Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 10/03 今日の出來事

-052/1003:RomanRepublic vs Gauls「Battle Alesia」
Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and Battle of Alesia.


-042/1003:RomanR「First Battle of Philippi」
 Triumvirs Mark Antony & Octavian fight a decisive battle with Caesar's assassins Brutus & Cassius.

Prima battaglia di Filippi: I Triumviri Marco Antonio e Ottaviano combattono una battaglia contro gli assassini di Cesare: Bruto e Cassio. Anche se Bruto sconfigge Ottaviano, Antonio sconfigge Cassio

0382/1003:RomanEmpire「Peace Treaty」
R.Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans in exchange for military service.

Der oströmische Kaiser Theodosius I. schließt einen Vertrag mit den über die Donau geflüchteten Goten, der diese zu römischen Foederati macht.




1077/1003:Byzantine Empire「Revolt」
The revolt of Nicéphore Bryenne against the Byzantine emperor Michel VII bigins.

1226/1003:Francesco d'Assisi 118226、死去

un religioso e poeta italiano.


しかし、Gitto の繪で有名な『フランチェスコの小鳥への説教』


1283/1003:「hanging, drawing and quartering」
Dafydd ap Gruffydd(prince of Gwynedd in Wales)is the first nobleman to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering.

Muhammed VII becomes the twelfth sultan of the Emirate of Granada.

Im Rahmen des Marburger Religionsgesprächs entstehen die Marburger Artikel. Im evangelischen Abendmahlsstreit kommt es darin jedoch zu keiner Verständigung zwischen Martin Luther und Ulrich Zwingli.

1552/1003:Russia「Ivan the Terrible」
Troops of Ivan the Terrible conquer the city of Kazan and occupy the khanat of the same name to the still young Russian state. With Kasan's case the road is clear for the Russian expansion to Siberia.

1569/1003:Guerres de religion「Bataille de Moncontour」
 Victoire des catholiques du duc d'Anjou sur les huguenots de Coligny.

Dans la bataille de Moncontour, pendant la troisième guerre des huguenots, les huguenots ont subi une grave défaite sous leur commandant l'amiral Coligny contre le côté catholique.

1574/1003:Guerres de Quatre-Vingts Ans「Siège de Leyde」fin
Les Néerlandais repoussent les forces espagnoles. 

The Siege of Leiden is lifted by the Watergeuzen.
Im Achtzigjährigen Krieg gelingt es den Geusen, die seit dem 25. Mai von den Spaniern belagerte Stadt Leiden durch Fluten der umliegenden Polder zu befreien.

1622/1003:Germany「University of Nuremberg」
Kaiser Ferdinand II erhebt die Altdorfer Akademie in Altdorf bei Nürnberg zur Universität der Freien Reichsstadt Nürnberg.


The Qing dynasty naval commander Shi Lang 施琅 reaches Taiwan 台湾(under the Kingdom of Tungning) to receive the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang and Liu Guoxuan after the Battle of Penghu 澎湖海戰.

1735/1003:Europe「Movement to Peace」
Austria & France concluded a preliminary peace in Vienna to end the Polish succession of succession.
However, these provisions do not enter into force until 8 November 1738 by the Peace of Vienna.

1739/1003:Ottoman & Russia「Treaty of Niš」
 is signed at the end of the Russian–Turkish War, 1736–39.

1762/1003:Russia「Crown、Katharina II」

Катарина II увенчана Императрицей в соборе Успенского собора Девы Марии.

1789/1003:USA「Thanksgiving Day」
George Washington makes the first Thanksgiving Day designated by the national government of the US.

George Washington 173299 が11月26日を感謝祭として祝賀することを提唱。
{75年後の十月三日、Abraham Lincoln 180965 が十一月の最終木曜日を Thanksgiving Day とし、國民の祝日に正式に制定した。

Slave rebel leader Tula executed in Curaçao

1804/1003:Townsend Harris、誕生

a successful New York City merchant and minor politician, and the first United States Consul General to Japan.
He negotiated the "Harris Treaty" between the US and Japan and is credited as the diplomat who first opened the Empire of Japan to foreign trade and culture in the Edo period.




