Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

1908年の今日が生誕日の Olivier Messiaen 190892
母の Cécile Sauvage 188327 に抱かれて

歴史暦:古今東西 12/10 今日の出來事



Cao Pi usurpation, forced han emperor Di position, self-reliance on the emperor and change the country to Wei.


The son of Empress Zoë of Byzantium succeeds to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V.

Michael V (Greek: Μιχαήλ Ε) was Byzantine emperor for four months in 1041~2, the nephew and successor of Michael IV and the adoptive son of his wife, the Empress Zoe. He was popularly called "the Caulker" (Καλαφάτης, Kalaphates) in accordance with his father's original occupation.

1198/1210:Averroès 112698、逝去

Ibn Rochd de Cordoue (en arabe : ابن رشد, Ibn Rushd),
a medieval Andalusian polymath. He wrote on logic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political theory and the theory of Andalusian classical music, geography, mathematics, as well as the mediæval sciences of medicine, astronomy, physics, and celestial mechanics.
He is famous as Aristotle's commentator in the Islamic world. He also wrote a medical encyclopedia. He writes refutation to criticism by writing "contradiction of contradiction" from the standpoint of philosopher against the philosophical criticism "philosopher contradiction" of mysticist Gathering.

The Paris Bishop Étienne Tempier condemns 13 theses of the radical Aristotelianism known as Averroism, but without mentioning its main representative Siger of Brabant by name.


It is a formula showing the administrative policy of Muromachi Shogunate 室町幕府.


à Paris, le Dauphin promulgue une série de mandements monétaires après avoir renvoyé, le 2 novembre les états généraux.

# Charles V, dit « Charles le Sage »  est roi de France de 1364 à 1380. Son règne marque la fin de la première partie de la guerre de Cent Ans : il réussit à récupérer la quasi-totalité des terres perdues par ses prédécesseurs, restaure l'autorité du pouvoir royal, et sort le royaume d'une période difficile qui associe les défaites militaires lourdes de Crécy et Poitiers (1342 et 1356) à la grande peste noire des années 1347-1351.
ヴァロワ朝第三代の王(le Sage 賢人)と呼ばれた。「税金の父」と呼ぶ學者もゐる。
最初に(Dauphin 王太子)の称号で呼ばれた王太子
現在の税金の元となる「定期的な臨時徴税」を始め、常備軍や官僚制度を整備するなど、絶対王政への先駆をなした。彼に仕へた軍人や官僚のなかから次の Charles VI 136822 時代の「マルムゼ(グロテスクな顔の小人)」と呼ばれる者たちが現れた。

1394/1210:James I of Scotland 139437、誕生

James I of Scotland with his consort Joan Beaufort

1475/1210:Paolo Uccello 139775、死去

un pittore e mosaicista italiano.
Fu tra i protagonisti della scena artistica fiorentina della metà del XV secolo.

≫ Oh che dolce cosa è questa prospettiva!
He created a painting that blended the international Gothic style trend and the Renaissance scientific approach represented by perspective. However, because it persisted too far in perspective, it was often criticized not only in the late Renaissance painter, but also in the romanticism of the 19th century.

The League of Cambrai is formed by Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand II of Aragon as an alliance against Venice.

en France, l'empereur Maximilien Ier et Louis XII forment la ligue de Cambrai. L'adhésion du pape Jules II et de l'Espagne fait de la ligue une coalition européenne dont le but est la conquête des possessions italiennes de Venise.

Portuguese conquest of Goa: Portuguese naval forces under the command of Afonso de Albuquerque, and local mercenaries working for privateer Timoji, seize Goa from the Bijapur Sultanate, resulting in 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule.

Martin Luther verbrennt in Wittenberg die päpstliche Bulle Exsurge Domine, die ihn zum Ketzer erklärt hat, und vollzieht damit den Bruch mit der Kirche in Rom.

Martin Luther burns his copy of the papal bull Exsurge Domine outside Wittenberg's Elster Gate.
Martin Luther 148346、教皇 Leo10の「自説を撤回しなければ破門する」の警告文をヴィッテンベルクの門前で燒却する。

1538/1210:Giovanni Battista Guarini 153812、誕生

un drammaturgo, scrittore e poeta italiano.
Guarini è nato a Ferrara e ha trascorso le sue giornate più giovani con Padova e Ferrara. Dopo aver servito Alfonso II e Desta di Ferrara per 15 anni dal 1567, si ritirò a Villa Guarina che è il luogo della famiglia, dove il capolavoro "Il pastor fido" (1590) Ho scritto
The sophisticated idyllic tragedy of this style was translated into many languages and became very popular in the 17th century. This work has set out the rules of elegant and majestic style continuing till late 18th century.

