Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

歴史暦:古今東西 10/21 今日の出來事

Massacre de la croisade populaire à Civitot.

After an attack on the city of Nicaea, the defending members of the People's Crusade came into the rear of the Seljuks, they panicked into their camp. There is a massacre through the resurging Seljuks; only about 3,000 cruisers can rescue themselves into a deserted castle.


First Crusade: Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch.

Début du siège d'Antioche, au terme duquel — le 2 juin 1098 — les croisés prennent la ville.

Otto IV is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III.



Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.

Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan.

On his circumnavigation of the world, Ferdinand Magellan sees a Cape, which he calls Cabo Virgenes after the day of discovery. The Jungfrauenkap lies in today's Magallanes and de la Antártica Chilena at the entrance to the later named Magellanstraße.

João Álvares Fagundes discovers the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, bestowing them their original name of "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins".

1558/1021:Jules César Scaliger 148458、死去

「ジュル セザル スカリジェ」un érudit d'origine italienne, fils de Benoît Bordoni, peintre en miniature. Toutefois, il prétendait descendre de la noble maison della Scala (d'où le nom qu'il prit).
イタリア人の兩親のもとパドヴァに生まれた。パドヴァ大學で古典文學を學び、各地を歴訪。その後、ヴェロナで醫術を習得。1525司教に随行するかたちでフランスに行き、結婚。François Rabelais 148353 やNostradamus 150366と交遊するも、自負心が極度に強い彼の性格の惡さで長續きはしなかった。



Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marks the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate.








1639/1021:八十年戰爭、スペインvsオランダ「Battle of the Downs」
The Dutch fleet, commanded by Admiral Maarten Tromp, won a decisive victory over the Spaniards, commanded by Admiral Antonio de Oquendo.

1772/1021:Samuel Taylor Coleridge 177234、誕生

an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.

First display of the word "Liberty" on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.

1790/1021:Alphonse de Lamartine 1799069、誕生

「ラマルチヌ」un poète, romancier, dramaturge français, ainsi qu'un homme politique qui participa à la Révolution de février 1848 et proclama la Deuxième République. Il est l'une des grandes figures du romantisme en France.

1797/1021:USA、In Boston Harbor,
the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched.

1805/1021:Napoleonic Wars、フランスvsイギリス「Battle of Trafalgar」
A British fleet led by Vice Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve.

Bataille de Trafalgar. Grande bataille navale au cours de laquelle triomphe la flotte britannique d’Horatio Nelson, ce dernier mourant au cours de l’affrontement. Cette bataille marqua durablement la supériorité des Britanniques sur les mers.

ナポレオン戦争: トラファルガの海戦。ナポレオンのフランス軍、ネルソン提督が指揮するイギリス軍に大敗する。

1805/1021:Horatio Nelson 175005、戰死

He was noted for his inspirational leadership, superb grasp of strategy, and unconventional tactics, which together resulted in a number of decisive naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded several times in combat, losing the sight in one eye in Corsica and most of one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife. He was shot and killed during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

The Briton Joseph Aspdin is granted a patent on Portland cement.

1833/1021:Alfred Nobel 183396、誕生

ein schwedischer Chemiker und Erfinder. Er meldete insgesamt 355 Patente erfolgreich an.

1847/1021:Giuseppe Giacosa 184706、誕生

un drammaturgo, scrittore e librettista italiano.
歌劇の台本作家として著名。ルイジイッリカと共同で Gicomo Puccini 185824 のために書いたオペラ台本、『ラ・ボエーム』『トスカ』『蝶々夫人』などを提供した。

Florence Nightingale & a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.

1861/1021:American Civil War「Battle of Ball's Bluff」
Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war.

Il Veneto si unisce al Regno d'Italia con plebiscito dopo la Terza guerra d'indipendenza italiana.

1867/1021:USA「Medicine Lodge Treaty」
 is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate to a reservation in western Oklahoma.

1877/1021:Oswald Theodore Avery187755、誕生

a Canadian-American physician and medical researcher. The major part of his career was spent at the Rockefeller University Hospital in New York City.
Avery was one of the first molecular biologists and a pioneer in immunochemistry, but he is best known for the experiment (published in 1944 with his co-workers Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty) that isolated DNA as the material of which genes and chromosomes are made.
彼の業績でもっとも著名なものは、共同研究者のColin MacLeoud・Maclyn McCartyとおこなった1944年の発見で、それは「DNAが遺伝子の実体」であるといふ大發見であった。

Thomas Edison applies for a patent for his design for an incandescent light bulb.


In Copenhagen a bomb assassinated on the Danish Prime Minister Jacob Brønnum failed Scavenius Estrup. The first bullet fired by Julius Rasmussen bounces on a button, the second shot misses the politician.