1813/1003:Prussia、Liberation War「Battle Wartenburg」
 a Prussian corps succeeded in crossing the Elbe and thus a threat to the northern flank of the French troops of Napoleon Bonaparte, who were in Saxony.

1835/1003:Germany「Staedtler」is founded
Johann Sebastian Staedtler gründet in Nürnberg eine Fabrik, um Bleistifte herzustellen.

1849/1003:USA、Baltimore「Edgar Allan Poe 180949」
Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death.

On October 3, 1849, Poe was found delirious on the streets of Baltimore, "in great distress, and... in need of immediate assistance", according to Joseph Walker who found him. He was taken to the Washington Medical College where he died on Sunday, October 7, 1849 at 5:00 in the morning.
{あれほど明晰に、妄想と惡夢を造形した人がこんな浮浪者みたいな死に方をするなんて …… ポウは私が最初に憧憬した作家であった。彼の造形する主人公、狂氣に程近いほどの鋭敏な感性と理性をそなへた人物たちは少年の私を魅惑した。殊に、名探偵の原型となった Auguste Dupin の生き方は私の生き方にまで影響を及ぼした。私がフランスに魅せられたのも、パリのこの隠遁者によってであった。Charles Baudelaire 182167 がEdgar Allan Poe 180949 に魅惑され、また、Stephane Mallarme 184298 も、Paul Valéry 187145 もポウに魅惑された(彼の Teste は Dupin だ)。私は、ポウによってこれらのフランス詩人たちを識っていった。

1863/1003:USA「Thanksgiving Day」
The last Thursday in November is declared as Thanksgiving Day by United States President Abraham Lincoln as are Thursdays, November 30, 1865 and November 29, 1866.

1867/1003:Pierre Bonnard 186747、誕生

un peintre, graveur, illustrateur et sculpteur français.


Cats on the Railing (1909)






1873/1003:USA、Indian「Modoc War」
Captain Jack and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War.

The Modoc War was an armed conflict between the Native American Modoc people and the United States Army in northeastern California and southeastern Oregon from 1872 to 1873.

Captain Jack

1884/1003:China、HongKong「Demo Proteset」

Hong Kong workers held demonstrations to protest against Britain and France to suppress the patriotic movement.



Das dänische Schloss Christiansborg in Kopenhagen wird durch ein Feuer zerstört.

1893/1003:France et Siam
Après la fin de la guerre de Franco-Siam, les deux États ont signé un traité dans lequel Siam a retiré son territoire à l'est du Mékong (le Laos d'aujourd'hui) vers l'Indochine française.


1895/1003:Sergei Alexandrovich Yesenin 189525、誕生

Сергей Александрович Есенин
русский поэт, представитель новокрестьянской поэзии и лирики, а в более позднем периоде творчества — имажинизма(Russian poet, a representative of new peasant poetry and lyrics, and in a later period of creativity - imagination)


1896/1003:William Morris 183496、死去

English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist. Associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement, he was a major contributor to the revival of traditional British textile arts and methods of production. His literary contributions helped to establish the modern fantasy genre, while he played a significant role in propagating the early socialist movement in Britain.

Morris self-portrait, 1856


1896/1003:Julien Duvivier 189667、誕生

un réalisateur français. Il a marqué le cinéma français de la période 1930-1960. Parmi ses films les plus originaux, figurent notamment Pépé le Moko, Panique et Voici le temps des assassins.
En 1951, il réalise Sous le ciel de Paris, un film d’une très grande originalité d’un point de vue du découpage scénaristique : au cours d’une journée à Paris, on suit des gens dont les destins vont finir par se croiser.