1541/1210:イングランド、Henry VIII の殘忍さ
Thomas Culpeper and Francis Dereham are executed for having affairs with Catherine Howard, Queen of England and wife of Henry VIII.

du fait de l'adoption du calendrier grégorien par la France, ce jour n'a pas existé. Le calendrier est passé du dimanche 9 décembre au lundi 20 décembre.

1603/1210:William Gilbert 154403、死去

an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.
He passionately rejected both the prevailing Aristotelian philosophy and the Scholastic method of university teaching.
He is remembered today largely for his book De Magnete (1600), and is credited as one of the originators of the term "electricity". He is regarded by some as the father of electrical engineering or electricity and magnetism.

William Gilbert demonstrating his experiments before queen Elizabeth 

1616/1210:Diogo do Couto 154216、死去

um historiador português com a função de guarda-mor da Torre do Tombo de Goa

He is an explorer and knitting historian born in Lisbon, the Kingdom of Portugal. He is famous for compiling "Asian history" dealing with Asian customs and history. In the 16th century he wrote the empirical history of the rare Angkor ruins.

Defeat at the Battle of Dungeness causes the Commonwealth of England to reform its navy.

With their victory over England in the Battle of Dungeness during the First Anglo-Dutch War and the retreat of the enemy warships, the Netherlands regains control of the English Channel.

Isaac Newton's derivation of Kepler's laws from his theory of gravity, contained in the paper De motu corporum in gyrum, is read to the Royal Society by Edmond Halley.

De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the presumed title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year, when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London, including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke.

After nearly four months holding against the besieging troops of the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy, the French Commander of the Citadel of Lille surrenders in the War of Spanish Succession.

A Scheme from the Dynastic Background for the War of the Spanish Succession
Europa im Jahr 1701.

à Paris, ouverture du procès de Louis XVI.

le député Robert Lindet présente devant la Convention l'acte d'accusation contre Louis XVI, qui comparaît le lendemain. MP(member of Parliament) Robert Lindet presents before the Convention the indictment against Louis XVI, who appears the next day.

France adopts the metre as its official unit of length.

en France, la loi du 19 frimaire an VIII consacre les étalons prototypes en platine du mètre et du kilogramme comme « étalons définitifs des mesures de longueur et de poids dans toute la République ».

1804/1210:Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi 180451、誕生

ein deutscher Mathematiker.
In 1804, he was born in a Jewish family line. He studied at the University of Berlin and got a doctorate degree in philosophy in 1825. The thesis was analytical about the theory of partial fractions.
In 1829, he wrote a classical paper on elliptic functions. This achievement has become very important for mathematical physics from the necessity of integrating the second order kinetic energy equation. The motion equation of the rotation system is integrable only in the three cases which can be described as an elliptic function, which are "pendulum", "symmetrical top in gravity field" and "free rotation body".
Competition with Niels Henrik Abel 180229 in the study of elliptic functions is famous as an example where two genius sparked a solution to one challenge. After all, Abel became one step ahead of him, Jacobi also acclaimed his thesis. Abel barely died in April 1829. After that, Jacob developed and developed the research of Abel.
1829年、彼は楕円関数に関する古典的論文を著した。この業績は2階の運動エネルギー方程式を積分するときの必要性から、数理物理学にとって大変重要なものとなった。回転系の運動方程式が可積分となるのは楕円関数として記述可能な三つの場合のみで、それは「振り子」「重力場内の対称こま」そして「自由回転体」である。 楕円関数の研究でのアーベルとの競争は、二人の天才が一つの難問の解決に火花を散らした例として有名である。結局アーベルが一歩先んじたかたちとなり、ヤコビも彼の論文を絶賛した。アーベルは惜しくも1829年4月に死去。その後は、ヤコビがアーベルの研究を引き継ぎかたちで発展させた。

en Allemagne, dans le cadre des traités de Brünn signés entre Napoléon et les électeurs de Bade, Bavière et Wurtemberg, leurs possessions sont érigées en royaumes.

en France, le Grand Sanhédrin, institution officielle de la communauté juive, est créé.

