Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World


歴史暦:古今東西 05/08 今日の出來事

ロウマ帝國の衰亡』を記したイギリスの歴史家、 Edward Gibbon 173794 が誕生し、
西洋の沒落』を書いたドイツの歴史家、Oswald Spengler 188036 が逝去した。

ロウマ市民を「彼等がひたすら求めるものはもっぱら二つのこと、panem et circenses パンとサアカス」と諷刺したのは、ロウマ帝國をみづから生きた Decimus Junius Juvenalis 0060130 であったが、
History is indeed little more than the register of crimes, follies, and misfortunes of mankind.歴史とは、人類の犯罪・愚行・厄災の登記簿のやうなものにすぎない と嘆息した。ロウマ帝國の歴史をつぶさに見ていけば、そんな實感を持つのは至極あたりまへだらう。陰謀と暗殺が日常茶飯、頽廢した無能と狂氣の皇帝ばかり、退嬰する腐敗した元老院、墮落する市民はパンとサアカス(このサアカスはサアキット=競技場のことらしい)にウツツを抜かし、 ……

ロウマ帝國で演じられた事がより大掛かりに西洋の世界で演じられたのだ。十九世紀から二十世紀にかけての西洋が主導した時代。世界中を荒らし囘り、戰爭と侵略、快樂原則に支配されセックスとスポウツにウツツを抜かし、 ……

Frieden ist ein Wunsch, Krieg ist eine Tatsache; Und die Geschichte hat niemals auf menschliche Wünsche und Ideale geachtet. =Peace is a desire, war is a fact; and history has never paid heed to human desires and ideals.「平和は希望であり、戰爭は事實である。そして、歴史が人間の希望や理想に注意を拂ったことなどけっしてなかった」





Jules César adottato Ottaviano, il futuro imperatore Augusto.

 Gaius Julius Caesar -10044
 Octavianus Augustus -06314


Emperor Honorius signs an edict providing tax relief for the Italian provinces Tuscia, Campania, Picenum, Samnium, Apulia, Lucania and Calabria, which were plundered by the Visigoths.


Reccared I summons the Third Council of Toledo.





Der unmündige Heinrich, Sohn des Kaisers Friedrich II. (HRR), wird in Aachen von Erzbischof Engelbert I. von Köln zum römisch-deutschen König und zum Mitregenten seines Vaters gekrönt.





Dans la paix de Brétigny avec les Français Johann König II a renoncé à l'anglais Eduard König III. à la fin de la première phase de la guerre de Cent Ans à la couronne de France et pour Calais, Poitou et les territoires recevront au sud-ouest France en possession.
Friede von Brétigny – Wikipedia


Jeanne d'Arc oblige les Anglais à lever le siège d'Orléans.
Joan of Arc lifts the Siege of Orléans, turning the tide of the Hundred Years' War.
Un jour après la prise d'Orléans après sept mois de siège par les troupes françaises sous Lahire et Jeanne d'Arc déconnecter l'anglais, ce qui signifie un changement dans la guerre de Cent Ans et ouvre König Karl VII. Le chemin de la cathédrale du sacre à Reims.

1450/0508:イギリス、Jack Cade's Rebellion: 

Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI.

1516/0508:どこかの國で、Trần Cảo Rebellion: 

A group of imperial guards, led by Trịnh Duy Sản, murdered Emperor Lê Tương Dực and fled, leaving the capital Thăng Long undefended.


Kaiser Karl V. verhängt auf dem Reichstag zu Worms im Wormser Edikt die Reichsacht über Martin Luther, der sich am 17. und 18. April geweigert hat, seine Thesen zu widerrufen.

1541/0508:スペイン、 Hernando de Soto (conquistador) の冒険

El navegante español y conquistador Hernando de Soto llegó con su ya difícil expedición diezmada desde la Florida hasta el río Mississippi.
Hernando de Soto reaches the Mississippi River and names it Río de Espíritu Santo.




In Lübeck wird eine Sklavenkasse eingerichtet, die lübische Seeleute aus den Fängen nordafrikanischer Piraten freikaufen soll. Die Kasse hat Bestand bis ins 19. Jahrhundert.


The First English-Dutch War ends with the peace of Westminster. The Netherlands must recognize the English navigations, according to which foreign goods can only be imported into England on English ships.


Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector of England since 1653) rejects the royal crown offered him by Parliament.


Members of the Convention Parliaments in the Commonwealth of England proclaim the King Charles II as a king and thus end the Republican period in English history.

1769/0508:Bataille de Ponte-Novo

Bataille de Ponte Novu, les troupes paolistes perdent la bataille contre les troupes de Louis XV, la Corse est conquise militairement par la France.


As the highlight of the Spanish re-conquest of Florida by the United Kingdom during the American War of Independence, Spanish troops under the command of Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid succeeded in conquering the city of the same name in the Battle of Pensacola.


exécution des vingt-huit fermiers généraux à Paris, dont Antoine Lavoisier.
Branded a traitor during the Reign of Terror by revolutionists, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who was also a tax collector with the Ferme générale, is tried, convicted and guillotined in one day in Paris.

Antoine Lavoisier 174394

Astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange told Lavoisier's death, "It is a moment to cut off his head, but it will take 100 years for something with the same brain as him to appear."

1821/0508:ギリシア獨立戰爭、Battle of Gravia Inn.

The Greeks defeat the Turks at the Battle of Gravia Inn.


In Great Britain the workers are closed for the first time, and the Democratic Socialists demand, in their People's Charter program, the general and secret right to vote for men over 21 years of age, annual parliamentary elections, the elimination of rotten boroughs and diets for deputies.


Zachary Taylor defeats a Mexican force north of the Rio Grande in the first major battle of the war.