Foundation of the Swiss Social Democratic Party.

In Berlin uraufgeführt wurde der "Kaiser-Walzer" von Johann Strauss II.


1892/1021:Lydia Vasilyevna Lopokova、誕生

Лидия Васильевна Лопухова
a famous Russian ballerina during the early 20th century.
She is known also as Lady Keynes, the wife of the economist John Maynard Keynes.

Opening ceremonies for the World's Columbian Exposition are held in Chicago, though because construction was behind schedule, the exposition did not open until May 1, 1893.






The Republic of Formosa collapses as Japanese forces invade.




An earthquake of magnitude 8.1 in Central Asia calls for about 12,000 deaths.

Der Tagelöhner Daniel Hartmann findet in der Nähe von Heidelberg den Unterkiefer von Mauer, das Typusexemplar des Homo heidelbergensis. Es ist das bislang älteste Fossil der Gattung Homo, das in Deutschland geborgen worden ist.

The day laborer Daniel Hartmann finds the lower jaw of Mauer, near Heidelberg, the type-specimen of the Homo heidelbergensis. It is the oldest fossil of the genus Homo that has been found in Germany.

HMS Niobe arrives in Halifax Harbour to become the first ship of the Royal Canadian Navy.

1912/1021:Georg Solti 191297、誕生

chef d'orchestre d'origine hongroise naturalisé britannique

First Balkan War: Kardzhali is liberated by Bulgarian forces.

1914/1021:Martin Gardner 191410、誕生

an American popular mathematics and popular science writer, with interests also encompassing scientific skepticism, micromagic, philosophy, religion, and literature—especially the writings of Lewis Carroll, L. Frank Baum, and G. K. Chesterton.
He had a lifelong interest in magic and illusion and was regarded as one of the most important magicians of the twentieth century.
Gardner was best known for creating and sustaining interest in recreational mathematics—and by extension, mathematics in general—throughout the latter half of the 20th century, principally through his "Mathematical Games" columns, which appeared for twenty-five years in Scientific American, and his subsequent books collecting them

1917/1021:Dizzy Gillespie 191793、誕生

(John Birks Gillespie, dit), trompettiste, compositeur et chef d’orchestre de jazz américain
In the 1940s Gillespie, with Charlie Parker, became a major figure in the development of bebop and modern jazz

the first American troops leave for the European front, following the declaration of war of the American Congress of April 6th, at the side of the Allies.

the German Reich introduced the unrestricted submarine war.

Der Maler Paul Klee zeigt in Paris erstmals einige seiner Werke.

1929/1021:Ursula Kroeber Le Guin 1929--、誕生

an American author and illustrator of novels, children's books, and short stories, mainly in the genres of fantasy and science fiction.
She has also written poetry and essays. First published in the 1960s, her work has often depicted futuristic or imaginary alternative worlds in politics, the natural environment, gender, religion, sexuality and ethnography.


1931/1021:Arthur Schnitzler 186203、死去

ein österreichischer Arzt, Erzähler und Dramatiker.
Er gilt als Schriftsteller als einer der bedeutendsten Vertreter der Wiener Moderne.


After the occupation of the city of Gijón in the Spanish Civil War, the entire Spanish north coast is under the control of the nationalist troops General Franco.


Japanese troops conquer the southern Chinese city of Canton in the Second Japanese-Chinese War.

Das Deutsche Reich und Italien schließen das Hitler-Mussolini-Abkommen zur Umsiedelung der deutschen und ladinischen Minderheit in Südtirol ins Deutsche Reich.

The German Reich and Italy conclude the Hitler-Mussolini Agreement for the resettlement of the German and Ladin minority in South Tyrol into the German Reich.

The first edition of the Ernest Hemingway novel For Whom the Bell Tolls is published.

1941/1021:WWⅡ、ドイツ軍「Massacre of Kragujevac」
As a retaliation for a partisan attack, the German armed forces committed a massacre of the civilian population of Kragujevac.

The Provisional Government of Free India is formally declared by Subhas Chandra Bose.



The first kamikaze attack. A Japanese fighter plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.

1944/1021:WWⅡ、ソ連軍「Nemmersdorf massacre」
against the German civilians takes place.

Sowjetische Soldaten verüben im Zweiten Weltkrieg in dem ostpreußischen Dorf Nemmersdorf ein Massaker an der Zivilbevölkerung. Dies ist der erste gewalttätige Übergriff auf deutsche Einwohner durch Mitglieder der Roten Armee bei ihrem Einmarsch in das damalige Reichsgebiet.

1944/1021:WWⅡ、連合軍進攻「Battle of Aachen」
The city of Aachen falls to American forces after three weeks of fighting, making it the first German city to fall to the Allies.