# The Great Sanhedrin is a Jewish Supreme Court created on December 10, 1806 comprising seventy-one rabbis and notables.

Débarquement britannique en Toscane, dans le cadre de la guerre de la Sixième Coalition.

1821/1210:Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov 182177、誕生

русский поэт, писатель и публицист, классик русской литературы
Because he became an auditor of literature at St. Petersburg University, he was dismissed from his father's will and was not sentenced to soldiers, so he was obliged to accept himself at work at home tutor and writer.

1822/1210:César Auguste Franck 182290、誕生

professeur, organiste et compositeur belge, naturalisé français en 1870, est l'une des grandes figures de la vie musicale française de la seconde partie du XIXe siècle.


1824/1210:George MacDonald 192405、誕生

a Scottish author, poet and Christian minister.
He was a pioneering figure in the field of fantasy literature and the mentor of fellow writer Lewis Carroll.
His writings have been cited as a major literary influence by many notable authors, including W. H. Auden, C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien,[1] Walter de la Mare,[2] E. Nesbit and Madeleine L'Engle.

1830/1210:Emily Dickinson 183086、誕生

An American poet. While living was unknown, the 1,700 poems left after death received high praise and the reputation of being one of the genius poets in the history of the 19th century world literature is now immovable.

1831/1210:Thomas Johann Seebeck 177031、死去

Deutscher Physiker, Doktor. Im Jahr 1821 entdeckte der Seebeck-Effekt.
Seebeck had friends with Johan Wolgang von Goethe 174932 of the contemporaries and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 177031.

He first began studying optical in Jena and examined the thermal effects and chemistry in different colors of the solar spectrum. He also studied the problem of polarization in the pressed piece of glass, he was elected a member of the Berlin Academy in 1814.
Afterwards, he moved to Berlin, studied the magnetic phenomena, found Alago's attenuation law and early signs of hysteresis. Also he discovered that when connecting two ends of two different metal wires such as copper and bismuth to form a ring, when heating one of the connecting parts, a current is generated in the wire and a magnetic field is generated. This is called "Seebeck effect" with his name. The Seebeck effect is applied to thermocouples, thermopiles, thermoelectric power generation, and the like.

The Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson is granted a patent for the solid rubber tire he invented.

US-Patentschrift Nr. 5104 von 1847 für Thomsons Carriage wheel. Voraus gingen Patente in Großbritannien (Nr. 10990 vom Dezember 1845) und in Frankreich (1846).

en France, élection de Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte à la présidence de la République.


He is a vaudeville enthusiast in the end of the Edo era and is memorized as the founder of "都々逸 Dodoitsu".
都々逸とは、口語による定型詩で「七七七五」の音数に従う。In a standard poetry by colloquialism, it follows the number of sounds of "7・7・7・5".

惚れて通へば 千里も一里 逢へずに歸れば また千里(作者不詳)
この酒を 止めちゃ嫌だよ 酔はせておくれ まさか素面じゃ 言ひにくい(作者不詳)
浮名立ちゃ それも困るが 世間の人に 知らせないのも 惜しい仲(作者不詳)
三千世界の 鴉を殺し 主と添ひ寝が してみたい桂小五郎作、高杉晋作作等、諸説あり)
逢うて別れて 別れて逢うて(泣くも笑うもあとやさき) 末は野の風 秋の風 一期一会の 別れかな井伊直弼 茶湯一会集)
岡惚れ三年 本惚れ三月 思ひ遂げたは 三分間(作者不詳)

都々逸坊扇歌は、文政7年頃に江戸に出まして、音曲噺で有名な落語家の初代船遊亭扇橋に弟子入りいたし、都々逸坊扇歌と名をあらため、江戸牛込の寄席『藁店』を中心に活動。 その藝は、歌と三味線による都々逸をはじめ「なぞ坊主」の異名を取るほど謎かけも得意でした。 やがて、江戸随一の人気藝人となり、仲間内から「八丁あらし」と徒名されたさうで。天保時代には上方にも出向いたさうです。聲は「ちょんがれ声(白声)」だったと云はれてゐます。世相風刺の鋭さに、晩年には幕府に咎められ、江戸を追放されました。