In the Londoner Protokoll (1852)  between Great Britain, France, Russia, Prussia and Austria, as well as the Eastern Seas, Sweden and Denmark, the integrity of the Danish state is reaffirmed by the Great Powers. The duchies of Schleswig and Holstein remain, however, as independent units.



American Civil War: Richmond, Virginia is named the capital of the Confederate States of America.


Two days after the Battle of the Wilderness, the Army of the Potomac under General Major George Gordon Meade and the Army of Northern Virginia by General Robert Edward Lee again face the American Civil War.
The Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse between the two exhausted units begins on the first day with a brief skirmish, but continues until 21 May.




Bei deutschen Ausgrabungen in der Cella des Heratempels in Olympia wird der Hermes von Olympia ans Tageslicht gefördert. Es wird überwiegend angenommen, dass es sich dabei um eine Skulptur des antiken Bildhauers Praxiteles handelt, die um 340 v. Chr. entstanden ist.

Hermes von Olympia (unrestauriert)




Pharmacist John Pemberton first sells a carbonated beverage named "Coca-Cola" as a patent medicine.
For five cents per glass sold in Atlanta the druggist John Pemberton for the first time a drug developed by him against headache and fatigue, later known as Coca-Cola.


The Irish Literary Theatre in Dublin produced its first play.


In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre and killing over 30,000 people. Only a handful of residents survive the blast.




L'ingénieur Lucien Lévy reçoit un brevet français pour la mise au point par le récepteur superhétérodyne, ce qui permet des circuits radio utilisables.

1927/0508:Paris-NewYork ノンストップ初飛行、離陸後失踪

Attempting to make the first non-stop transatlantic flight from Paris to New York, French war heroes Charles Nungesser and François Coli disappear after taking off aboard The White Bird biplane.

1933/0508:Mohandas Gandhi begins 

a 21-day fast of self-purification and launched a one-year campaign to help the Harijan movement.


The German Luftwaffe launches a bombing raid on Nottingham and Derby

1942/0508:WWⅡ:The Battle of the Kerch Peninsula: 

The German 11th Army begins Operation Trappenjagd (Bustard Hunt) and destroys the bridgehead of the three Soviet Armies (44th, 47th, and 51st) defending the Kerch Peninsula, in the eastern part of the Crimea.

1942/0508:WWⅡ:The Battle of the Coral Sea 

comes to an end with Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carrier aircraft attacking and sinking the United States Navy aircraft carrier USS Lexington. The battle marks the first time in the naval history that two enemy fleets fight without visual contact between warring ships.
The Battle of the Coral Sea ends without a decision, the first large gunswing between Japanese and Allied units in the Pacific War, which began the day before in the Coral Sea south of Solomon Islands.

Schlacht im Korallenmeer


Gunners of the Ceylon Garrison Artillery on Horsburgh Island in the Cocos Islands rebel in the Cocos Islands Mutiny. Their mutiny is crushed and three of them are executed, the only British Commonwealth soldiers to be executed for mutiny during the Second World War.

1945/0508:Sétif massacre、フランス兵士、アルジェリア市民、虐殺

Hundreds of Algerian civilians are killed by French Army soldiers in the Sétif massacre.

In the massacre of Sétif, a peaceful demonstration celebrating the victory over Germany and at the same time raising the demand for the independence of Algeria is bloody crushed by the French colonial power, killing over 10,000 people.

Massaker von Sétif – Wikipedia

1945/0508:WWⅡ:V-E Day, combat ends in Europe. 

German forces agree to an unconditional surrender in Reims, France.


第二次世界大戦: ベルリン郊外のカルルスホルストで、ソ連のジュコフ将軍とドイツのカイテル元帥が降伏文書に調印し、独ソ戦終結

1945/0508:End of the Prague uprising, 

celebrated now as a national holiday in the Czech Republic.

1945/0508:The Halifax riot starts 

when thousands of civilians and servicemen rampage through Halifax.




South Vietnamese soldiers under the Roman Catholic President Ngo Dinh Diem open fire on Buddhists defying a ban on the flying of the Buddhist flag on Vesak, killing nine and sparking the Buddhist crisis.



1969/0508:カンヌ映画祭『Easy Ryder』高評價

At the film festivals of Cannes, the roadmovie Easy Rider, directed by Dennis Hopper, starred Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper in the main roles. The feature film leads to ambivalent reactions to critics and the public.

1970/0508:last Beatles album Let It Be is released.


Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon announces his order to place mines in major North Vietnamese ports in order to stem the flow of weapons and other goods to that nation.


A 71-day standoff between federal authorities and the American Indian Movement members occupying the Pine Ridge Reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota ends with the surrender of the militants.
After 71 days the occupation of the village Wounded Knee ends in the Pine Ridge reservation; The members of the American Indian Movement are members of the government.


The Great American Revolution of the Swabian amusement plant manufacturer Schwarzkopf GmbH opens its doors in Magic Mountain. It is the first roller coaster with a modern looping.
Six Flags – Wikipedia


The WHO declares the smallpox for world-wide eradicated and recommends the setting of the appropriate protective vaccination.


Richard von Weizsäcker holds the much-respected speech in the German Bundestag on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the end of the war in Europe and the national socialist tyranny. The liberation of the statement of national socialism thus becomes the core statement of national memory culture in the Federal Republic of Germany.

1987/0508:北アイルランド、Loughgall ambush: 

The SAS kills eight Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteers and a civilian during an ambush in Loughgall, Northern Ireland.


Israeli archaeologists share with journalists the discovery of the tomb of Herod the Great in Herod, south of Jerusalem.

Art of Heart ∈ 思考 69 空想 ∋ Word of World