Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 08/23 今日の出來事

いまさかりなる 夏草に

After the successful invasion of Egypt, Octavian executes Marcus Antonius Antyllus, eldest son of Mark Antony, and Caesarion, the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt and only child of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra.

0079/0823:Italy、Mt. Vesuvius erupt,
on the feast day of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

0093/0823:Gnaeus Julius Agricola 004093、死去

a Gallo-Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. Written by his son-in-law Tacitus, the De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae is the primary source for most of what is known about him, along with detailed archaeological evidence from northern Britain

British Campaigns of Agricola, 78 – 84

Gothic king Radagaisus is executed after he is defeated by Roman general Stilicho and 12,000 "barbarians" are incorporated into the Roman army or sold as slaves.

0634/0823:Abou Bakr As-Siddiq 057334、逝去

(أبو بكر الصدّيق), premier calife de l’islam de 632 à 634 (° vers 573).
un compagnon de Mahomet, devenu ensuite dirigeant religieux, politique et militaire. Il fut le successeur du prophète et premier calife de l'islam, de l'an 10 à 12 après l'Hégire c'est-à-dire de 632 à 634 en datation grégorienne.

Abu Bakr dies at Medina and is succeeded by Umar I who becomes the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

1244/0823:Siege of Jerusalem:
The city's citadel(the Tower of David)surrenders to Khwarezmian Empire.

1268/0823:Battle of Tagliacozzo:
The army of Charles of Anjou defeats the Ghibellines supporters of Conradin of Hohenstaufen marking the fall of the Hohenstaufen family from the Imperial and Sicilian thrones, and leading to the new chapter of Angevin domination in Southern Italy.

1305/0823:Ireland Hero
William Wallace is executed for high treason at Smithfield, London.

1305/0823:William Wallace ??1305、死去

a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.
Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn, and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians.
Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland.


1328/0823:Bataille de Cassel.
Victoire des troupes françaises de Philippe VI sur les flamandes de Nicolaas Zannekin.

Battle of Cassel:French troops stop an uprising of Flemish farmers.

1382/0823:Siege of Moscow:
The Golden Horde led by Tokhtamysh lays siege to the capital of the Grand Duchy of Moscow.

1514/0823:The Battle of Chaldiran ends with a decisive victory for the Sultan Selim I, Ottoman Empire, over the Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty.

bataille de Tchaldiran (guerres irano-ottomanes). Les Séfévides iraniens sont défaits par les troupes de l’Empire ottoman, lequel prend possession de l’Anatolie orientale.

Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran built on the site of battlefield

1535/0823:John Calvin complète la première édition de l'Institutio Christianae Religionis, dont le principal travail théologique a continué jusqu'en 1559.

French explorer Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec City in his third voyage to Canada.

1572/0823:French Wars of Religion
La violence conjugale contre des milliers d'huguenots à Paris entraîne le massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy.

1595/0823:Long Turkish War「Battle of Călugăreni
Wallachian prince Michael the Brave confronts the Ottoman army  and achieves a tactical victory.

1600/0823:Japan[戰國時代]「岐阜城の戦闘 GifuCastle's Battle」
The eastern forces 東軍 of Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康 defeat the western Japanese clans 西軍 loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori 豐臣秀頼, leading to the destruction of Gifu 岐阜 Castle and serving as a prelude to the Battle of Sekigahara 關ヶ原.


1614/0823:Fettmilch Uprising:
Jews are expelled from Frankfurt(Holy Roman Empire)following the plundering of the Judengasse.


George Villiers(the first Duke of Buckingham)is assassinated by John Felton.

Colonel George Monck of the English Army forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, which will later become the Coldstream Guards.

1655/0823:Sweden vs Poland &Lithuania「Battle of Sobota」
The Swedish Empire led by Charles X Gustav defeats the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1703/0823:Ottoman「Edirne event」
Sultan Mustafa II of the Ottoman Empire is dethroned.

1741/0823:Jean François de Galaup 174188、誕生


1754/0823:Louis XVI 175493、誕生

Roi de France et de Navarre de 1774 à 1791 et roi des Français de 1791 à 1792.


1769/0823:Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier 176932、誕生

un anatomiste français, promoteur de l'anatomie comparée et de la paléontologie au XIXe siècle.