諦めましたよどう諦めた 諦め切れぬと諦めた
わたしゃ奥山一もと櫻 八重に咲く氣はさらにない
たんと売れても売れない日でも 同じ機嫌の風車
白鷺が 小首かしげて二の足踏んで やつれ姿の水鏡

1861/1210:Thomas Southwood Smith 178861、死去

English physician and sanitary reformer.
In 1824, he became a doctor at London Fever Hospital, and in 1830 published "The Theory of Fever". Now he was recognized by the authority of the road. In this book, he showed that it is directly related to poverty in the poor and infectious fever disease. He was often asked for opinions on infectious fever and public hygiene. Reports on quarantine (1845), cholera (1850), yellow fever (1852), and public health improvement (1854) became worldwide important.
スミスはユニテリアンに傾倒しており、Jeremy Bentham 175832 と親交が深かった。1827年、彼は、医師により解剖されない現在の埋葬方式は、死体の無駄遣いであると論じた死体の利用を出版した。

1861/1210:American Civil War:
The Confederate States of America accept a rival state government's pronouncement that declares Kentucky to be the 13th state of the Confederacy.

Forces led by Nguyễn Trung Trực, an anti-colonial guerrilla leader in southern Vietnam, sink the French lorcha L'Esperance.

1864/1210:American Civil War:
Sherman's March to the Sea: Major General William Tecumseh Sherman's Union Army troops reach the outer Confederate defenses of Savannah, Georgia.


Sakamoto Ryōma (坂本 龍馬) était l'un des dirigeants du mouvement visant à renverser le shogunat Tokugawa pendant la période Bakumatsu du Japon. Ryōma se faisait appeler Saidani Umetarō (才谷梅太郎, Saidani Umetarō) pendant son travail pour maintenir la cohésion sociale du Japon pendant qu'il formait un gouvernement moderne apte à faire entrer son pays dans la communauté internationale (qui était à l'époque en pleine expansion coloniale) sans y perdre sa souveraineté nationale.


The world's first traffic light is set up in front of the House of Parliament in London. It is initially operated with gas light.

The first traffic lights are installed, outside the Palace of Westminster in London. Resembling railway signals, they use semaphore arms and are illuminated at night by red and green gas lamps.

1870/1210:Adolf Loos 187033、誕生

österreichischer Architekt, Architekturkritiker und Kulturpublizist. Er gilt als einer der Wegbereiter der modernen Architektur.
His belief that 'decoration is guilty' and the architecture of that modernism greatly rippled.

He declared that the city of Vienna, which was decorated with various architectural styles, was ironicized as "Potemkin city" and "decoration is guilty (crime)" (1908). According to him, the decoration is similar to the tattoo of the primitive man, and the degree of decoration was an indicator that the culture level is low. His "theory of decorative guilt" can be said to have further thoroughly argued the rationalism, functionalism argument that architect Otto Wagner "art follows obedience only", but by using such extreme expression I attacked the decorativeness of 'Vienna Separated School' and 'Vienna Workshop' (Joseph Hoffmann).

1870/1210:Pierre Louÿs 187025、誕生

Ecrivain esthétique français, poète.
Avec un discours unique (langue dite toxique) et la connaissance d'une ancienne histoire européenne des chercheurs

Louÿs fait ses études à l'École alsacienne de Paris, où il se lie d'amitié avec son condisciple André Gide 186951. Il rédige ses premiers textes durant son adolescence et tient un journal. Encore jeune homme, il commence à s'intéresser au mouvement littéraire du Parnasse, fréquentant les poètes emblématiques, Leconte de Lisle, José-Maria de Heredia (dont il épousera en 1899 la plus jeune fille, Louise).

In the Franco-Prussian War ends the two days of ongoing battle with Beaugency. Due to the danger of being trapped, the French Army of the Loire retreats to Le Mans under the command of General Antoine Chanzy.


Ōtagaki Rengetsu (太田垣 蓮月) est une nonne bouddhiste 尼僧 généralement considérée comme une des plus importantes poétesse japonaises du XIXe siècle. Elle est également une excellente potière, un peintre et une calligraphe experte.

Russo-Turkish War (1877–78): The Russian Army captures Plevna after a 5-month siege. The garrison of 25,000 surviving Turks surrenders. The Russian victory is decisive for the outcome of the war and the Liberation of Bulgaria.

The first cremation in a German crematorium is carried out at Gotha's main cemetery.