Nach dreiwöchiger Schlacht erobern die Alliierten im Zweiten Weltkrieg die Stadt Aachen als erste deutsche Großstadt.



Women are allowed to vote in France for the first time.


The People 's Republic of China Central People' s Government was established.

1950/1021:朝鮮戦争「Battle of Yongju」
Korean War: Heavy fighting begins between British and Australian forces from the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade and the North Korean 239th Regiment during the Battle of Yongju.

Gottfried Benn erhält den Georg-Büchner-Preis.

1956/1021:ケニヤ「Mau Mau Uprising」
Kenyan rebel leader Dedan Kimathi is captured by the British Army, signalling the ultimate defeat of the rebellion, and essentially ending the British military campaign.

Władysław Gomułka is elected as the Chairman of the Polish United Workers' Party and takes over the power in Poland.

The Guggenheim Museum in New York is opened, designed by the architect Frank Lloyd Wright.


U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA.

Comet Ikeya–Seki approaches perihelion, passing 450,000 kilometers (279,617 miles) from the sun.



1966/1021:ウエルズ「Aberfan disaster」學童144名死亡
A colliery spoil tip collapses on the village of Aberfan in Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.

Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gather in Washington, D.C.. Similar demonstrations occur simultaneously in Japan and Western Europe.


1969/1021:Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński 188269、死去

a Polish mathematician.
He was known for outstanding contributions to set theory (research on the axiom of choice and the continuum hypothesis), number theory, theory of functions and topology.
Three well-known fractals are named after him (the Sierpinski triangle, the Sierpinski carpet and the Sierpinski curve), as are Sierpinski numbers and the associated Sierpiński problem.

1969/1021:Jack Kerouac 192269、死去

an American novelist and poet.
He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation.
Kerouac is recognized for his method of spontaneous prose. Thematically, his work covers topics such as Catholic spirituality, jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel. He became an underground celebrity and, with other beats, a progenitor of the hippie movement, although he remained antagonistic toward some of its politically radical elements.


A coup d'état in Somalia brings Siad Barre to power and establishes a socialist republic in Somalia.

Willy Brandt wird zum Bundeskanzler in Westdeutschland gewählt. Die erste sozialliberale Bundesregierung nimmt ihre Arbeit auf.

女性解放準備会などが日本初の Woman Live の Demonstration。



A gas explosion kills 22 people at a shopping center in Clarkston, East Renfrewshire, near Glasgow, Scotland.

The Congo is renamed to Zaire.



1974/1021:Melchior Lengyel 188074、死去

「メルヘルト レンジェル」
a Hungarian Jewish writer, dramatist, and film screenwriter.

His story "The Miraculous Mandarin" (in Hungarian: A csodálatos mandarin), a “pantomime grotesque” came out in 1916. It is the story which inspired Béla Bartók, to create in 1924 the ballet The Miraculous Mandarin.

President Siad Barre confronts problems of drought and famine in the north-east of Somalia.


Beijing 1500000 troops and civilians held a parade to celebrate the smashing of the "gang of four".

1978/1021:Anastase Mikoyan 189578、死去

(Анастас Иванович Микоян), homme politique soviétique, président du Præsidium du Soviet suprême de l'URSS de 1964 à 1965.


Australian civilian pilot Frederick Valentich vanishes in a Cessna 182 over the Bass Strait south of Melbourne, after reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft.

Moshe Dayan resigns from the Israeli government because of strong disagreements with Prime Minister Menachem Begin over policy towards the Arabs.




1980/1021:Hans Asperger 190680、死去

ein österreichischer Kinderarzt und Heilpädagoge, der 1944 als erster das später nach ihm benannte Asperger-Syndrom beschrieb.


The metre is defined at the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.

In Lebanon, pro-Iran kidnappers claim to have abducted American writer Edward Tracy (he is released in August 1991).

The Marshall Islands in Micronesia are independent from USA.

1987/1021:スリランカ「Jaffna hospital massacre」
 is carried out by Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka killing 70 ethnic Tamil patients, doctors and nurses.

1992/1021:マドンナ、picture-book SEX、出版
The published picture-book SEX by the artist Madonna triggers the intended scandal, which drives the sales numbers. One of the most successful coffee table books was born.

North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea and the United States sign an Agreed Framework that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.

北朝鮮核問題: 北朝鮮軽水炉を提供する事などを条件として、同国が核開発を放棄する事に合意。


In Seoul, 32 people are killed when the Seongsu Bridge collapses.



2005/1021:天文 Discover「Eris」
Images of the dwarf planet Eris are taken and subsequently used in documenting its discovery by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz.

Artist's impression of the dwarf planet Eris.




Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

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