Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

歴史暦:古今東西 10/18 今日の出來事


Sejanus was summoned to a Senate meeting by a letter from Tiberius, ostensibly to bestow the tribunician powers upon him.
At dawn, he entered the Senate; but while the letter was being read, Macro assumed control of the Praetorian Guard and members of the vigiles led by Graecinius Laco surrounded the building.
The senators at first congratulated Sejanus but when the letter, which first digressed into completely unrelated matters, suddenly denounced him and ordered his arrest, he was immediately surrounded and escorted to prison.

This evening the Senate convened at the Temple of Concord and summarily condemned Sejanus to death. He was led from prison and strangled.
His body was cast onto the Gemonian stairs, where the crowd tore it to pieces. Riots ensued, in which crowds hunted and killed anyone they could link to Sejanus. The Praetorians also resorted to looting, when they were accused of having conspired with the former prefect

0031/1018:Lucius Aelius Seianus -02031、處刑死

un militare e politico romano, ambizioso amico e confidente dell'imperatore Tiberio. Prefetto del pretorio dal 14 al 31, fu il primo che, nel ricoprire questa carica, la utilizzò per accrescere il proprio potere e prestigio, rendendola un'influente branca amministrativa dello Stato.

0033/1018:Agrippina maior -01433、薨去

Julia Vipsania Agrippina
una nobildonna romana, appartenente alla dinastia giulio-claudia.

She was the second granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus,
sister-in-law, stepdaughter and daughter-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius,
mother of the Emperor Caligula, maternal second cousin and sister-in-law of the Emperor Claudius and the maternal grandmother of the Emperor Nero.

Pappus of Alexandria, Greek philosopher, observes an eclipse of the Sun and writes a commentary on The Great Astronomer (Almagest).

0614/1018:フランク王國「Edictum Chlotacharii」公布
King Chlothar II promulgates the Edict of Paris (Edictum Chlotacharii), a sort of Frankish Magna Carta that defend the rights of the Frankish nobles while it excludes Jews from all civil employment in the Frankish Kingdom.

Dagobert I is crowned King of the Franks.

1009/1018:エルサレム「Church of the Holy Sepulchre(聖墳墓教會)、完全破壞」
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church's foundations down to bedrock.

1016/1018:デンマルクvsイギリス「Battle of Assandun」
In the Battle of Assandun, the Anglo-Saxon King Edmund II defeated a Danish army under Knut the Great. In the following peace treaty Knut gets all the Anglo-Saxon territories - except for Essex - and thus establishes his northern seas.

1081/1018:ノルマンvsビザンチン「Battle of Dyrrhachium」
The Normans defeat the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Dyrrhachium.

In a battle at Durrës (today's Albania) the Normans under Robert Guiskard win over the Byzantines under Emperor Alexios Komnenos.






The allied army of the cruisers and the Muslim princes of Syria suffered a devastating defeat in the Battle of La Forbie near Gaza against a Ayyubid army strengthened by Choresmier.

 the most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroys the town of Basel, Switzerland.


Die Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (kurz Universität Heidelberg, lateinisch Ruperto Carola) ist eine Universität des Landes Baden-Württemberg in Heidelberg. Sie ist eine der ältesten europäischen Universitäten und die älteste Universität Deutschlands. Sie wurde im Jahr 1386 auf Weisung von Papst Urban VI. vom pfälzischen Kurfürsten Ruprecht I. gegründet und 1803 durch den badischen Markgrafen Karl Friedrich neu organisiert – auf diese beiden Herrscher verweist der Name der Hochschule.

1405/1018:210RP Pius II 140564、誕生

Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini


Die Universität Wittenberg wird gegründet.

1503/1018:215RP Pius III 143903、死去

Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini

前任者の アレクサンドル6によって頽廢と腐敗の混亂のきはみとなった教皇庁を立て直すべく、無慾無私で識られたロヴェレ枢機卿(後のユリウス2)の後押しもあって、1503/0922 に教皇に選出された。

El conquistador español Hernán Cortés tiene varios cientos de habitantes masacrados en la ciudad azteca de Cholula de Rivadavia.

1534/1018:フランス「L'affaire des Placards」發生.
The affair of placards ends the rather conciliatory religious policy of King Francis I in France against Lutheran Protestants. In Paris and four other cities in the morning are directed against the Catholic conception of the Eucharist directed posters.

Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto's forces destroy the fortified town of Mabila in present-day Alabama, killing Tuskaloosa.