1882/1210:Otto Neurath 188245、誕生

österreichischer Nationalökonom, Wissenschaftstheoretiker und Arbeiter- und Volksbildner.
Austrian scientific philosopher, sociologist, political economist. He was one of the leaders of the Vienna Collegiate and founder of the Physicalism until he was forced to exile to the UK due to persecution by the Nazis because he was from the Jewish system.


Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Empire of Japan at both the start and the end of the Japanese-Allied conflict during World War II. He also served as Minister of Colonial Affairs in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater East Asia, in 1945.

Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published.

Emperor Alexander III of Russia launches a Russian loan which causes a vast movement of public subscription to the banks. From the 11th of December, the banks are floundering: soon, Paris will be the center of this loan launched by Russia.

The New York World Building of New York World newspaper publisher is completed in New York City. At 94 meters, it is the tallest skyscraper in the world and the first building to tower above Trinity Church.

1891/1210:Nelly Sachs 189170、誕生

eine jüdische deutsch-schwedische Schriftstellerin und Lyrikerin.

She gained a number of excellent poems from her suffering and experiences of harsh times and became one of the poets representing Germany after the war. From persecution experience by Nazi Germany, he became a spokesman for the Jewish grief.

1896/1210:Alfred Nobel183396、死去

, industriel suédois, créateur des prix Nobel

Première représentation au théâtre d’Ubu roi, pièce d'Alfred Jarry.

Alfred Jarry's Ubu Roi premieres in Paris. A riot breaks out at the end of the performance.

Spanish–American War: The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the conflict.

les États-Unis mettent fin à leur guerre contre l'Espagne par le traité de Paris. Ils gagnent Cuba, les Philippines (vendues 20 millions de dollars), Porto Rico et Guam.

In the Battle of Stormberg during the Second Boer War, the British suffered the first defeat in the so-called Black Week.



The first Nobel Prizes are awarded.

le prix Nobel de la paix est décerné à la Croix-Rouge.


The opening of the reservoir of the Aswan Dam in Egypt.


un poète japonais.
Itō étudie à l'Université de Kyōto et réside par la suite à Osaka en tant que professeur, dans l'arrondissement Nishinari-ku. Impressionné par la poésie de Friedrich Hölderlin et Rainer Maria Rilke, il publie en 1935 le recueil Wagahito ni ataeru aika qui le fait connaître comme poète.


The worst night of the Brown Dog riots in London, when 1,000 medical students clash with 400 police officers over the existence of a memorial for animals that have been vivisected.

1908/1210:Olivier Messiaen 190892、誕生

un compositeur, organiste, pianiste français.
Son œuvre trouve ses sources dans une profonde ferveur catholique, un goût prononcé pour le plain-chant médiéval, les rythmes hindous ainsi que grecs. L'Ascension (1933), le Quatuor pour la fin du Temps (1940), les Vingt Regards sur l'Enfant-Jésus (1944), la Turangalîla-Symphonie (1946-48), Saint François d'Assise et la Messe de la Pentecôte, entre autres œuvres majeures, ont contribué à faire d'Olivier Messiaen l'un des compositeurs les plus influents de la musique contemporaine de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle.

The orchestral work Le Poème de l'Extase by Alexander Scriabin is premiered in New York.

Selma Lagerlöf becomes the first female writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature

Conducted by Arturo Toscanini, the premiere of the opera La fanciulla del West (The Girl from the Golden West) by Giacomo Puccini after the eponymous drama by David Belasco takes place at the Metropolitan Opera in New York.

1911/1210:Joseph Dalton Hooker 181711、死去

one of the greatest British botanists and explorers of the 19th century. He was a founder of geographical botany and Charles Darwin's closest friend. For twenty years he served as director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, succeeding his father, William Jackson Hooker, and was awarded the highest honours of British science.

He studied Antarctica and the Sikkim region in India and collected many plant specimens.
Between 1839 and 1843, he joined the voyage of James Clark Ross' Antarctic Expedition.
In November 1847 Hooker departed from the UK for exploring the Himalayas which will last three years. He was the first European to collect plants in Himalayas.
When returning from the exploration voyage of Antarctica, Hooker decided to undertake arrangement of plant specimens of Darwin's Beagle voyage between classification of plant specimens collected by himself. Hooker met Darwin once before departing, but began to exchange opinions with the correspondence from the end of 1843. And just two months after the start of 1844, Darwin wrote to Hooker, "It is like confessing murder, but I was convinced that the seed will change".


a Japanese field marshal, and one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Army.

