected in this campaign. Attacks by the Communist Combatant Cells, a short-lived group, killed two. Many of the right-wing groups involved have been linked to Operation Gladio. The liberation of James L. Dozier signaled the end of the Years of Lead.





The Cultural Revolution: "Beijing Daily" published "A Primary School Student's Letters and Diary Excerpt" and extended the length of the editor's note to set off the wave of "Breaking the Dignity of Teachers" for the Huang Shuai incident.

1979/1212:韓國「Coup d'état of December Twelfth」
 South Korean Army Major General Chun Doo-hwan 全斗煥 orders the arrest of Army Chief of Staff General Jeong Seung-hwa without authorization from President Choi Kyu-ha, alleging involvement in the assassination of ex-President Park Chung-hee.


President of Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq confers Nishan-e-Imtiaz on Nobel laureate Dr Abdus Salam.

The unrecognised state of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia returns to British control and resumes using the name Southern Rhodesia.

The 8.2 Mw Tumaco earthquake shakes Colombia and Ecuador with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), killing 300–600, and generating a large tsunami.



A series of bombings in Kuwait killing 6 people and 80 wounded.

Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya becomes the third president of Mauritania after a coup d'état against Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla while the latter is attending a summit.

Arrow Air Flight 1285, a McDonnell Douglas DC-8, crashes after takeoff in Gander, Newfoundland, killing all 256 people on board, including 236 members of the United States Army's 101st Airborne Division.

1987/1212:Enrique Jorrin192687、死去

, violoniste et chef d'orchestre cubain et créateur du cha-cha-cha
a Cuban charanga violinist, composer and music director. He is considered the inventor of the cha-cha-chá, a popular style of ballroom music derived from danzón.

The Clapham Junction rail crash kills thirty-five and injures hundreds after two collisions of three commuter trains—one of the worst train crashes in the United Kingdom.






1999/1212:Joseph Heller 192399、死去

an American author of novels, short stories, plays and screenplays. His best-known work is the novel Catch-22, a satire on war and bureaucracy, whose title has become a synonym for an absurd or contradictory choice.
"Everyone in my book condemns everyone else as mad. Frankly, I think the entire society is going crazy ... the problem is sanity in a crazy society What the man does is, "said Heller.


The United States Supreme Court releases its decision in Bush v. Gore.


Prime Minister of Vietnam Phan Văn Khải announces the decision on upgrading the Phong Nha–Kẻ Bàng nature reserve to a national park, providing information on projects for the conservation and development of the park and revised maps.

Die erste Etappe des Eisenbahn-Grossprojekts Bahn 2000 wird in der Schweiz eingeführt.

North Korea successfully launches its first satellite, Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2, using an Unha-3 carrier rocket.

The United Nations Climate Change Conference adopts the Paris Agreement, which aims to significantly reduce CO₂ emissions worldwide.


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