Jean Renoir a dit au sujet de Duvivier : Si j'étais architecte et devais construire un monument du cinéma, je placerais une statue de Duvivier au-dessus de l'entrée. Ce grand technicien, ce rigoriste, était un poète. 

1897/1003:Louis Aragon 189782、誕生

Il est également connu pour son engagement et son soutien au Parti communiste français de 1927 jusqu'à sa mort. Avec André Breton, Tristan Tzara, Paul Éluard, Philippe Soupault, il fut l'un des animateurs du dadaïsme parisien et du surréalisme.

1898/1003:Leo McCarey 189869、誕生

a three-time Academy Award winning American film director, screenwriter and producer. He was involved in nearly 200 movies, the most well known today being Duck Soup, Make Way for Tomorrow, The Awful Truth, Going My Way and An Affair To Remember.

1899/1003:Louis Trolle Hjelmslev 189965、誕生

a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Copenhagen School of linguistics.

1905/1003:Patent「Air Compressor」
Le Français Léon Creux a breveté un compresseur d'air à haut rendement.

At the International Radio Conference in Berlin, the SOS will be declared an international emergency signal instead of the current CQD.


 "Pravda" is launched by Lev Trotsky and others exiled to Vienna.


1910/1003:Portugal「Assassination」Miguel Bombarda
(um psiquiatra e líder do movimento republicano em Portugal)é assassinado por um ex-paciente mentalmente doente. Isso levou a revoltas contra o rei Emmanuel II e a monarquia portuguesa e a fundação da Primeira República em 5 de outubro.

Miguel Bombarda, a psychiatrist and leader of the republican movement in Portugal, is assassinated by a mentally ill former patient. This led to revolts against King Emmanuel II and the Portuguese monarchy and the founding of the First Republic on October 5th.

1912/1003:U.S. forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels
 under the command of Benjamín Zeledón at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill.

1918/1003:Bulgaria、King Boris III accedes to the throne.

1919/1003:James McGill Buchanan 191913、誕生

an American economist known for his work on public choice theory (included in his most famous work, The Calculus of Consent, 1962), for which he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1986.

≫ Economics is the study of the whole system of exchange relationships. Politics is the study of the whole system of coercive or potentially coercive relationships (In What should Economists Do? 1964).

1925/1003:Gore Vidal 192512、誕生

Eugene Louis « Gore » Vidal
an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.

1928/1003:Alvin Toffler 192816、誕生

an American writer, futurist, and businessman known for his works discussing modern technologies, including the digital revolution and the communication revolution, with emphasis on their effects on cultures worldwide.

1929/1003:Gustav Stresemann 187829、死去

ein deutscher Politiker und Staatsmann der Weimarer Republik.


Das Königreich der Serben, Kroaten und Slowenen wird durch eine neue Verfassung in Königreich Jugoslawien umbenannt und in neun Banschaften gegliedert.

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia, "Land of the South Slavs".

Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

The British mandate on Iraq ends with the incorporation of the country into the League of Nations.


The first team of the Manchurian Pioneering Armed Migrants (416 people) leaves Japan.

Con l'invasione di Etiopia di Benito Mussolini, inizia la guerra di Abissinia.

Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia under General de Bono.

1936/1003:Steve Reich 1936--、誕生

an American composer who, along with La Monte Young, Terry Riley, and Philip Glass, pioneered minimal music in the mid to late 1960s.

Le régime de Vichy a adopté la loi contre les Juifs et les étrangers.


1942/1003:Germany Nazis「V2 Rocket」
 The first successful launch of a V-2 /A4-rocket from Test Stand VII at Peenemünde, Germany. It is the first man-made object to reach space.

Mit dem ersten erfolgreichen Start der A4-/V2-Rakete in Peenemünde mit einer Gipfelhöhe von 84,5 Kilometern und einer Reichweite von 190 Kilometern gilt diese als das erste von Menschenhand gebaute Gerät, welches in den Weltraum vorgestoßen ist.