Ōyama's first wife Sawa died of puerperal disorder. Second wife Sutematsu (捨松 a survivor of the Battle of Aizu, a sister of former Aizu retainers Yamakawa Hiroshi and Yamakawa Kenjirō) was one of the first female students sent to the United States as part of the Iwakura Mission in the early 1870s. She spent eleven years there, graduating from Vassar College in 1882. In the next year she accepted her former enemy's proposal.

She wrote in a letter to her friend Alice during her study in the United States, "My husband becomes increasingly fat and I am getting thinner and thinner."

le prix Goncourt est remis à Marcel Proust pour À l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleur.

1928/1210:Charles Rennie Mackintosh 186828、死去

a Scottish architect, designer, water colourist and artist. His artistic approach had much in common with European Symbolism. His work, alongside that of his wife Margaret Macdonald, was influential on European design movements such as Art Nouveau and Secessionism. He was born in Glasgow and died in London.

"The Lighthouse", Charles Mackintosh's Glasgow Herald building.



1929/1210:Franz Rosenzweig 188629、死去

ein deutscher Historiker und jüdischer Philosoph.
An der Universität Freiburg studierte er Philosophie bei Friedrich Meinecke 186454 und Geschichte, bei Heinrich Rickert 186336. 1912 promovierte er unter der Leitung von Meinecke über Hegels politische Philosophie und Geschichtstheorie. Dies entspricht dem ersten Teil des Buches "Hegel und der Staat" von 1920.


In Deutschland tritt das Opiumgesetz, der Vorläufer des Betäubungsmittelgesetzes, in Kraft: seitdem ist auch Cannabis verboten.

Thailand becomes a constitutional monarchy.

Siam (now Thailand) gets his first permanent constitution. The day is a "public holiday" until today.


an avant-garde Japanese poet, dramatist, writer, film director, and photographer. Many critics view him as one of the most productive and provocative creative artists to come out of Japan. He has been cited as an influence on various Japanese filmmakers from the 1970s onward.




a professional baseball player for the Osaka Tigers (later Hanshin Tigers) in Nippon Professional Baseball. His number 11 is retired with the Tigers. A pitcher with Hanshin from 1959 to 1972, he recorded a career 2.09 ERA and 192 career complete games to go with 222 wins. Hall of Famer.

1936/1210:Luigi Pirandello 196736尾、死去

un drammaturgo, scrittore e poeta italiano, insignito del Premio Nobel per la letteratura nel 1934. Per la sua produzione, le tematiche affrontate e l'innovazione del racconto teatrale è considerato tra i maggiori drammaturghi del XX secolo. Tra i suoi lavori spiccano diverse novelle e racconti brevi (in lingua italiana e siciliana) e circa quaranta drammi, l'ultimo dei quali incompleto.

In 1921, the masterpiece "Sei Personaggi in cerca d'autore(Six people 's characters to search for author)".

1937/1210:Richard Ponsonby-Fane 187837、死去

a British academic, author, and Japanologist.
He released Japanese national culture (Shinto, Shrine, Imperial family, tomb, customs, customs, education, etc.) mainly in English.



a Japanese singer and actor, best known outside Japan for his international hit song "Ue o Muite Arukō" (known as "Sukiyaki" in English-speaking markets), which was sung in Japanese and sold over 13 million copies.


The Royal Navy capital ships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse are sunk by Imperial Japanese Navy torpedo bombers near British Malaya.

Japanese aviation associations attack the Force Z in the Pacific War and sink the only two capital ships of the British in the Pacific with the HMS Prince of Wales and the HMS Repulse.

Battle of the Philippines: Imperial Japanese forces under the command of General Masaharu Homma land on Luzon.

On the Philippine main island of Luzon, Japanese landing troops go under the command of General Homma Masaharu in the Battle of the Philippines on land.

Signature à Moscou d'un traité d'alliance et d'assistance mutuelle entre la France et l'URSS prévu pour une durée de vingt ans.

The Human Rights Convention is signed by the United Nations.

adoption de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'Homme par l'ONU.