1775/0823:American Revolutionary War:
King George III delivers his Proclamation of Rebellion to the Court of St James's stating that the American colonies have proceeded to a state of open and avowed rebellion.

1793/0823:French Revokution
Réorganisation des corps d’infanterie français, visant à fusionner les troupes royalistes aux troupes révolutionnaires, en grande part composées de volontaires inexpérimentés et indisciplinés.

# Le premier amalgame également connu sous les noms de première réorganisation ou première formation est un amalgame des deux armées françaises composées des régiments d'Ancien Régime et bataillons de volontaires nationaux durant le début de la Révolution française.


Napoléon Bonaparte 176921 leaves Egypt for France en route to seizing power.

1806/0823:Charles Augustin De Coulomb 173606、死去

un officier, ingénieur et physicien français.


1813/0823:At the Battle of Großbeeren, the Prussians under Von Bülow repulse the French army.


1819/0823:Oliver Hazard Perry 178519、死去

an American naval commander,
{日本に黒船來航した Matthew Calbraith Perry 179458 の兄貴。

Hero of Lake Erie

"DON'T GIVE UP THE SHIP" (a paraphrase of the dying words of Captain James Lawrence, the ship's namesake and Perry's friend),

1821/0823:México se independiza de España.

1831/0823:August Neidhardt von Gneisenau 176031、死去

正式だと「August Wilhelm Antonius Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau」
ein preußischer Generalfeldmarschall und Heeresreformer (vergleiche Preußische Reformen). Er hatte als Blüchers Stabschef wesentlichen Anteil am Sieg bei Waterloo.

Army Marshal of Kingdom of Prussia. Contributing to the victory of the allied army of the Napoleonic war and leading Prussia that was destroyed by the campaign of Jena to the powerful powers again.
Along with Gerhard von Scharnhorst, he is one of Prussia's military reformers aiming to break away from the Napoleonic era and is also the founder of Prussia's Chiefs of Staff, who was the forerunner of the "Chiefs of Staff" currently established in the military of each country.Along with Gerhard von Scharnhorst, he is one of Prussia's military reformers aiming to break away from the Napoleonic era and is also the founder of Prussia's Chiefs of Staff, who was the forerunner of the "Chiefs of Staff" currently established in the military of each country.

Nat Turner's slave rebellion is suppressed.


The United Kingdom captures Hong Kong as a base as it prepares for war with Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict will later be known as the First Opium War.



1849/0823:Edward Hicks 178049、死去

an American folk painter and distinguished religious minister of the Society of Friends. He became a Quaker icon because of his paintings.

彼の最も有名な画業は62の数が現存する『平和の王国』だらう。聖書の『イザヤ書』第11章にある「狼さへも子羊と住まひ、豹は子供の横に伏し、子牛・若き獅子、肥へた家畜も集い、幼き子が彼らを導く」という章句を忠實に描いたものである。さらに、その絵の多くは、その背景にペンシルベニア州創設の時の William Penn 164418とインディアンのレナペ族とのあひだに友情と信頼とで結ばれた有名な協約を表現してゐるのである。

Penn's Treaty (1847)

1852/0823:Arnold Toynbee 185283、誕生

a British economic historian also noted for his social commitment and desire to improve the living conditions of the working classes.



地元で彼を顯彰するための佛像建立の話が持ちあがった時に「老生は銅像にて仰がるゝより万人の渡らるゝ橋となりたし」と云って斷り、宇和島市のはうでもその氣持を汲んで辰野川に懸かる橋の一つに彼の名を付けた ―― といふ逸話を讀んで、

Austro-Prussian War ends with the Treaty of Prague.

traité de Prague (guerre austro-prussienne). Les territoires sous influence autrichienne se tournent vers la Prusse.



1898/0823:Félicien Rops 183398、死去

un artiste belge, peintre, dessinateur, illustrateur, aquafortiste et graveur,

La Tentation de saint Antoine (1878)

La Dame au cochon - Pornokrates 187

1898/0823:The Southern Cross Expedition, the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, departs from London.






Thomasites(600 American school teachers)arrived in Manila on the USAT Thomas.

1904/0823:USA、Patent「Snow Chain」
American Harry Weed gets a patent on his invention of snow chains for cars.

The Little Mermaid of the sculptor Edvard Eriksen is exhibited in the port of Copenhagen.