To prepare for the allied invasion, the Royal Air Force bombed dikes on the Walcheren peninsula, especially in the area of Westkapelle. Large parts of the peninsula are flooded and 176 people are killed.



在日本朝鮮人連盟から分離して在日本朝鮮居留民団(現 在日本大韓民国民団)結成。

1950/1003:Korean War「First Battle of Maryang San」
primarily pitting Australian and British forces against communist China, begins.

1952/1003:UK「Atomic Bomb」
The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon to become the world's third nuclear power.


The California State Superior Court rules that Allen Ginsberg's Howl and Other Poems is not obscene.






1962/1003:USA、NASA「Project Mercury」
 Sigma 7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, with astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.

1963/1003:Honduras「Coup d'Eta
A violent coup in Honduras pre-empts the October 13 election, ends a period of reform, and begins two decades of military rule.



1967/1003:Woody Guthrie 191267、死去

Woodrow Wilson « Woody » Guthrie,
an American singer-songwriter who is regarded as one of the most significant figures in American folk music; his songs, including social justice songs, such as "This Land Is Your Land", have inspired several generations both politically and musically.

The American hypersonic test machine「X-15 A-2」recorded Mach 6.7 which is the maximum speed record of manned aircraft.


1976/1003:Émile Benveniste 190276、死去

linguiste français,
Il s'est illustré par ses travaux tant dans le domaine de la grammaire comparée des langues indo-européennes que dans celui de la linguistique générale.

『一般言語学の諸問題』(Problèmes de linguistique générale)では、ソシュールの「ラング」の言語学の静態性を批判し、文法を超えた文の完結性(表意作用と指向性)に焦点を当て、個別、一回的なディスクールによる現実状況への参加を射程に収めた「ディスクール」の言語学を提唱。ポール・リクールらの物語論に影響を与えた。

Georges Dumézil 189886 
Jean-Pierre Vernant 191407

1981/1003:Ireland「Hunger strike」
by Provisional Irish Republican Army & Irish National Liberation Army prisoners at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland ends after seven months and ten deaths.

1983/1003:Japan「Volcano Eruption」

1985/1003:USA、NASA「Mission STS-51-J」
The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its maiden flight.

 a superconducting cyclotron at the Chalk River Laboratories, is officially opened.

1987/1003:Jean Anouilh 191087、逝去

Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh. un écrivain et dramaturge français,



1990/1003:German reunification
The German Democratic Republic ceases to exist and its territory becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany. East German citizens became part of the European Community, which later became the European Union. Now celebrated as German Unity Day.


1993/1003:Somalia「Battle of Mogadishu」
 A firefight occurs during a failed attempt to capture key officials of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid's organisation in Mogadishu, Somalia, costing the lives of 18 American soldiers, and over 350 Somalis.

In the Somali Civil War there is a battle for Mogadishu between US Army Rangers, as well as UN troops on one side and Somali militiamen on the other.
The events inspire Ridley Scott later on the film Black Hawk Down.

1995/1003:USA「O. J. Simpson
 is acquitted of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.




2004/1003:Janet Leigh 192704、死去

(Jeanette Helen Morrison, dit), actrice américaine
an American actress, singer, dancer and author. She is best remembered for her performance in Psycho, for which she was awarded the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress and received an Academy Award nomination.

The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 for the U.S. financial system is signed by President George W. Bush.

2009/1003:Turk「Nakhchivan Agreement」
The presidents of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey sign the Nakhchivan Agreement on the Establishment of Turkic Council.


At least 134 migrants are killed when their boat sinks near the Italian island of Lampedusa.

42 killed & 33 missing in Kunduz hospital airstrike operated by Médecins Sans Frontières.

a United States Air Force AC-130U gunship attacked the Kunduz Trauma Centre operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), or Doctors Without Borders in the city of Kunduz, in the province of the same name in northern Afghanistan. It has been reported that at least 42 people were killed and over 30 were injured.

Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

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