中國人民解放軍佔領了國民黨最後一個大陸城市成都。 中華民國政府此前已撤回台灣。

Chinese Civil War: The People's Liberation Army begins its siege of Chengdu, the last Kuomintang-held city in mainland China, forcing President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek and his government to retreat to Taiwan.




Zanzibar gains independence from the United Kingdom as a constitutional monarchy, under Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah.

l'écrivain français Jean-Paul Sartre refuse le prix Nobel de littérature.

1967/1210:Otis Redding 194167、死去

an American singer, songwriter, record producer, arranger, and talent scout. He is considered one of the greatest singers in the history of American popular music and a seminal artist in soul music and rhythm and blues.

1968/1210:Karl Barth 188668、死去

ein Schweizer evangelisch-reformierter Theologe. Er gilt im Bereich der europäischen evangelischen Kirchen aufgrund seines theologischen Gesamtwerks als „Kirchenvater des 20. Jahrhunderts“[1] und als Vertreter einer kerygmatischen Theologie. Zudem ist sein Name eng mit der dialektischen Theologie verbunden.

Japan's biggest heist, the still-unsolved "300 million yen robbery", is carried out in Tokyo.


Helios 1 transports the first spacecraft not built by the USSR or the USA into space. The German probe launched from Cape Canaveral delivers data for solar research after reaching orbit around the sun.


1978/1210:Arab–Israeli conflict: Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin and President of Egypt Anwar Sadat are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Kaohsiung Incident: Taiwanese pro-democracy demonstrations are suppressed by the KMT dictatorship, and organizers are arrested.


Democracy is restored in Argentina with the inauguration of President Raúl Alfonsín.

1987/1210:Jascha Heifetz 190187、死去

a Lithuanian-born Russian violinist.
Many consider him to be the greatest violinist of all time.
He was a virtuoso since childhood—Fritz Kreisler, another leading violinist of the twentieth century, said on hearing Heifetz's debut, "We might as well take our fiddles and break them across our knees.

1989/1210:Mongolian Revolution:
At the country's first open pro-democracy public demonstration, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announces the establishment of the Mongolian Democratic Union.



He analyzed the society and culture of the Japanese, its behavioral pattern using concepts such as "air" and "real language / empty body". Its original research is collectively called "Yamamoto studies".

1977年 - 文藝春秋より『「空気」の研究』を発売する。
1979年 - 大平内閣の諮問機関「文化の時代」研究グループの議長を務める 。
1984年 - 中曽根内閣の諮問機関「臨時教育審議会」の第一部会専門委員を務める 。
1991年 - 膵臓癌により千代田区四番町の自宅で死去


「Tanaka Seigen(Kiyoharu)」
Japanese businessman, political activist. CIA collaborators and fixers are also told.


Japanese novelist, poet. His masterpiece is "an offering for emptiness", which is regarded as one of the three major bibles of Japanese literature. He is also known as a maneuillistic mystery novel and fantasy literature based on Novelette.

The last shift leaves Wearmouth Colliery in Sunderland. The closure of the 156-year-old pit marks the end of the old County Durham coalfield, which had been in operation since the Middle Ages.

1994/1210:Rwandan Genocide:
Maurice Baril, military advisor to the U.N. Secretary-General and head of the Military Division of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, recommends that UNAMIR stand down.


The Israeli army withdrew from Nablus pursuant to the terms of Oslo Accord.

The new Constitution of South Africa is promulgated by Nelson Mandela.


2000/1210:Marius Berthus Jansen 192200、死去

an American academic, historian, and Emeritus Professor of Japanese History at Princeton University.


2006/1210:Augusto Pinochet 191506、死去

un militar y político chileno, que encabezó la dictadura militar de Chile que se desarrolló entre 1973 y 1990, periodo conocido en ese país como Régimen Militar.

Lebanese opposition Popular organize a sit-in against the government is the largest in the history of Lebanon, downtown Beirut, where official agencies estimated the number of demonstrators at more than a million people.

The Lebanese government headed by Saad Hariri get the confidence of Lebanese Parliament by a majority of 122 votes, out of the audience, while the deputy abstained from voting and another deputy withhold confidence from the government, and missed four vice-confidence session.



a Japanese actor, radio host, singer, and prominent researcher and expert on Japanese folk art

Palestinian minister Ziad Abu Ein was killed after the suppression of a demonstration by Israeli forces in the village (Turmus'ayya) in Ramallah.


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