1914/0823:WWⅠ「Battle of Mons」
The British Army begins withdrawal.

Japan erklärt dem Deutschen Reich den Krieg.


Der verhaftete Karl Liebknecht wird wegen Hochverrats zu vier Jahren und einen Monat Zuchthaus verurteilt. Er hatte am 1. Mai in Berlin eine AntiKriegsDemonstration angeführt.








British airship R-38 experiences structural failure over Hull in England and crashes in the Humber estuary. Of her 49 British and American training crew, only four survive.

The Kingdom of Iraq was founded and Faisal I ranks as the first Iraqi king.


1923/0823:Edgar Frank Codd 192303、誕生

Informaticien britannique、invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases.

1925/0823:Robert Patrick Mulligan 192508、誕生

an American film and television director best known as the director of humanistic American dramas, including To Kill a Mockingbird (1962),

1926/0823:Rudolph Valentino 189526、死去

an Italian actor naturalized American who starred in several well-known silent films including The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, The Sheik, Blood and Sand, The Eagle, and The Son of the Sheik.
He was an early pop icon, a sex symbol of the 1920s, who was known as the "Latin lover" or simply as "Valentino".

1926/0823:Clifford Geertz 192606、誕生

an American anthropologist who is remembered mostly for his strong support for and influence on the practice of symbolic anthropology,

1927/0823:Allan Kaprow 192706、誕生

an American painter, assemblagist and a pioneer in establishing the concepts of performance art. He helped to develop the "Environment" & "Happening" in the late 1950s & 1960s, as well as their theory.

1927/0823:Dick Bruna 192717、誕生

un dessinateur néerlandais

1927/0823:USA「Sacco & Vanzetti」
Italian anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti are executed after a lengthy, controversial trial.


Mosaïque de Ben Shahn

1929/0823:Palestine Riot「Hebron Masscre」

Arab attack on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, continuing until the next day, resulted in the death of 65–68 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city.

1933/0823:Adolf Loos 187033、死去

österreichischer Architekt, Architekturkritiker und Kulturpublizist. Er gilt als einer der Wegbereiter der modernen Architektur.

「装飾罪悪論」は、建築家 Otto Wagner の「藝術は必要のみにしたがふ」という合理主義や機能主義の主張をさらに徹底させたものとも言へるが、こうした過激な表現で当時流行してゐた「ウイン分離派」や「ウイン工房」の装飾性を敵對視したのであった。

{しかし、藝術とは所詮は表層の、裝飾によって價値が生じるのであって、何が云はれたかよりもむしろ如何に云はれたかが藝術の意義であり價値なのです。神はそのやうに細部に宿りたまふのです。いはゆる裝飾を排除した後にも、裝飾がなくなった場合も、その簡潔さも一種の裝飾なのです。いづれにしろ、藝術はその外面によって感覺されるものであり、それに刺戟されて内面が深々と物思ひをおこなふ ―― かうした營爲が藝術體驗だらうと私は確信してをります。

1934/0823:Viktor Kaplan 187634、死去

ein österreichischer Ingenieur. Er ist der Erfinder der nach ihm benannten Kaplan-Turbine.

1936/0823:Henry Lee Lucas 193601、誕生

an American serial killer who claimed to have killed over 3000 people; however, his confessions often contained inconsistencies or improbable logistics. Despite this, hundreds of cold cases were attributed to him and subsequently closed.

1937/0823:Albert Roussel 186937、死去

un compositeur français,
ルウセルの門下には、Erik Satie 186625 や Edgard Varèse 188365 などがゐる。

Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In a secret addition to the pact, the Baltic states, Finland, Romania, and Poland are divided between the two nations.



アレ夕立に 絹本着色 第三回文展 高島屋史料館 1909

『班猫』1924 沼津滯在中の栖鳳が偶然八百屋の店先で猫を見て「そうだ、猫を描かう」と直感が立った。八百屋の女將と交渉して、その猫を譲り受け、画室に自由に遊ばせて丹念に寫生した。その結果、

1942/0823:WWⅡ「Battle of Stalingrad」bigin
Offensive conjointe de la Luftwaffe et des troupes de Von Paulus sur Stalingrad, permettant une percée allemande.

1943/0823:WWⅡ「Battle of Kursk」
Concentration Camp、Kharkiv is liberated.