1541/1018:Marguerite Tudor 148941、薨去

Reine consort d'Écosse de 1502 à 1513, épouse de Jacques IV d'Écosse


In Japan the fourth Battle of Kawanakajima was fought between the forces of Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen; resulting in a draw.








Ships belonging to the Matsura clan of Japan fail to capture the Portuguese trading carrack in the Battle of Fukuda Bay, the first recorded naval battle between Japan and the West.

1599/1018:ルウマニア「Battle of Șelimbăr」
Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the Army of Andrew Báthory in the Battle of Șelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanian people.


In Ulm, a scientific colloquium is held on the question of whether comets are miraculous signs of God over disaster or natural phenomena.

Boston Shoemakers form first American labor organization.

1678/1018:Jacob Jordaens 159378、死去

ヤコブ ヨルダンス」a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits. After Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he was the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his day.


Louis XIV, with the Edict of Fontainebleau, revokes the Edict of Nantes. Catholicism will once again become a state religion in France and the practice of Protestantism will be punished. This leads to the mass curse of the Huguenots.




1741/1018:Pierre Choderlos de Laclos 174103、誕生

militaire et auteur français

Traité d'Aix-la-Chapelle (fin de la guerre de Succession d'Autriche).

With the Second Peace of Aachen, the Austrian Succession War is ended and the prewar status is largely restored. However, Austria has to do without some areas in Italy, while Prussia keeps Silesia. The pragmatic sanction is generally acknowledged.

La création de l'intermezzo Le devin du village de Jean-Jacques Rousseau au Palais de Fontainebleau connaît un franc succès et confère à l'Opéra Comique un statut social.

Survey of the Mason-Dickson line which is the boundary line between Pennsylvania colony and Maryland colony was completed.

American Revolutionary War: The Burning of Falmouth (now Portland, Maine).

1777/1018:Heinrich von Kleist 177711、誕生

ein deutscher Dramatiker, Erzähler, Lyriker und Publizist.

American Revolutionary War: The Franco-American Siege of Savannah is lifted.

1797/1018:フランスvsオウストリア「Traité de Campo-Formio」
Treaty of Campo Formio is signed between France and Austria

In the decision-making battle of the People's League near Leipzig, Napoléon's troops can no longer withstand the alliance of allies. 

They move back to the city, which they have to evacuate on the following day.

Etwa 500 studentische Vertreter deutscher Universitäten treffen sich aus Protest gegen das ihrer Ansicht nach reaktionäre politische System zum Wartburgfest in Eisenach.

About 500 student representatives from German universities meet in protest against what they consider a reactionary political system to the Wartburgfest in Eisenach.

Zug der Studenten auf die Wartburg

Gründung der Rheinischen Universität Frédéric-Guillaume de Bonn.

Die Alte Universität Duisburg wird aufgelöst, dafür wird die Universität Bonn gegründet.

Die Walhalla bei Donaustauf wird eingeweiht. 


Herman Melville's Moby-Dick is first published as The Whale by Richard Bentley of London.

The novel Moby Dick by Herman Melville, dedicated to his role model Nathaniel Hawthorne, will appear for the first time at Richard Bentley in London.

1859/1018:Henri Bergson 185941、誕生

un philosophe français. Il a publié quatre principaux ouvrages : d’abord en 1889, l’Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience, ensuite Matière et mémoire en 1896, puis L'Évolution créatrice en 1907, et enfin Les Deux Sources de la morale et de la religion en 1932. Il a obtenu le prix Nobel de littérature en 1927.


élan vital(生命の飛躍)

The 2nd Opium War finally ends at the Convention of Peking with the ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin, an unequal treaty.

The Beijing Convention ends the Second Opium War. The underdog China has to open the port of Tianjin for sea trade and make reparation payments. At the same time, the victorious powers of Great Britain and France are beginning a "retaliation" with the systematic destruction of the Old and New Summer Palace in Beijing.

Wilhelm I. krönt sich selbst in Königsberg zum König von Preußen.

1866/1018:Philipp Franz von Siebold 179666、死去

ein bayerischer Arzt, Naturforscher, Ethnologe, Botaniker und Sammler.
Er lebte von 1823 bis 1829 sowie von 1859 bis 1862 in Japan.

Siebold ist einer der wichtigsten Zeugen des isolierten Japans der späten Edo-Zeit und wird auch im heutigen Japan hochverehrt. Er gilt als Begründer der internationalen Japanforschung. Sein offizielles botanisches Autorenkürzel lautet „Siebold“; früher wurde auch die Abkürzung „Sieb.“ verwendet.

United States takes possession of Alaska after purchasing it from Russia for $7.2 million. Celebrated annually in the state as Alaska Day.

In a solemn ceremony, representatives of the Russian tsar Alexander II and the Russian-American company handed over the Alaska purchase to the USA, which included it as a department of Alaska in the state area.



1870/1018:フランスvsプロシア「Battle of Châteaudun」
the Germans defeated the French army and defeated troops of the French Loire Army.

1871/1018:Charles Babbage 179171、死去

an English polymath:A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer,
Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer.


1887/1018:ドイツ音樂「Das Doppelkonzert von Johannes Brahms
 wird im Kölner Gürzenich uraufgeführt.

1889/1018:Antonio Meucci 180889、死去

un inventore italiano, celebre per lo sviluppo di un dispositivo di comunicazione vocale accreditato da diverse fonti, come il primo telefono, il cosiddetto telettrofono.





1893/1018:Charles François Gounod 181893、死去

un compositeur français.
Charles Gounod in 1890 by Nadar


Georges Ohsawa (Yukikazu Sakurazawa (桜沢如), dit), nutritionniste et philosophe japonais, fondateur de la macrobiotique. https://is.gd/K5KI0G
qui fonda le mouvement connu sous le nom de macrobiotique. Son véritable nom était Yukikazu Sakurazawa (en japonais : 桜沢如一), mais il signait aussi Nyoiti – prononcé « nyo-itchi » – Sakurazawa.
海外では George Osawa で有名。マクロビオティックを日本をはじめ全世界に流布した。

生まれついて虚弱だったが、石塚左玄の食養で健康を得て、貿易とともに大和言葉の回復運動の一環としてボウドレエルの惡の華を「NAYAMI NO HANA」として飜譯などした。西洋の最新映像機器などを取り扱ったが1924に廢業して、石塚の食養會に盡力し、多くの著述をした。その成果をフランスで試すべく、無銭旅行に出發、フランスでも著作活動。同時に、反戦運動を始めた。それを隠すために健康指導や飜譯活動を表立て、1937には食養會の會長に就任するが二年後には脱會。

The United States takes possession of Puerto Rico from Spain.

1904/1018:ドイツ音樂「Die 5. Sinfonie von Gustav Mahler
 wird in Köln mit dem Komponisten am Dirigentenpult uraufgeführt.
Mit der Eröffnung des Kaiser-Friedrich-Museums wird auch die neugegründete Islamische Abteilung erstmals dem Publikum vorgestellt.

On the island of Pohnpei in German-New Guinea, the insurrection of the Sokehs against the German colonial rule begins after the abuse of a member of the tribe.

1911/1018:Alfred Binet 185711、死去

un pédagogue et psychologue français. Il est connu pour sa contribution essentielle à la psychométrie.



The Italian-Turkish War ends. During the peace negotiations in Lausanne, the Ottoman Empire must finally surrender Tripoli to Italy.

First Balkan War: King Peter I of Serbia issues a declaration "To the Serbian People", as his country joins the war.

Nach fünfzehnjähriger Bauzeit wird zum hundertjährigen Jubiläum der Schlacht das Völkerschlachtdenkmal bei Leipzig eingeweiht.

After fifteen years of construction, the Volkerschlachtden monument near Leipzig was inaugurated on the centenary of the battle.

The Schoenstatt Movement is founded in Germany.

In the First World War, the Third Isonzo Battle starts in the mountain war between Italy and Austria-Hungary.

1919/1018:Anita O'Day 191906、誕生

an American jazz singer widely admired for her sense of rhythm and dynamics, and her early big band appearances that shattered the traditional image of the "girl singer".

The Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is formed as part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

The British Broadcasting Company is founded by a consortium, to establish a nationwide network of radio transmitters to provide a national broadcasting service.

1926/1018:Chuck Berry 192617、誕生

American singer, songwriter, musician, and one of the pioneers of rock and roll music.

1927/1018:George Campbell Scott 192799、誕生

an American stage and film actor, director, and producer.
He was best known for his stage work, as well as his portrayal of General George S. Patton in the film Patton, as General Buck Turgidson in Stanley Kubrick's Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, and as Ebenezer Scrooge in Clive Donner's 1984 film A Christmas Carol.

1931/1018:Thomas Edison 184731、死去

an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.[1] He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.

≫ Just because something doesn't do what you planned it to do doesn't mean it's useless.

≫ Genius is one percent inspiration, 99 percent perspiration.



The playfilm The trail of the falcon by director John Huston with Humphrey Bogart as the main actor is shown for the first time.

The first heavy air attack on the city of Bonn devastates the city center completely.

Soviet Union begins the liberation of Czechoslovakia from Nazi Germany.

The state funeral of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel takes place in Ulm Germany.

The USSR's nuclear program receives plans for the United States plutonium bomb from Klaus Fuchs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

A group of the Venezuelan Armed Forces, led by Mario Vargas, Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, stages a coup d'état against president Isaías Medina Angarita, who is overthrown by the end of the day.

In Venezuela, an alliance of civilian and military forces invades the government of Isaías Medina Angarita and founds the Junta Revolucionaria de Gobierno, which, under the chairmanship of Rómulo Betancourt, governs the country for the next two years.

Argentine military officer and politician Juan Perón marries actress Eva Duarte.

Adoption in Paris of the International Convention for the Protection of Birds which reveals the notion of endangered species and the need to preserve certain natural habitats.

Texas Instruments announces the first transistor radio.

1955/1018:Ortega Y Gasset 188355、死去

un filósofo y ensayista español, exponente principal de la teoría del perspectivismo y de la razón vital —raciovitalismo— e histórica, situado en el movimiento del novecentismo.

razón vital(生の理性) 個々人のそれぞれに限られた「生」を媒介し統合して、より普遍的なものへと高めていく、やうな理性のありやう





Ouverture à la signature de la Charte sociale européenne.

Félicette, a black and white female Parisian stray cat becomes the first cat launched into space.



The Soviet probe Venera 4 reaches Venus and becomes the first spacecraft to measure the atmosphere of another planet.




1973/1018:Leo Strauss 189973、死去

a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy. He was born in Germany to Jewish parents and later emigrated from Germany to the United States. He spent most of his career as a professor of political science at the University of Chicago, where he taught several generations of students and published fifteen books.

ハイデッガー、タルムード(ユダヤ教の正典)、イスラム哲学、スピノザなどの哲学を取り入れ、独自の哲学体系を構築。彼の門下生によって「シュトラウス学派」が形成された。その講義では、プラトンをはじめとして、マキャベリニーチェらの古典テクストが用いられた。アリストテレスの影響からカール・ポパーと同じくプラトンの国家論には断固反対したが、プラトンは認識論として読むべきとし、大衆を統一するには外部の脅威を用意したり、宗教を用いてもよいという「高貴な嘘」Noble liesをプラトンは唱えたと解釈した。ただし、彼個人は、マルクス主義やナチズムを「残酷なニヒリズム」として斥け、その台頭を許したワイマール政権も批判した。

Détournement du vol Paris-Nice par l'épouse de Georges Cravenne, qui réclame l'annulation de la sortie du film Les Aventures de Rabbi Jacob.

hijacking of the Paris-Nice flight by the wife of Georges Cravenne, who demands the cancellation of the release of the film The Adventures of Rabbi Jacob.

Sur la côte ouest de la France, le pont de Saint-Nazaire est libéré pour la circulation routière. Le pont à haubans possède l'une des plus grandes portées du monde.

1977/1018:ドイツ「German Autumn」
a set of events revolving around the kidnapping of Hanns Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of a Lufthansa flight by the Red Army Faction (RAF) comes to an end when Schleyer is murdered and various RAF members allegedly commit suicide.

1978/1018:Ramón Mercader 191378、死去

a Spanish communist and NKVD agent[3] who assassinated the Russian Bolshevik revolutionary Leon Trotsky in Mexico City in August 1940. He served 20 years in Mexican prison for the murder. Joseph Stalin presented him with an Order of Lenin in absentia. Mercader was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union after his release in 1961.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) begins allowing people to have home satellite earth stations without a federal government license.


1983/1018:ニカラグァ「Massacre of Pantasma」
In Nicaragua, CONTRA terrorists assassinate 47 men, women and children in an attack on an agricultural cooperative.


Egon Krenz löst Erich Honecker als Staats- und Parteichef der DDR ab, nachdem dieser „aus gesundheitlichen Gründen“ von seinen Ämtern zurückgetreten ist. In seiner Antrittsrede prägt er den Begriff Wende.

Azerbaijan declares its state independence against the Soviet Union.

The Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopts a declaration of independence from the Soviet Union.

Bolivian gas conflict: Bolivian President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, is forced to resign and leave Bolivia.

Karachi bombing: A suicide attack on a motorcade carrying former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto kills 139 and wounds 450 more. Bhutto herself is uninjured.



Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

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