1944/0823:Abdulmejid II 186844、崩去

the last Caliph of Islam, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.

Marseille is liberated by the Allies.

1944/0823:WWⅡ:Romanian Revolution
King Michael of Romania dismisses the pro-Nazi government of Marshal Antonescu, who is arrested. Romania switches sides from the Axis to the Allies.




Soviet–Japanese War: The USSR State Defense Committee issues Decree no. 9898cc "About Receiving, Accommodation, and Labor Utilization of the Japanese Army Prisoners of War".
Joseph Staline signe un décret (décret n° 9898cc du Comité d’État de Défense de l’URSS) concernant les prisonniers de guerre de l’armée japonaise faits par l’Union soviétique (voir prisonniers de guerre japonais en Union soviétique).

1945/0823:敗戦直後の Japan

Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Länder (states) of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein.

1946/0823:USA、Cinema premire
Howard Hawks film "Tote is sleeping" with Humphrey Bogart as a detective Philip Marlowe. The filming of a novel by Raymond Chandler creates a film noir.


1958/0823:PRChina Civil War

The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis begins with the People's Liberation Army's bombardment of Quemoy.

1960/0823:Oscar Hammerstein II 189560、死去

an American librettist, theatrical producer, and (usually uncredited) theatre director of musicals for almost forty years. Hammerstein won eight Tony Awards and two Academy Awards for Best Original Song.
... but he is best known for his collaborations with Richard Rodgers, as the duo Rodgers and Hammerstein which include Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I, and The Sound of Music.

Lunar Orbiter 1 takes the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.

The first image of the earth rising above the moon is emitted by Lunar Orbiter 1 to the terrestrial ground station.

1970/0823:USA「Salad Bowl Strike」
Organized by Mexican American labor union leader César Chávez, the Salad Bowl strike, the largest farm worker strike in U.S. history, begins.


1973/0823:Sweden「Stockholm Syndrome」
A bank robbery gone wrong in Stockholm, turns into a hostage crisis; over the next five days the hostages begin to sympathise with their captors, leading to the term "Stockholm syndrome".

Die Kreditbanken, eine Bank am Norrmalmstorg, im Zentrum der schwedischen Hauptstadt Stockholm, wird überfallen und vier der Angestellten als Geiseln genommen: die Geburtsstunde des Begriffs Stockholm-Syndrom.

President Nixon announced that he appointed Henry Kissinger State Secretary.





1979/0823:Iran vs Kurd
With the bombing of Sakez the Iranian army begins its attack on Kurdish cities.

1985/0823:Germany「Spy Counter Spy」
Hans Tiedge(top counter-spy of West Germany)defects to East Germany.


Comprehensive trade and competitiveness strengthening law enacted in the United States including Super 301 article etc is established

1989/0823:Ronald David Laing 192789、死去

a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness – in particular, the experience of psychosis.

『ひき裂かれた自己』 みすず書房 1971
『狂気と家族』 エスターソン共著 みすず書房 1972
『経験の政治学みすず書房 1973
『結ぼれ』 みすず書房 1973
『自己と他者』 みすず書房 1975
『好き?好き?大好き?』 みすず書房 1978
『レイン わが半生』 岩波書店 1986

1989/0823:Singing Revolution:
Two million people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania stand on the Vilnius–Tallinn road, holding hands.

Voie balte, chaîne humaine effectuée par la Lituanie, l’Estonie et la Lettonie pour l’indépendance des pays baltes vis-à-vis de l’URSS, se met en place. Entre 1,5 et 2 millions de personnes se succèdent à travers les États baltes.


Saddam Hussein appears on Iraqi state television with a number of Western "guests" (actually hostages) to try to prevent the Gulf War.

Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

West & East Germany announce that they will reunite on October 3.


The World Wide Web is opened to the public.

1997/0823:John Kendrew 191797、死去

an English biochemist and crystallographer who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Max Perutz; their group in the Cavendish Laboratory investigated the structure of heme-containing proteins.

Gulf Air Flight 072 crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.

The skeletal remains of Russia's last royal family members Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, and his sister Grand Duchess Anastasia are discovered near Yekaterinburg, Russia.


2011/0823:Lybia Civil War
Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is overthrown after the National Transitional Council forces take control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the Libyan Civil War.


Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World

よろしければ、Click おねがひいたします: